[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations. Here we report completion of the project, having reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-coverage whole-genome sequencing, deep exome sequencing, and dense microarray genotyping. We characterized a broad spectrum of genetic variation, in total over 88 million variants (84.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 3.6 million short insertions/deletions (indels), and 60,000 structural variants), all phased onto high-quality haplotypes. This resource includes >99% of SNP variants with a frequency of >1% for a variety of ancestries. We describe the distribution of genetic variation across the global sample, and discuss the implications for common disease studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Generation of distinct cortical projection neuron subtypes during development relies in part on repression of alternative neuron identities. It was reported that the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (Satb2) is required for proper development of callosal neuron identity and represses expression of genes that are essential for subcerebral axon development. Surprisingly, Satb2 has recently been shown to be necessary for subcerebral axon development. Here, we unravel a previously unidentified mechanism underlying this paradox. We show that SATB2 directly activates transcription of forebrain embryonic zinc finger 2 (Fezf2) and SRY-box 5 (Sox5), genes essential for subcerebral neuron development. We find that the mutual regulation between Satb2 and Fezf2 enables Satb2 to promote subcerebral neuron identity in layer 5 neurons, and to repress subcerebral characters in callosal neurons. Thus, Satb2 promotes the development of callosal and subcerebral neurons in a cell context-dependent manner.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND
Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas (which together make up the lower-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) have highly variable clinical behavior that is not adequately predicted on the basis of histologic class. Some are indolent; others quickly progress to glioblastoma. The uncertainty is compounded by interobserver variability in histologic diagnosis. Mutations in IDH, TP53, and ATRX and codeletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q (1p/19q codeletion) have been implicated as clinically relevant markers of lower-grade gliomas.
We performed genomewide analyses of 293 lower-grade gliomas from adults, incorporating exome sequence, DNA copy number, DNA methylation, messenger RNA expression, microRNA expression, and targeted protein expression. These data were integrated and tested for correlation with clinical outcomes.
Unsupervised clustering of mutations and data from RNA, DNA-copy-number, and DNA-methylation platforms uncovered concordant classification of three robust, nonoverlapping, prognostically significant subtypes of lower-grade glioma that were captured more accurately by IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than by histologic class. Patients who had lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion had the most favorable clinical outcomes. Their gliomas harbored mutations in CIC, FUBP1, NOTCH1, and the TERT promoter. Nearly all lower-grade gliomas with IDH mutations and no 1p/19q codeletion had mutations in TP53 (94%) and ATRX inactivation (86%). The large majority of lower-grade gliomas without an IDH mutation had genomic aberrations and clinical behavior strikingly similar to those found in primary glioblastoma.
The integration of genomewide data from multiple platforms delineated three molecular classes of lower-grade gliomas that were more concordant with IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than with histologic class. Lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation either had 1p/19q codeletion or carried a TP53 mutation. Most lower-grade gliomas without an IDH mutation were molecularly and clinically similar to glioblastoma.
(Funded by the National Institutes of Health)
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adjacent alternative 3' splice sites, those separated by ≤18nt, provide a unique problem in the study of alternative splicing regulation; there is overlap of the cis-elements that define the adjacent sites. Identification of the intron's 3' end depends upon sequence elements that define the branchpoint, polypyrimidine tract and terminal AG dinucleotide. Starting with RNA-seq data from germline-enriched and somatic cell-enriched C. elegans samples, we identify hundreds of introns with adjacent alternative 3' splice sites. We identify 203 events that undergo tissue-specific alternative splicing. For these, the regulation is mono-directional, with somatic cells preferring to splice at the distal 3' splice site (furthest from the 5' end of the intron) and germline cells showing a distinct shift toward usage of the adjacent proximal 3' splice site (closer to the 5' end of the intron). Splicing patterns in somatic cells follow C. elegans consensus rules of 3' splice site definition; a short stretch of pyrimidines preceding an AG dinucleotide. Splicing in germline cells occurs at proximal 3' splice sites that lack a preceding polypyrimidine tract and in three instances the germline-specific site lacks the AG dinucleotide. We provide evidence that use of germline-specific proximal 3' splice sites is conserved across Caenorhabditis species. We propose that there are differences between germline and somatic cells in the way that the basal splicing machinery functions to determine the intron terminus.
Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Throughout evolution primate genomes have been modified by waves of retrotransposon insertions. For each wave, the host eventually finds a way to repress retrotransposon transcription and prevent further insertions. In mouse embryonic stem cells, transcriptional silencing of retrotransposons requires KAP1 (also known as TRIM28) and its repressive complex, which can be recruited to target sites by KRAB zinc-finger (KZNF) proteins such as murine-specific ZFP809 which binds to integrated murine leukaemia virus DNA elements and recruits KAP1 to repress them. KZNF genes are one of the fastest growing gene families in primates and this expansion is hypothesized to enable primates to respond to newly emerged retrotransposons. However, the identity of KZNF genes battling retrotransposons currently active in the human genome, such as SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA) and long interspersed nuclear element 1 (L1), is unknown. Here we show that two primate-specific KZNF genes rapidly evolved to repress these two distinct retrotransposon families shortly after they began to spread in our ancestral genome. ZNF91 underwent a series of structural changes 8-12 million years ago that enabled it to repress SVA elements. ZNF93 evolved earlier to repress the primate L1 lineage until ∼12.5 million years ago when the L1PA3-subfamily of retrotransposons escaped ZNF93's restriction through the removal of the ZNF93-binding site. Our data support a model where KZNF gene expansion limits the activity of newly emerged retrotransposon classes, and this is followed by mutations in these retrotransposons to evade repression, a cycle of events that could explain the rapid expansion of lineage-specific KZNF genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Investigating the mechanisms of action (MOAs) of bioactive compounds and the deconvolution of their cellular targets is an important and challenging undertaking. Drug resistance in model organisms such as S. cerevisiae has long been a means for discovering drug targets and MOAs. Strains are selected for resistance to a drug of interest, and the resistance mutations can often be mapped to the drug’s molecular target using classical genetic techniques. Here we demonstrate the use of next generation sequencing (NGS) to identify mutations that confer resistance to two well-characterized drugs, benomyl and rapamycin. Applying NGS to pools of drug-resistant mutants, we develop a simple system for ranking single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on their prevalence in the pool, and for ranking genes based on the number of SNPs that they contain. We clearly identified the known targets of benomyl (TUB2) and rapamycin (FPR1) as the highest-ranking genes under this system. The highest-ranking SNPs corresponded to specific amino acid changes that are known to confer resistance to these drugs. We also found that by screening in a pdr1Δ null background strain that lacks a transcription factor regulating the expression of drug efflux pumps, and by pre-screening mutants in a panel of unrelated anti-fungal agents, we were able to mitigate against the selection of multi-drug resistance (MDR) mutants. We call our approach “Mutagenesis to Uncover Targets by deep Sequencing, or “MUTseq”, and show through this proof-of-concept study its potential utility in characterizing MOAs and targets of novel compounds.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Molecular BioSystems
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genetic programs required for development of the cerebral cortex are under intense investigation. However, non-coding DNA elements that control the expression of developmentally important genes remain poorly defined. Here we investigate the regulation of Fezf2, a transcription factor that is necessary for the generation of deep-layer cortical projection neurons.
Using a combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) we mapped the binding of four deep-layer-enriched transcription factors previously shown to be important for cortical development. Building upon this we characterized the activity of three regulatory regions around the Fezf2 locus at multiple stages throughout corticogenesis. We identified a promoter that was sufficient for expression in the cerebral cortex, and enhancers that drove reporter gene expression in distinct forebrain domains, including progenitor cells and cortical projection neurons.
These results provide insight into the regulatory logic controlling Fezf2 expression and further the understanding of how multiple non-coding regulatory domains can collaborate to control gene expression in vivo.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Neural Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although histopathological diagnosis is essential in decision of therapeutic strategy for gliomas, sometimes the tumors diagnosed
in one histological entity show thoroughly different clinical courses. This phenomenon is believed to be due primarily to
the presence of the genetic subgroup. In fact, relationship between treatment response and certain genetic characteristics
is indicated (e.g. better chemosensitivity in glioma with losses of 1p/19q (−1p/19q)). It is highly likely that genetic classification
of glioma is useful to select the adjuvant treatment. Additionally, gain of 7q (+7q) and −1p/19q are early events in 2 distinct
tumor lineages, astrocytic tumors and oligodendroglial tumors, respectively, and these tumors obtain additional genetic aberration
(−9p, 10q) with tumor progression. On the other hand, concerning the tumors without +7q or −1p/19q, little is known about
clinically important genetic aberration. Therefore the study on such tumors could provide useful information for the prognosis
prediction and the determination of treatment strategy. METHODS: We selected 39 cases of gliomas without +7q or −1p/19q from
200 adult supratentorial glioma cases surgically treated and analyzed chromosomal DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs) by comparative
genomic hybridization (CGH) from 2005 to 2012. We correlated clinical features of these tumors with histological characteristics,
CNAs and IDH1 status. RESULTS: The clinical course of gliomas without +7q or −1p/19q was not correlated with additional genetic
aberration of -9p or 10q, which have been known as genetic markers for poor prognosis, and absence of +7q or −1p/19q was maintained
at the time of recurrence. The tumors without +7q or −1p/19q showed relatively favorable prognosis although mutation of IDH1
was infrequent in these tumors (35.8 %). CONCLUSION: The gliomas without +7q or −1p/19q have clinical features distinct from
the +7q and −1p/19q gliomas. Prognostic markers for each subgroups could help establish therapeutic strategy against the tumor.