[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy, an intracellular degradation and energy recycling mechanism, is emerging as an important regulator of immune responses. However, the role of autophagy in regulating neutrophil functions is not known. We investigated neutrophil biology using myeloid-specific autophagy-deficient mice and found that autophagy deficiency reduced neutrophil degranulation in vitro and in vivo. Mice with autophagy deficiency showed reduced severity of several neutrophil-mediated inflammatory and autoimmune disease models, including PMA-induced ear inflammation, LPS-induced breakdown of blood-brain barrier, and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. NADPH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species generation was also reduced in autophagy-deficient neutrophils, and inhibition of NADPH oxidase reduced neutrophil degranulation, suggesting NADPH oxidase to be a player at the intersection of autophagy and degranulation. Overall, this study establishes autophagy as an important regulator of neutrophil functions and neutrophil-mediated inflammation in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between altered proteostasis and inflammatory disorders has been increasingly recognized but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we show that deficiency of either autophagy or p62 led to inflammasome hyper-activation in response to LPS and ATP in primary macrophages and in mice in vivo. Importantly, induction of protein misfolding by puromycin, thapsigargin or geldanamycin resulted in inflammasome activation that was more pronounced in autophagy- or p62-deficient macrophages. Accumulation of misfolded proteins caused inflammasome activation by inducing generation of non-mitochondrial ROS and lysosomal damage, leading to release of cathepsin B. Our results suggest that altered proteostasis results in inflammasome activation and thus provide mechanisms for the association of altered proteostasis with inflammatory disorders.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MUDENG, also known as AP5M1, was originally identified as an adaptin domain-containing gene that induced cell death in lymphoma cell lines. However, little is known of the mechanism responsible for MUDENG-mediated cell death. In this study, we investigated MUDENG changes during TRAIL-induced cell death. We found that MUDENG is rapidly processed in response to TRAIL in Jurkat and BJAB cells with time line similar to that of caspase activation. Caspase-3-mediated MUDENG cleavage was confirmed by an in vitro cleavage assay using recombinant active caspase proteins. Caspase cleavage sites (D276 and D290) were located in the adaptin domain of MUDENG, and cleaved MUDENG showed the reduced killing activity. These results suggest that the adaptin domain plays a key role in MUDENG-mediated cell death.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunology and Cell Biology focuses on the general functioning of the immune system in its broadest sense, with a particular emphasis on its cell biology. Areas that are covered include but are not limited to: Cellular immunology, Innate and adaptive immunity, Immune responses to pathogens,Tumour immunology,Immunopathology, Immunotherapy, Immunogenetics, Immunological studies in humans and model organisms (including mouse, rat, Drosophila etc)
Preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Immunology and Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Downstream of Bid (DOBI) known as Pus10, has been identified as a modulator of TRAIL-induced cell death using RNAi library screening. The crystal structure of DOBI has revealed that it is a crescent-shaped protein containing the pseudouridine synthase catalytic domain and a THUMP-containing domain. Here, we demonstrated that DOBI is expressed in various tissues such as heart and lung, and is also expressed in various tumor cells such as HeLa and A549. Although ectopic expression of DOBI does not promote TRAIL death signaling in HeLa cells, knock-down of DOBI expression using shRNA inhibited TRAIL death signaling. DOBI is cleaved into a 54 kD cleaved DOBI during cell death, and the recombinant DOBI protein can be directly cleaved by caspases-3, or -8 in vitro. Together, these data suggest that the cleaved DOBI may acquire a new function, possibly by cooperating with tBid in the mitochondrial event of cell death caused by TRAIL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TRAIL is an apoptotic cell death-inducing ligand that belongs to a TNF superfamily. To identify the regulators that govern the susceptibility to TRAIL, TRAIL-resistant HeLa (TR) cells were established by repeatedly treating HeLa cells with TRAIL. Here we showed that scaffolding protein Homer1 plays a decisive role in regulating the apoptotic susceptibility to TRAIL. TR cells showing the normal susceptibility to FasL and chemotherapeutic agent etoposide expressed the lower protein levels of Homer1 than parental HeLa cells. They showed the delayed activation of caspases-8, Bid cleavage and Bax translocation to mitochondria in response to TRAIL. Reconstitution of Homer1 expression in TR cells significantly restored the susceptibility to TRAIL. In addition, knock-down of Homer1 using interfering shRNA in parental HeLa cells lost the susceptibility to TRAIL. Together, our data indicate that Homer1 plays a critical role in determining the apoptotic susceptibility to TRAIL.
No preview · Article · May 2009 · Experimental Cell Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A screening system comprised of a randomized hybrid-ribozyme library has previously been used to identify pro-death genes in Fas-mediated apoptosis, and short sequence information of candidate genes from this system was previously reported by Kawasaki and Taira [H. Kawasaki, K. Taira, A functional gene discovery in the Fas-mediated pathway to apoptosis by analysis of transiently expressed randomized hybrid-ribozyme libraries, Nucleic Acids Res. 30 (2002) 3609-3614]. In this study, we have cloned the full-length of the candidate's open reading frames and found that one of the candidates, referred to as MUDENG (Mu-2 related death-inducing gene), which is composed of 490 amino acids that contain the adaptin domain found in the mu2 subunit of APs related to clathrin-mediated endocytosis, is able to induce cell death by itself. Ectopic expression of MUDENG induced cell death in Jurkat T cells and HeLa cells. In addition, when MUDENG expression was evaluated by immnuohistochemical staining, it was found in most tissues, including the intestine and testis. Furthermore, MUDENG appears to be evolutionary conserved from mammals to amphibians, suggesting that it may have a common role in cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that MUDENG is likely to play an important role in cell death in various tissues.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TRAIL has been suggested to induce the cell death in various tumor cells but not in normal cells; however, several studies have provided the evidence that TRAIL can induce the cell death in some normal cells including human normal hepatocytes, suggesting that TRAIL may show hepatic toxicity in human. In this study, we designed a pro-form of TRAIL (sTRAIL:IL-18) in that soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) is fused to IL-18, and a matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) cleavage site is introduced at the connecting site. We showed that sTRAIL:IL-18 has significantly diminished the killing activity in HeLa cells but regains the activity by releasing the free sTRAIL through MMP-2-mediated cleavage. In addition, the killing activity of sTRAIL:IL-18 was significantly increased in HeLa cells when active MMP-2 was produced by TNF-alpha. Taken together, the data suggested that the sTRAIL:IL-18 can be reactivated at the specialized areas where MMPs are pathologically produced.
No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · Experimental Cell Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cisplatin is a platinum-containing chemotherapeutic drug that has been widely used to treat various human cancers. It acts by forming inter- and intracross-links of DNA, which is believed to be a major cause for its therapeutic efficacy. However, little attention has been paid to the effect of cisplatin on death ligand-induced cell death. Here we demonstrate that cisplatin inhibits death ligand-induced cell death in cell lines in a p53-independent manner. This inhibitory effect of cisplatin on cell death is direct, whereby cisplatin forms a complex with caspases leading to their inactivation. The cisplatin-caspase complex is reversed by the addition of reducing agent dithiothreitol, and caspase activity is regained. In addition, cisplatin shows a death-inhibition effect in in vivo animal models of fulminant liver damage induced by Fas activation and lipopolysaccharide-induced liver shock mediated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Together, we demonstrate that cisplatin inhibits cell death induced by death ligands in cell lines and in mice through caspase inactivation.
No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrial intermembrane space is critical to apoptosis induced by a variety of death stimuli. Bid is a BH3-only prodeath Bcl-2 family protein that can potently activate this efflux. In the current study, we investigated the mitochondrial localization of Bid and its interactions with mitochondrial phospholipids, focusing on their relationships with Bid-induced cytochrome c release. We found that Bid binding to the mitochondria required only three of its eight helical structures (alpha4-alpha6), but not the BH3 domain, and the binding could not be inhibited by the antideath molecule Bcl-x(L). Membrane fractionations indicated that tBid bound to mitochondrial outer membranes at both contact and noncontact sites. Bid could interact with specific cardiolipin species on intact mitochondria as identified by mass spectrometry. Like the binding to the mitochondria, this interaction could not be blocked by the mutation in the BH3 domain or by Bcl-x(L.) However, a cardiolipin-specific dye, 10-N-nonyl acridine orange, could preferentially suppress Bid binding to the mitochondrial contact site and inhibit Bid-induced mitochondrial cristae reorganization and cytochrome c release. These findings thus suggest that interactions of Bid with mitochondrial cardiolipin at the contact site can contribute significantly to its functions.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2004 · Molecular Biology of the Cell
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genotoxic stresses stabilize the p53 tumor suppressor protein which, in turn, transactivates target genes to cause apoptosis.
Although Noxa, a “BH3-only” member of the Bcl-2 family, was shown to be a target of p53-mediated transactivation and to function
as a mediator of p53-dependent apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction, the molecular mechanism by which Noxa causes mitochondrial
dysfunction is largely unknown. Here we show that two domains (BH3 domain and mitochondrial targeting domain) in Noxa are
essential for the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Noxainduced cytochrome c release is inhibited by permeability transition pore inhibitors such as CsA or MgCl2, and Noxa induces an ultra-structural change of mitochondria yielding “swollen” mitochondria that are unlike changes induced
by tBid. This indicates that Noxa may activate the permeability transition-related pore to release cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol. Moreover, Bak-oligomerization, which is an essential event for tBid-induced cytochrome c release in the extrinsic death signaling pathway, is not associated with Noxa-induced cytochrome c release. This finding suggests that the pathway of Noxa-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is distinct from the one of tBid-induced
mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, we propose that there are at least two different pathways of mitochondrial dysfunction; one
mediated through Noxa in response to genotoxic stresses and the other through tBid in response to death ligands.
Preview · Article · Dec 2003 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A variety of surface receptors eliciting diverse cellular responses have been shown to recruit tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) adaptor molecules. However, a few TRAF-interacting intracellular proteins that serve as downstream targets or regulators of TRAF function have been identified. In search of new intracellular molecules that bind TRAF6, we carried out a yeast two-hybrid cDNA library screening with an N-terminal segment of TRAF6 as the bait. A novel human C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger family protein was identified, which when coexpressed with TRAF6 led to a suppression of TRAF6-induced activation of NF-kappa B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. This novel protein was designated TIZ (for TRAF6-inhibitory zinc finger protein). TIZ expression also inhibited the signaling of RANK (receptor activator of NF-kappa B), which together with TRAF6 has been shown to be essential for osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, the expression level of TIZ appeared to be regulated during the differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into osteoclasts. More significantly, transfection of TIZ into the monocyte/macrophage cell line Raw264.7 reduced the RANK ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis of this cell line. Our findings suggest that the novel zinc finger protein TIZ may play a role during osteoclast differentiation by modulating TRAF6 signaling activity.
No preview · Article · Apr 2002 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) is a recently cloned member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, and its function has been implicated in osteoclast differentiation and dendritic cell survival. Many of the TNFR family receptors recruit various members of the TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family for transduction of their signals to NF-kappaB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. In this study, the involvement of TRAF family members and the activation of the JNK pathway in signal transduction by RANK were investigated. TRAF1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 were found to bind RANK in vitro. Association of RANK with each of these TRAF proteins was also detected in vivo. Expression of RANK in cultured cells also induced the activation of JNK, which was blocked by a dominant-negative form of JNK. Furthermore, by employing various C-terminal deletion mutants of RANK, the regions responsible for TRAF interaction and JNK activation were identified. TRAF5 was determined to bind to the C-terminal 11 amino acids and the other TRAF members to a region N-terminal to the TRAF5 binding site. The domain responsible for JNK activation was localized to the same region where TRAF1, 2, 3, and 6 bound, which suggests that these TRAF molecules might mediate the RANK-induced JNK activation.