[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Food allergy is a hypersensitive immune reaction to food proteins. We have previously demonstrated the presence of IL-10-producing CD5+ B cells and suggested their potential role in regulating cow’s milk casein allergy in humans and IgE-mediated anaphylaxis in mice. In this study, we determined whether IL-10-producing CD5+ regulatory B cells control casein-induced food allergic responses in mice and, if so, the underlying mechanisms. The induction of oral tolerance (OT) by casein suppressed casein-induced allergic responses including the decrease of body temperature, symptom score, diarrhea, recruitment of mast cells and eosinophils into jejunum, and other biological parameters in mice. Notably, the population of IL-10-producing CD5+ B cells was increased in mesenteric lymph node (MLN), but not in spleen or peritoneal cavity (PeC) in OT mice. The adoptive transfer of CD5+ B cells from MLN, but not those from spleen and PeC, suppressed the casein-induced allergic responses in an allergen-specific and IL-10-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of IL-10-producing CD5+ B cells on casein-induced allergic response was dependent on Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Taken together, mesenteric IL-10-producing regulatory B cells control food allergy via Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and could potentially act as a therapeutic regulator for food allergy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: IL-6, levels of which are reported to be increased in association with mastocytosis, asthma, and urticaria, is used in conjunction with stem cell factor to generate CD34+ cell-derived primary human mast cell (HuMC) cultures. Despite these associations, the effects on and mechanisms by which prolonged exposure to IL-6 alters HuMC numbers and function are not well understood. Objectives: We sought to study the effect of IL-6 on HuMC function, the mechanisms by which IL-6 exerts its effects, and the relationship of these findings to mastocytosis. Methods: HuMCs were cultured in stem cell factor with or without IL-6. Responses to FcεRI aggregation and expression of proteases and receptors, including the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), were then quantitated. Epigenetic changes in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) were determined by using methylation-specific PCR. Serum samples from healthy control subjects and patients with mastocytosis were assayed for IL-6, tryptase, and sIL-6R. Results: IL-6 enhanced mast cell (MC) proliferation, maturation, and reactivity after FcεRI aggregation. IL-6 reduced expression of SOCS3, which correlated with methylation of the SOCS3 promoter and increased expression and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. IL-6 also suppressed constitutive production of sIL-6R, and serum levels of sIL-6R were similarly reduced in patients with mastocytosis. Conclusion: IL-6 increases MC proliferation and formation of a more reactive phenotype enabled by suppressing proteolytic cleavage of sIL-6R from IL-6R and downregulation of the SOCS3 autoinhibitory pathway. We suggest IL-6 blockade might ameliorate MC-related symptoms and pathology in patients with MC-related diseases associated with increased IL-6 levels, including mastocytosis.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin 33 (IL-33) released from damaged cells plays a central role in allergic inflammation by acting through its membrane-bound receptor, ST2 receptor (ST2L). IL-33 activity can be neutralized by the soluble spliced variant of ST2 (sST2) which has been associated with allergic inflammation but its source is not well defined. We investigated whether mast cells (MCs) are a significant source of sST2 following activation through FcεRI or ST2. We find that antigen and IL-33 induce substantial production and release of sST2 from human and mouse MCs in culture and do so synergistically when added together or in combination with stem cell factor. Moreover, increases in circulating sST2 during anaphylaxis in mice were dependent on the presence of MCs. Human MCs activated via FcεRI failed to generate IL-33 and IL-33 produced by mouse bone marrow-derived MCs was retained within the cells. Therefore, FcεRI-mediated sST2 production is independent of MC-derived IL-33 acting in an autocrine manner. These results are consistent with the conclusion that both mouse and human MCs when activated are a significant inducible source of sST2 but not IL-33 and thus have the ability to modulate the biologic impact of IL-33 produced locally by other cell types during allergic inflammation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · European Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rictor is a regulatory component of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2). We have previously demonstrated that rictor expression is substantially downregulated in terminally differentiated mast cells as compared with their immature or transformed counterparts. However, it is not known whether rictor and mTORC2 regulate mast cell activation. In this article, we show that mast cell degranulation induced by aggregation of high-affinity receptors for IgE (FcεRI) is negatively regulated by rictor independently of mTOR. We found that inhibition of mTORC2 by the dual mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibitor Torin1 or by downregulation of mTOR by short hairpin RNA had no impact on FcεRI-induced degranulation, whereas downregulation of rictor itself resulted in an increased sensitivity (∼50-fold) of cells to FcεRI aggregation with enhancement of degranulation. This was linked to a similar enhancement in calcium mobilization and cytoskeletal rearrangement attributable to increased phosphorylation of LAT and PLCγ1. In contrast, degranulation and calcium responses elicited by the G protein-coupled receptor ligand, C3a, or by thapsigargin, which induces a receptor-independent calcium signal, was unaffected by rictor knockdown. Overexpression of rictor, in contrast with knockdown, suppressed FcεRI-mediated degranulation. Taken together, these data provide evidence that rictor is a multifunctional signaling regulator that can regulate FcεRI-mediated degranulation independently of mTORC2.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protein prohibitin (PHB) is implicated in diverse cellular processes, including cell signaling, transcriptional control, and mitochondrial function. We found that PHB was abundant in the intracellular granules of mast cells, which are critical for allergic responses to antigens. Thus, we investigated whether PHB played a role in signaling mediated by the high-affinity receptor for antigen-bound immunoglobulin E (IgE), FcεRI. PHB-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) inhibited antigen-mediated signaling, degranulation, and cytokine secretion by mast cells in vitro. Knockdown of PHB inhibited the antigen-dependent association of the tyrosine kinase Syk with FcεRI and inhibited the activation of Syk. Fractionation studies revealed that PHB translocated from intracellular granules to plasma membrane lipid rafts in response to antigen, and knockdown of PHB suppressed the movement of FcεRIγ and Syk into lipid rafts. Tyrosine phosphorylation of PHB by Lyn was observed early after exposure to antigen, and point mutations in PHB indicated that Tyr(114) and Tyr(259) were required for the recruitment of Syk to FcεRIγ and mast cell activation. In mice, PHB-specific siRNAs inhibited antigen-initiated mast cell degranulation, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, and passive systemic anaphylaxis. Together, these results suggest that PHB is essential for FcεRI-mediated mast cell activation and allergic responses in vivo, raising the possibility that PHB might serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of allergic diseases.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Science Signaling
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following antigen/IgE-mediated aggregation of high affinity IgE-receptors (FcεRI), mast cells (MCs) degranulate and release inflammatory mediators leading to the induction of allergic reactions including anaphylaxis. Migration of MCs to resident tissues and sites of inflammation is regulated by tissue chemotactic factors such as stem cell factor (SCF (KIT ligand)). Despite inducing similar early signaling events to antigen, chemotactic factors, including SCF, produce minimal degranulation in the absence of other stimuli. We therefore investigated whether processes regulating MC chemotaxis are rate limiting for MC mediator release. To investigate this issue, we disrupted actin polymerization, a requirement for MC chemotaxis, with latrunculin B and cytochalasin B, then examined chemotaxis and mediator release in human (hu)MCs induced by antigen or SCF. As expected, such disruption minimally affected early signaling pathways, but attenuated SCF-induced huMC chemotaxis. In contrast, SCF, in the absence of other stimuli, induced substantial degranulation in a concentration-dependent manner following actin disassembly. It also moderately enhanced antigen-mediated huMC degranulation which was further enhanced in the presence of SCF. These observations suggest that processes regulating cell migration limit MC degranulation as a consequence of cytoskeletal reorganization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · European Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human linkage analyses have implicated the MS4A2-containing gene locus (encoding FcεRIβ) as a candidate for allergy susceptibility. We have identified a truncation of FcεRIβ (t-FcεRIβ) in humans that contains a putative calmodulin-binding domain and thus, we sought to identify the role of this variant in mast cell function. We determined that t-FcεRIβ is critical for microtubule formation and degranulation and that it may perform this function by trafficking adaptor molecules and kinases to the pericentrosomal and Golgi region in response to Ca(2+) signals. Mutagenesis studies suggest that calmodulin binding to t-FcεRIβ in the presence of Ca(2+) could be critical for t-FcεRIβ function. In addition, gene targeting of t-FcεRIβ attenuated microtubule formation, degranulation, and IL-8 production downstream of Ca(2+) signals. Therefore, t-FcεRIβ mediates Ca(2+)-dependent microtubule formation, which promotes degranulation and cytokine release. Because t-FcεRIβ has this critical function, it represents a therapeutic target for the downregulation of allergic inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antigen-mediated mast cell (MC) degranulation is the critical early event in the induction of allergic reactions. Transient receptor potential channels (TRPC), particularly TRPC1, are thought to contribute to such MC activation. To explore the contribution of TRPC1 in MC-driven allergic reactions, we examined antigen-mediated anaphylaxis in Trpc1(-/-) and WT mice, and TRPC1 involvement in the activation of MCs derived from the bone marrow (BMMCs) of these mice. In vivo, we observed a similar induction of passive systemic anaphylaxis in the Trpc1(-/-) mice compared to WT controls. Nevertheless, there was delayed recovery from this response in Trpc1(-/-) mice. Furthermore, contrary to expectations, Trpc1(-/-) BMMCs responded to antigen with enhanced calcium signaling but with little defect in degranulation or associated signaling. In contrast, antigen-mediated production of TNF-α, and other cytokines, was enhanced in the Trpc1(-/-) BMMCs, as were calcium-dependent events required for these responses. Additionally, circulating levels of TNF-α in response to antigen were preferentially elevated in the Trpc1(-/-) mice, and administration of an anti-TNF-α antibody blocked the delay in recovery from anaphylaxis in these mice. These data thus provide evidence that, in this model, TRPC1 promotes recovery from the anaphylactic response by repressing antigen-mediated TNF-α release from MCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of KIT, by its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), results in the initiation of signal transduction pathways that influence mast cell survival and proliferation. Activating mutations in KIT have thus been linked to clonal MC proliferation associated with systemic mastocytosis. SCF also modulates MC function by inducing MC chemotaxis and by potentiating antigen (Ag)/IgE-mediated MC degranulation. Thus, mutations in KIT also have the potential to affect these processes in allergic and other mast cell-related diseases. Studies to determine how native and mutated KIT may modulate MC chemotaxis and activation have, however, been limited due to the lack of availability of a suitable functional MC line lacking native KIT which would allow transduction of KIT constructs. Here we describe a novel mouse MC line which allows the study of normal and mutated KIT constructs. These cells originated from a bone marrow-derived mouse MC culture out of which a rapidly dividing mast cell sub-population spontaneously arose. Over time, these cells lost KIT expression while continuing to express functional high affinity receptors for IgE (FcεRI). As a consequence, these cells degranulated in response to Ag/IgE but did not migrate nor show any evidence of potentiation of Ag/IgE degranulation in response to SCF. Retroviral transduction of the cells with a human (hu)KIT construct resulted in surface expression of huKIT which responded to huSCF by potentiation of Ag/IgE-induced degranulation and chemotaxis. This cell line thus presents a novel system to delineate how MC function is modulated by native and mutated KIT and for the identification of novel inhibitors of these processes.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of immunological methods
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-33 is elevated in afflicted tissues of patients with mast cell (MC)-dependent chronic allergic diseases. Based on its acute effects on mouse MCs, IL-33 is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic disease through MC activation. However, the manifestations of prolonged IL-33 exposure on human MC function, which best reflect the conditions associated with chronic allergic disease, are unknown. In this study, we found that long-term exposure of human and mouse MCs to IL-33 results in a substantial reduction of MC activation in response to Ag. This reduction required >72 h exposure to IL-33 for onset and 1-2 wk for reversion following IL-33 removal. This hyporesponsive phenotype was determined to be a consequence of MyD88-dependent attenuation of signaling processes necessary for MC activation, including Ag-mediated calcium mobilization and cytoskeletal reorganization, potentially as a consequence of downregulation of the expression of phospholipase Cγ(1) and Hck. These findings suggest that IL-33 may play a protective, rather than a causative, role in MC activation under chronic conditions and, furthermore, reveal regulated plasticity in the MC activation phenotype. The ability to downregulate MC activation in this manner may provide alternative approaches for treatment of MC-driven disease.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: DJ-1 is an antioxidant protein known to reduce levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but its presence or function in mast cells and allergic diseases is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the role and mechanism of DJ-1 in allergic responses in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: ROS and DJ-1 levels in serum or culture medium were measured with ELISA kits. The role of DJ-1 was evaluated in mast cell cultures and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in normal or DJ-1 knockout (KO) mice. The mechanism of DJ-1 action was examined by using immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, RT-PCR, and other molecular biological approaches. RESULTS: Patients with atopic dermatitis had increased levels of ROS and diminished levels of DJ-1. DJ-1 KO mice exhibited enhanced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and augmented ROS levels in sera and bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Furthermore, antigen-induced degranulation and production of TNF-α and IL-4 were significantly amplified in DJ-1 KO and anti-DJ-1 small interfering RNA-transfected BMMCs compared with that seen in wild-type (WT) BMMCs. Studies with these cells and BMMCs transfected with small interfering RNAs against the phosphatases Src homology domain 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP) 1 and SHP-2 revealed that the DJ-1 KO phenotype could be attributed to suppression of SHP-1 activity and enhancement of SHP-2 activity, leading to strengthened signaling through linker for activation of T cells, phospholipase Cγ, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. CONCLUSIONS: A deficiency or constitutive activation of DJ-1 can have implications in mast cell-driven allergic diseases, such as asthma and anaphylaxis.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells, activated by Ag via FcεRI, release an array of proinflammatory mediators that contribute to allergic disorders, such as asthma and anaphylaxis. The KIT ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), is critical for mast cell expansion, differentiation, and survival, and under acute conditions, it enhances mast cell activation. However, extended SCF exposure in vivo conversely protects against fatal Ag-mediated anaphylaxis. In investigating this dichotomy, we identified a novel mode of regulation of the mast cell activation phenotype through SCF-mediated programming. We found that mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells chronically exposed to SCF displayed a marked attenuation of FcεRI-mediated degranulation and cytokine production. The hyporesponsive phenotype was not a consequence of altered signals regulating calcium flux or protein kinase C, but of ineffective cytoskeletal reorganization with evidence implicating a downregulation of expression of the Src kinase Hck. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a major role for SCF in the homeostatic control of mast cell activation with potential relevance to mast cell-driven disease and the development of novel approaches for the treatment of allergic disorders.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine, has been reported as a calorie restriction mimetic with potential antiaging and antidiabetogenic properties. It is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement, but its mechanism of action remains a mystery. Here, we report that the metabolic effects of resveratrol result from competitive inhibition of cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterases, leading to elevated cAMP levels. The resulting activation of Epac1, a cAMP effector protein, increases intracellular Ca(2+) levels and activates the CamKKβ-AMPK pathway via phospholipase C and the ryanodine receptor Ca(2+)-release channel. As a consequence, resveratrol increases NAD(+) and the activity of Sirt1. Inhibiting PDE4 with rolipram reproduces all of the metabolic benefits of resveratrol, including prevention of diet-induced obesity and an increase in mitochondrial function, physical stamina, and glucose tolerance in mice. Therefore, administration of PDE4 inhibitors may also protect against and ameliorate the symptoms of metabolic diseases associated with aging.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells are considered the primary initiators of allergic diseases as a consequence of the release of multiple inflammatory mediators on activation. Although predominately activated through antigen-mediated aggregation of IgE-occupied-FcɛRI, they can also be induced to release mediators by other receptors and environmental stimuli. Based on studies conducted in the RBL 2H3 rodent mast cell line, the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) cation channel has been implicated in the activation of mast cells in response to cold and, by inference, the development of urticaria. Here we investigated the expression and role of TRPM8 receptor, in both human and mouse non-transformed cells, with the aim of exploring the potential link between TRPM8 and the pathology of cold urticaria in humans. Although expressed in mouse mast cells, we found no evidence of TRPM8 expression in human mast cells or functional mutations in TRPM8 in cold urticaria patients. Furthermore, neither mouse nor human primary cultured mast cells degranulated in response to cold challenge or TRPM8 agonists and mast cell reactivity was unaffected in Trpm8(-/-) mice. From these data, we conclude that TRPM8 is unlikely to directly regulate mast cell activation in cold urticaria. Thus, alternative mechanisms likely exist for the pathogenesis of this disease.