Domenico Martinelli

Università degli studi di Foggia, Foggia, Apulia, Italy

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Publications (154)294.36 Total impact

  • D Martinelli · F Fortunato · M G Cappelli · M S Gallone · S Tafuri · R Prato
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    ABSTRACT: Recommendations for vaccination against rotavirus (RV) were issued in Apulia in 2006; the vaccine was free of charge to children who entered day care or nursery school by 1 year of age or those affected by chronic diseases for which diarrhea caused by rotavirus can increase the risk of complications and hospitalization. In 2014, vaccination became available to all healthy children with only a copayment. However, there has not been a significant increase in vaccination coverage. On April 17, 2015, Apulian public health physicians and paediatricians met to share strategies to promote the RV vaccine indications provided in the regional immunization schedule. During the meeting, presentation of data reports were interspersed with discussions that were led with a "bottom-up" approach. The discussants responded to pre-planned questions raised by the participants and encouraged by the discussion.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Annali di igiene: medicina preventiva e di comunità
  • Rosa Prato · Francesca Fortunato · Domenico Martinelli
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    ABSTRACT: The indirect protection of adults as a result of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of infants has been discussed from different epidemiological points of view. In some countries, including Italy, even after pediatric vaccination, vaccine serotypes are still responsible for most pneumonia and invasive diseases in elderly. Although the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPITA) produced encouraging results, it has not showed the efficacy of the 13-valent conjugate vaccine in preventing pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia, regardless of the number of episodes and serotype. Addressing these points by monitoring the direct impact of adult vaccination in real-life distinguished from the effects of herd immunity will assist the public health decision-making on the most effective adult pneumococcal vaccination strategies.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Current Medical Research and Opinion
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the risk of developing obstetric complications in women with celiac disease. Data sources: Electronic databases were searched from their inception until February 2015. Study eligibility criteria: We included all cohort studies reporting the incidence of obstetric complications in women with celiac disease compared to women without celiac disease (i.e. control group). Studies without a control group and case-control studies were excluded. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: The primary outcome was defined a priori and was the incidence of a composite of obstetric complications including intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW), preeclampsia and preterm birth (PTB). Secondary outcomes included the incidence of PTB, IUGR, stillbirth, preeclampsia, SGA and LBW. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015017263) before data extraction. All authors were contacted in order to obtain the original databases and perform individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis. Primary and secondary outcomes were assessed in the aggregate data analysis as well as in the IPD meta-analysis. Results: We included 10 cohort studies (4,844,555 women) in this meta-analysis. Four authors kindly provided the entire databases for the IPD analysis. Since that none of the included studies stratified data for the primary outcome (i.e. composite outcome) assessing this outcome for the aggregate analysis was not feasible. Aggregate data analysis showed that, compared to women in the control group, women with celiac disease (both treated and untreated) had a significantly higher risk of developing PTB (aOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.66), IUGR (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.32 to 4.67), stillbirth (OR 4.84, 95% CI 1.08 to 21.75), LBW (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.51), and SGA (OR 4.52; 95% CI 1.02 to 20.08), while no statistically significant difference was found in the incidence of preeclampsia (OR 2.45, 95% CI 0.90 to 6.70). The risk of PTB was still significantly higher both in subgroup analysis of only diagnosed and treated celiac disease women (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.48) and in subgroup analysis of only undiagnosed and untreated celiac disease women (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.06 to 5.87). Women with diagnosed and treated celiac disease had a significantly lower risk of developing PTB compared to undiagnosed and untreated celiac disease (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.99). The IPD meta-analysis showed that women with celiac disease had a significantly higher risk of composite obstetric complications compared to controls (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.94). Our IPD concurs with the aggregate analysis for all the secondary outcomes. Conclusions: In summary, women with celiac disease had a significantly higher risk of developing obstetric complications including PTB, IUGR, stillbirth, LBW and SGA.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
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    ABSTRACT: Recently the exhaled breath temperature (EBT) was seen to increase in non-small cell lung cancer and was subsequently proposed as a possible non-invasive tool for its diagnosis. The need for further studies that confirm the previous findings and support the potential scope of this method underlies the main aim of this study that seeks to explore the pathogenic mechanisms determining the EBT in lung cancer. We enrolled 44 consecutive patients with a radiological suspicion of lung cancer and ten healthy non-smoker volunteers, after which their EBT was measured. On the same day, the subjects underwent breath condensate collection for the measurement of leukotriene (LTB)-4 and of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the former being a marker of airways inflammation and the latter of neoangiogenesis. We confirmed the presence of a higher EBT in lung cancer patients compared to the controls. The multiple linear regression model showed that the exhaled VEGF was the only predictor of elevations of EBT. In conclusion, it can be stated that for the first time in this study, we have shown that EBT is higher in subjects with lung cancer and that the airways angiogenesis drives the increase in EBT in lung cancer. Moreover, the study suggests the potential for the use of EBT in monitoring the lung cancer progression, although the implementation of more in-depth studies to verify this result is recommended.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Medical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: In Italy, the meningococcal C conjugate vaccine (MenC) has been offered in most regions since 2009-2010. The incidence of Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) was 0.25 confirmed cases per 100,000 in 2011, but this may be considerably underestimated due to underdetection and underreporting. This study estimates the impact of the MenC universal vaccination (URV) in the Puglia region by assessing the completeness of three registration sources (notifications, hospitalizations, and laboratory surveillance). Capture-recapture analysis was performed on meningococcal meningitis collected within 2001–2013. The impact of URV among ≤ 18-year-olds was assessed by attributable benefit, preventable fraction, and prevented fraction. Missed opportunities for vaccination were evaluated from surveillance of IMD. The proportion of detected serogroups was applied to the number of IMD in the postvaccination period to compute the cases still preventable. The sensitivity of the three sources was 36.7% (95% CI: 17.5%–57.9%) and registrations lost nearly 28 cases/year in the period. Attributable benefit of URV was −0.5 cases per 100,000, preventable fraction 19.6%, and prevented fraction 31.3%. Three adolescent cases missed the opportunity to be vaccinated. The multicomponent serogroup B meningococcal vaccine has the potential to further prevent at least three other cases/year. Vaccination strategy against serogroup B together with existing programmes makes IMD a 100% vaccine-preventable disease.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Immunology Research
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    ABSTRACT: In Italy, the effectiveness of pneumococcal universal vaccination in preventing vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the PCV7/PCV13 shifting period was estimated to be 84.3% (95% CI: 84.0-84.6%) in children <5 years. This study aims at corroborating the estimation of both the effectiveness (VE) of PCVs and its impact in reducing pneumococcal diseases. A 1 : 3 matched-case-control study was conducted among children <5 years old hospitalized for IPD or pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) between 2006 and 2012 in the Puglia region. Moreover, hospitalizations for pneumococcal outcomes in the pre- and postvaccination period and the hospitalization risk ratios (HRRs) with 95% CIs were computed in Italy and in the first eight regions that introduced PCVs in 2006. The overall effectiveness of PCVs was 75% (95% CI: 61%-84%); it was 69% (95% CI: 30%-88%) against IPD and 77% (95% CI: 61%-87%) against PP. PCVs showed a significant impact on IPD and acute otitis media either at a national level or in those regions with a longer vaccination history, with a nearly 40% reduction of hospitalizations for both outcomes. Our findings provide further evidence of the effectiveness of PCVs against pneumococcal diseases and its impact on nasopharyngeal carriage in children <5 years, indicating the importance of maintaining high immunization coverage.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Immunology Research
  • D. Martinelli · F. Fortunato · R. Prato
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    ABSTRACT: Meningococcal disease is an acute, severe bacterial infection caused by Neisseria meningitidis. The most common presentations of invasive meningococcal infection (IMD) are meningitis and sepsis, less common pathologic presentations include focal infections. IMD can develop from initial symptoms to death within 24 hours. As many as 20% of survivors have permanent sequelae. Infants < 1 year of age have the highest incidence and adolescents the highest carriage prevalence. In Italy, the incidence of IMD was 0.25 confirmed cases per 100,000 in 2011, but this may have been considerably underestimated due to under-detection and under-reporting. Recently, we estimated the impact of the MenC universal vaccination on the burden of meningococcal meningitis in Puglia by assessing the completeness of three registration sources (notifications, hospitalizations, and laboratory surveillance). The sensitivity of the three systems was 36.7% (95% CI: 17.5%-57.9%) and registrations lost nearly 28 cases/year in the period 2001-2013. In the National Surveillance of Invasive Bacterial Diseases, serogroup B accounted for 64.9% of samples serotyped in 2011. Applying this percentage to the total number of hospitalizations for IMD registered in the same year (n = 256), we obtained an estimated 166 episodes attributable to serogroup B. Our work highlights the importance of enhancing surveillance for meningococcal disease and strengthening vaccinations against all preventable serogroups.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of preventive medicine and hygiene
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of this study was to assess the association between the clinical and neurobiological markers of neurodevelopmental impairments and early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. Methods: A sample of 36 patients with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychosis was compared to a control sample of 36 patients with migraine. We assessed early childhood neurodevelopmental milestones using a modified version of the General Developmental Scale, general intellectual ability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised or Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised for patients with speech and language abnormalities, and neurological soft signs with specific regard to subtle motor impairment. Results: Subjects with early-onset psychosis had a higher rate of impaired social development (P=0.001), learning difficulties (P=0.04), enuresis (P=0.0008), a lower intelligence quotient (P<0.001), and subtle motor impairments (P=0.005) than control subjects. Conclusion: We suggest that neurodevelopment in early-onset psychosis is characterized by a global impairment of functional and adaptive skills that manifests from early childhood, rather than a delay or limitation in language and motor development. The current evidence is based on a small sample and should be investigated in larger samples in future research.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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    ABSTRACT: Background The echinocandins are recommended as first-line therapy for Candida species infections, but drug resistance, especially among Candida glabrata, is becoming more frequent. We investigated the antifungal susceptibility of anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin against 584 isolates of Candida spp. (bloodstream, other sterile sites) collected from patients admitted to an Italian university hospital between 2000 and 2013. The susceptibility was evaluated using the broth microdilution method according to both the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST EDef 7.2) and the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI M27-A3). The echinocandin susceptibilities were assessed on the basis of the species-specific clinical breakpoints proposed by the EUCAST version 6.1 and CLSI M27-S4 documents. The two methods were comparable by assessing essential agreement (EA), categorical agreement (CA), and Spearman’s correlation analysis (rho, r). Results The modal minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs; μg ⋅ mL −1) values by both methods (EUCAST/CLSI) for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin for each species were, respectively, as follows: C. albicans, 0.03/0.12, 0.016/0.5, and 0.016/0.008; C. parapsilosis complex, 2/1, 2/2, and 2/1; C. tropicalis, 0.06/0.12, 0.06/0.12, and 0.06/0.12; C. glabrata complex, 0.03/0.25, 0.06/0.12, and 0.03/0.06; C. guilliermondii, 2/1, 2/2, and 2/2; and C. krusei, 0.06/0.12, 0.12/0.5, and 0.06/0.12. The overall resistance rates for EUCAST/CLSI were as follows: anidulafungin, 2.5/0.9 %; caspofungin, breakpoint not available/3.8 %; micafungin, 2.7/1.5 %. Candida glabrata complex was the least susceptible to all three echinocandins, and the percentages of resistant isolates by EUCAST/CLSI were as follows: anidulafungin, 13.5/2.7 %; caspofungin, breakpoint not available/16.2 %; micafungin, 18.9/13.5 %. The overall EA was 93 % for micafungin, 92 % for anidulafungin, and 90 % for caspofungin. The CA was >90 % for all organism-drug combinations with the exception of C. glabrata and anidulafungin (89 %). Spearman’s rho for EUCAST/CLSI was 0.89 (p < 0.001) for caspofungin, 0.85 (p < 0.001) for anidulafungin, and 0.83 for micafungin (p < 0.001). Conclusions Independent of the procedure applied, no alarming resistance to the tested agents was found, although a reduced susceptibility was detected for C. glabrata complex. The EUCAST and CLSI methods produce similar MICs, indicating that using one method or the other should not result in susceptibilities different enough to affect treatment decisions.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · BMC Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Although concerns about safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy have been raised in the past, vaccination of pregnant women was recommended in many countries during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the risk of adverse maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes among pregnant women vaccinated with a MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine. The study was carried out in four Italian regions (Piemonte, Friuli-Venezia-Giulia, Lazio, and Puglia) among 102,077 pregnant women potentially exposed during the second or third trimester of gestation to the vaccination campaign implemented in 2009/2010. Based on data retrieved from the regional administrative databases, the statistical analysis was performed using the Cox proportional-hazards model, adjusting for the propensity score to account for the potential confounding effect due to the socio-demographic characteristics and the clinical and reproductive history of women. A total of 100,332 pregnant women were eligible for the analysis. Of these, 2003 (2.0%) received the A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination during the second or third trimester of gestation. We did not observe any statistically significant association between the A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination and different maternal outcomes (hospital admissions for influenza, pneumonia, hypertension, eclampsia, diabetes, thyroid disease, and anaemia), fetal outcomes (fetal death after the 22nd gestational week) and neonatal outcomes (pre-term birth, low birth weight, low 5-min Apgar score, and congenital malformations). Pre-existing health-risk conditions (hospital admissions and drug prescriptions for specific diseases before the onset of pregnancy) were observed more frequently among vaccinated women, thus suggesting that concomitant chronic conditions increased vaccination uptake. The results of this study add some evidence on the safety of A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination during pregnancy but, because of the reduced statistical power, meta-analyses and large multi-centres studies are needed in order to obtain more conclusive results, especially for rare outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Vaccine
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the serovirological prevalence and clinical features of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in end-stage renal failure patients and in the healthy population. HEV infection is a viral disease that can cause sporadic and epidemic hepatitis. Previous studies unexpectedly showed a high prevalence of HEV antibodies in immunosuppressed subjects, including hemodialysis (HD) patients and patients who had undergone kidney transplant. A cohort/case-control study was carried out from January 2012 to August 2013 in two hospitals in southern Italy (Foggia and S. Giovanni Rotondo, Apulia). The seroprevalence of HEV was determined in 801 subjects; 231 HD patients, 120 renal transplant recipients, and 450 health individuals. All HD patients and the recipients of renal transplants were attending the Departments of Nephrology and Dialysis at two hospitals located in Southern Italy, and were included progressively in this study. Serum samples were tested for HEV antibodies (IgG/IgM); in the case of positivity they were confirmed by a Western blot assay and were also tested for HEV-RNA, and the HEV genotypes were determined. A total of 30/801 (3.7%) patients were positive for anti-HEV Ig (IgG and/or IgM) and by Western blot. The healthy population presented with a prevalence of 2.7%, HD patients had a prevalence of 6.0%, and transplant recipients had a prevalence of 3.3%. The overall combined HEV-positive prevalence in the two groups with chronic renal failure was 5.1%. The rates of exposure to HEV (positivity of HEV-IgG/M in the early samples) were lower in the healthy controls, but the difference among the three groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Positivity for anti-HEV/IgM was detected in 4/30 (13.33%) anti-HEV Ig positive individuals, in 2/14 HD patients, in 1/4 transplant individuals, and in 1/12 of the healthy population. The relative risk of being HEV-IgM-positive was significantly higher among transplant recipients compared to the other two groups (OR = 65.4, 95%CI: 7.2-592.7, P < 0.001), but the subjects with HEV-IgM positivity were numerically too few to calculate a significant difference. No patient presented with chronic hepatitis from HEV infection alone. This study indicated a higher, but not significant, circulation of HEV in hemodialysis patients vs the healthy population. Chronic hepatitis due to the HEV virus was not observed.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. The study aims to investigate the change in the burden of disease and the microbiological characteristics of Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) in Puglia in comparison with overall incidence from 1994 through 2014. Methods. Data are gathered in the frame of the National Surveillance System coordinated by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Results. In Puglia. from 1994 through 2014. the average incidence of IMD was 0.2 per 100 000 inhabitants, below the national average value (0.33). IMD cases tended to be older than the other cases reported in Italy (median age 19 vs 16). The case-fatality rate was 20.4% in Puglia vs 13.3% in Italy. Serogroups B and C were most frequently identified. Serogroups C and Y presented a fairly clonal pattern, whereas serogroup B was genetically rather heterogeneous. Conclusion. Surveillance systems are critical in monitoring any change in the epidemioloy of IMD.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The Italian Study Group on Hospital Hygiene of the Italian Society of Hygiene, Preventive Medicine and Public Health conducted a multicentre survey aiming to evaluate undergraduate health care students’ knowledge of tuberculosis and tuberculosis control measures in Italy. In October 2012–June 2013, a sample of medical and nursing students from 15 Italian universities were enrolled on a voluntary basis and asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire investigating both general knowledge of tuberculosis (aetiology, clinical presentation, outcome, screening methods) and personal experiences and practices related to tuberculosis prevention. Data were analysed through multivariable regression using Stata software. The sample consisted of 2,220 students in nursing (72.6%) and medicine (27.4%) courses. Our findings clearly showed that medical students had a better knowledge of tuberculosis than did nursing students. Although the vast majority of the sample (up to 95%) answered questions about tuberculosis aetiology correctly, only 60% of the students gave the correct responses regarding clinical aspects and vaccine details. Overall, 66.9% of the students had been screened for tuberculosis, but less than 20% of those with a negative result on the tuberculin skin test were vaccinated. Multivariable regression analysis showed that age and type of study programme (nursing vs. medical course) were determinants of answering the questions correctly. Although our data showed sufficient knowledge on tuberculosis, this survey underlines the considerable need for improvement in knowledge about the disease, especially among nursing students. In light of the scientific recommendations concerning tuberculosis knowledge among students, progress of current health care curricula aimed to develop students’ skills in this field is needed.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · BMC Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: We determined the in vitro antifungal activity of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) against 604 clinical yeast isolates. Amphotericin B deoxycholate (D-AmB) was tested in parallel against all the isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 method. Overall, L-AmB was highly active against the isolates (mean MIC = 0.42 μg/ml; MIC90= 1μg/ml; 97.2% of MICs were ≤ 1μg/ml) and comparable to D-AmB (mean MIC = 0.48μg/ml; MIC90= 1μg/ml; 97.3% of MICs were ≤ 1μg/ml). The in vitro activity of D-AmB and L-AmB was correlated (R2 = 0.61; exp (Coef.) = 2.3; 95% IC= 2.19-2.44, p<0.001). Candida albicans (mean MICs of D-AmB and L-AmB, 0.39 μg/ml and 0.31 μg/ml, respectively) and Candida parapsilosis (mean MICs of D-AmB and L-AmB, 0.38 μg/ml and 0.35 μg/ml, respectively) were the species most susceptible to the agents tested, while Candida krusei (currently named Issatchenkia orientalis) (mean MICs of D-AmB and L-AmB, 1.27 μg/ml and 1.13 μg/ml, respectively) was the least susceptible. The excellent in vitro activity of L-AmB may have important implications for empirical treatment approaches and support its role in treatment of a wide range of invasive infections due to yeasts.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Medical Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: In Italy, between 2003 and 2010, 8/21 Regions recommended varicella routine vaccination (URV). The National Immunization Plan (PNPV) 2012-2014 scheduled the introduction of URV nationwide in 2015, following the results achieved by the eight Regions. Puglia adopted varicella URV in 2006. This study describes epidemiology and costs of varicella in Puglia between 2003 and 2012. One-dose Vaccine Effectiveness (VE) against varicella of any severity and severe hospitalized cases in children was also evaluated. Vaccination coverage (VC) was estimated from the regional immunization registry. Incidence and hospitalization rates were calculated from computerised surveillance system for communicable diseases and hospital discharge registry (CD9-CM codes: 052.x), respectively. URV impact was assessed by Incidence Rate Ratios (IIRs) and Hospitalization Risk Ratios (HRRs). Hospitalization costs were also evaluated. VE was estimated using the screening method, where PPV was VC in children aged<72 months and PCV was the proportion of cases vaccinated among notified or hospitalized cases, respectively. One-dose VC in children aged ≤ 24 months increased from 49% in the birth cohort 2006 to 91.1% in the cohort 2010; 2-dose VC was 64.8% and 28.8% in the 2005 and 1997 cohort, respectively. Comparing pre and post-vaccination era, incidence declined from 122.5 ×100 000 in 2003-2005 to 13.7 in 2009-2012 (IRR = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.10-0.12), hospitalization rate from 3.9 ×100 000 to 1.1 (HRR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.21-0.4), hospitalization costs from 319 000 Euros/year to 106 000. One-dose VE against varicella of any severity and severe hospitalized disease was 98.8% and 99%, respectively. Our findings strongly support varicella URV introduction into the Italian Essential Health Interventions, as scheduled by 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: The Italian National Plan of Measles and Rubella Elimination 2010-2015 has deferred the objective to reduce congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) to<1 case per 100 000 live births to 2015 and has highlighted the need to reduce to<5% susceptibility to rubella among women in childbearing-age. In Puglia region, MMR vaccine coverage is 93% in newborns (cohort 2010; one dose), 85% in children 5-6 years old and 77% in adolescents (cohort 2005 and 1997, respectively; two doses). Combining available seroepidemiological data and results of a survey on the attitude towards rubella vaccination and rubella testing before pregnancy, we could estimate that 5.7% of Apulian women in childbearing-age are currently susceptible to rubella infection. The regional infectious disease routine notification system reported no cases of CRS and rubella in pregnancy in 2001-2010 period. The inconsistency among the mentioned data triggered the evaluation of the reliability of disease reporting. We performed a retrospective case-finding for the years 2003-2011. We scanned the regional hospital discharge registry to identify hospitalizations for rubella in pregnancy and CRS and retrieve individual records. We also searched for clinical history of CRS mothers in the delivery assistance certificate registry. We identified one CRS, two confirmed and four suspected congenital infections, and seven cases of rubella in pregnancy. Passive surveillance of CRS and rubella in pregnancy appears not to be reliable in the light of strengthening rubella elimination strategies.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: In Italy, vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and hepatitis B is compulsory for infants countrywide, except in Veneto region where since 2007 Health Authorities have experimented the suspension of mandatory vaccination. In light of the recent discussion on the potential abrogation in other regions, we explored the opinion of family pediatricians who play a crucial role in promoting immunization programmes in Italy. In November 2009, we interviewed by phone the family pediatricians working in Puglia region using a standardised, ad hoc and piloted questionnaire. Of the 596 contacted, 502 (84.2%) completed the questionnaire (54% female, median age = 52 y). Among the respondents, 72 (14.3%) would agree on the hypothesis of abrogation. This judgment was associated with having a good opinion on the level of awareness of the importance of vaccinations in the general public (OR = 6.6; 95% CI: 3.6-12.1) and having the perception of adequate organization of Vaccination Services in supporting the abrogation (OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.7-5.9). Family pediatricians appeared really sceptical about the abrogation of compulsory vaccination that could be hypothesized only increasing public awareness, communication skills and capability of Vaccination Services personnel in offering vaccinations.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics
  • Francesca Fortunato · Silvio Tafuri · Vanessa Cozza · Domenico Martinelli · Rosa Prato
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    ABSTRACT: Vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs) reduces the risk of occupational infections, prevents nosocomial transmission and maintains healthcare delivery during outbreaks. Despite the European directive and national legislation on workers' protection, immunization coverage among HCWs has often been very low. In light of Italian National Vaccination Plan 2012-2014 recommendations, the aim of this study was to assess levels of immunization and factors influencing adherence to vaccinations needed for HCWs in Puglia region, South Italy. The study was conducted using an interview-based standardized anonymous questionnaire administered to hospital employees in the period November 2009-March 2011. A total of 2198 health professionals responded in 51/69 Apulian hospitals (median age: 45 years; 65.2% nurses, 22.6% doctors and 12.2% other hospital personnel). Vaccination coverage was 24.8% for influenza, 70.1% for hepatitis B, 9.7% for MMR, 3.6% for varicella, and 15.5% for Td booster. Receiving counselling from occupational health physicians (OHPs) was associated with influenza (OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.5-2.2; P < 0.001), hepatitis B (OR = 4.9; 95%CI = 3.9-6.3; P < 0.001), varicella (OR = 43.7; 95%CI = 18.9-101.7; P < 0.001), MMR (OR = 8.8; 95%CI = 4.1-18.6; P < 0.001) and tetanus (OR = 50.5; 95%CI = 30.1-88.3; P < 0.001) vaccine uptake. OHPs should be trained with standard guidelines specific for healthcare settings and HCWs' risk groups to facilitate their crucial role in improving vaccine coverage among HCWs and increase awareness on the duty to protect both employees and patients.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics
  • Francesca Fortunato · Silvio Tafuri · Vanessa Cozza · Domenico Martinelli · Rosa Prato
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    ABSTRACT: Vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs) reduces the risk of occupational infections, prevents nosocomial transmission and maintains healthcare delivery during outbreaks. Despite the European directive and national legislation on workers' protection, immunization coverage among HCWs has often been very low. In light of Italian National Vaccination Plan 2012-2014 recommendations, the aim of this study was to assess levels of immunization and factors influencing adherence to vaccinations needed for HCWs in Puglia region, South Italy. The study was conducted using an interview-based standardized anonymous questionnaire administered to hospital employees in the period November 2009-March 2011. A total of 2198 health professionals responded in 51/69 Apulian hospitals (median age: 45 years; 65.2% nurses, 22.6% doctors and 12.2% other hospital personnel). Vaccination coverage was 24.8% for influenza, 70.1% for hepatitis B, 9.7% for MMR, 3.6% for varicella, and 15.5% for Td booster. Receiving counselling from occupational health physicians (OHPs) was associated with influenza (OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.5-2.2; P<0.001), hepatitis B (OR = 4.9; 95%CI = 3.9-6.3; P<0.001), varicella (OR = 43.7; 95%CI = 18.9-101.7; P<0.001), MMR (OR = 8.8; 95%CI = 4.1-18.6; P<0.001) and tetanus (OR = 50.5; 95%CI = 30.1-88.3; P<0.001) vaccine uptake. OHPs should be trained with standard guidelines specific for healthcare settings and HCWs' risk groups to facilitate their crucial role in improving vaccine coverage among HCWs and increase awareness on the duty to protect both employees and patients.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: In Italy, the introduction of Universal Varicella Vaccination (UVV) has been decided but postponed, as a national programme, until 2015, when data from Regions which have already implemented it will be available. Starting from 2003, eight Italian Regions (Basilicata, Calabria, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Apulia, Sardinia, Sicily, Tuscany and Veneto) have progressively introduced UVV, in their immunization programme, with different schedules in children aged 13-15 months and 5-6 years, currently a two-dose schedule is adopted by all Regions. In June 2013, an Interregional Group on Varicella Vaccination (IGVV) has been established in order to assess the effectiveness of varicella vaccination with standardized and shared tools. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of varicella vaccination on the incidence and hospitalizations due to varicella and its complications in the period 2003-2012 in order to support the Italian decision makers on the future national adoption. Preliminary data showed that a general reduction of incidence and hospitalization rates was observed in the study period, resulting in relevant savings for the National Health Service. Immunization coverage with first dose at 24 months of age was high in all Regions (84%-95%) in 2012. Adverse events due to varicella vaccines were rare and without permanent sequelae. Underreporting of varicella cases and delays in the administration of the first dose of varicella vaccines were the main critical issues. In conclusion, solid evidences in support of universal UVV arise from the experiences available today in Italy.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics

Publication Stats

702 Citations
294.36 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008-2015
    • Università degli studi di Foggia
      • Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences
      Foggia, Apulia, Italy
    • The Catholic University of America
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • University of Rome Tor Vergata
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2007-2013
    • Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro
      • Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche ed Oncologia Umana (DIMO)
      Bari, Apulia, Italy
  • 2010
    • Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo
      Bérgamo, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2009
    • University-Hospital of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy