Gary M Shaw

Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States

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Publications (420)1521.38 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To identify associations between second-trimester serum inflammatory biomarkers and preterm birth among obese women.Methods: In this nested case-control study, we compared 65 serum inflammatory biomarkers in obese women whose pregnancies resulted in early spontaneous preterm birth (<32 weeks gestation, n = 34) to obese women whose pregnancies resulted in term birth (n = 34). These women were selected from a larger population-based California cohort. Random forest and classification and regression tree techniques were employed to identify biomarkers of importance, and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression.Results: Random forest and classification and regression tree techniques found that soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (sVEGFR3), soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha-chain (sIL-2RA) and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (sTNFR1) were related to preterm birth. Using multivariable logistic regression to compare preterm cases and term controls, decreased serum levels of sVEGFR3 and increased serum levels of sIL-2RA and sTNFR1 were associated with increased risk of preterm birth among obese women, aOR = 3.2 (95% CI: 1.0–9.9), aOR = 2.8 (95% CI: 0.9–9.0), and aOR = 4.1 (95% CI: 1.2–14.1), respectively.Conclusions: In this pilot study, we identified three serum biomarkers indicative of inflammation to be associated with spontaneous preterm birth among obese women: sVEGFR3, sIL-2RA and sTNFR1.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background: We examined whether risks of 32 birth defects were higher than expected in the presence of overweight or obese body mass index (BMI) and low diet quality, based on estimating individual and joint effects of these factors and calculating relative excess risk due to interaction. Methods: Analyses included mothers of 20,250 cases with birth defects and 8617 population-based controls without birth defects born from 1997 to 2009 and interviewed for the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We used logistic regression to generate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) reflecting the combined effects of BMI and diet quality. We focused analyses on 16 birth defects (n = 11,868 cases, 8617 controls) for which initial results suggested an association with BMI or diet quality. Results: Relative to the reference group (normal weight women with not low diet quality, i.e., >lowest quartile), AORs for low diet quality among normal weight women tended to be >1, and AORs for overweight and obese women tended to be stronger among women who had low diet quality than not low diet quality. For 9/16 birth defects, AORs for obese women who had low diet quality-the group we hypothesized to have highest risk-were higher than other stratum-specific AORs. Most relative excess risk due to interactions were positive but small (<0.5), with confidence intervals that included zero. Conclusion: These findings provide evidence for the hypothesis of highest birth defect risks among offspring to women who are obese and have low diet quality but insufficient evidence for an interaction of these factors in their contribution to risk. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: We examined associations of birth defects with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications in California. Subjects included 367 cases representing five types of birth defects and 785 nonmalformed controls born 1997 to 2006. Methods: Associations with any versus no exposure to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for covariates. Overall, 46% of cases and 38% of controls were classified as exposed to pesticides within a 500 m radius of mother's address during a 3-month periconceptional window. Results: We estimated odds ratios (ORs) for 85 groups and 95 chemicals with five or more exposed cases and control mothers. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CI) excluded 1.0 for 11 ORs for groups and 22 ORs for chemicals, ranging from 1.9 to 3.1 for groups and 1.8 to 4.9 for chemicals except for two that were <1 (noted below). Conclusion: For groups, these ORs were for anotia/microtia (n = 95 cases) and dichlorophenoxy acids/esters and neonicotinoids; anorectal atresia/stenosis (n = 77) and alcohol/ethers and organophosphates (these ORs were < 1.0); transverse limb deficiencies (n = 59) and dichlorophenoxy acids/esters, petroleum derivatives, and triazines; and craniosynostosis (n = 79) and alcohol/ethers, avermectins, neonicotinoids, and organophosphates. For chemicals, ORs were: anotia/microtia and five pesticides from the groups dichlorophenoxy acids/esters, copper-containing compounds, neonicotinoids, organophosphates, and triazines; transverse limb deficiency and six pesticides - oxyfluorfen and pesticides from the groups copper-containing compounds, 2,6-dinitroanilines, neonicotinoids, petroleum derivatives and polyalkyloxy compounds; craniosynostosis and 10 pesticides - oxyfluorfen and pesticides from the groups alcohol/ethers, avermectins, n-methyl-carbamates, neonicotinoids, ogranophosphates (two chemicals), polyalkyloxy compounds (two chemicals), and pyrethroids; and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (n = 62) and a copper-containing compound. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To quantify the importance of successful endotracheal intubation on the first attempt among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants who require resuscitation after delivery. Study design: A retrospective chart review was conducted for all ELBW infants ⩽1000 g born between January 2007 and May 2014 at a level IV neonatal intensive care unit. Infants were included if intubation was attempted during the first 5 min of life or if intubation was attempted during the first 10 min of life with heart rate <100. The primary outcome was death or neurodevelopmental impairment. The association between successful intubation on the first attempt and the primary outcome was assessed using multivariable logistic regression with adjustment for birth weight, gestational age, gender and antenatal steroids. Results: The study sample included 88 ELBW infants. Forty percent were intubated on the first attempt and 60% required multiple intubation attempts. Death or neurodevelopmental impairment occurred in 29% of infants intubated on the first attempt, compared with 53% of infants that required multiple attempts, adjusted odds ratio 0.4 (95% confidence interval 0.1 to 1.0), P<0.05. Conclusion: Successful intubation on the first attempt is associated with improved neurodevelopmental outcomes among ELBW infants. This study confirms the importance of rapid establishment of a stable airway in ELBW infants requiring resuscitation after birth and has implications for personnel selection and role assignment in the delivery room.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 5 November 2015; doi:10.1038/jp.2015.158.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of perinatology: official journal of the California Perinatal Association
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    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Background We examined the association of maternal obesity with risk of stillbirth, focusing on whether the pattern of results varied by gestational age or maternal race-ethnicity or parity. Methods Analyses included 4,012 stillbirths and 1,121,234 liveborn infants delivered in California from 2007–2010. We excluded stillbirths due to congenital anomalies, women with hypertensive disorders or diabetes, and plural births, to focus on fetuses and women without these known contributing conditions. We used Poisson regression to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Separate models were run for stillbirths delivered at 20–23, 24–27, 28–31, 32–36, 37–41 weeks, relative to liveborn deliveries at 37–41 weeks. Results For stillbirth at 20–23 weeks, RRs were elevated for all race-ethnicity and parity groups. The RR for a 20-unit change in BMI (which reflects the approximate BMI difference between a normal weight and an Obese III woman) was 3.5 (95% CI 2.2, 5.6) for nulliparous white women and ranged from 1.8 to 5.0 for other sub-groups. At 24–27 weeks, the association was significant (p<0.05) only for multiparous non-Hispanic whites; at 28–31 weeks, for multiparous whites and nulliparous whites and blacks; at 32–36 weeks, for multiparous whites and nulliparous blacks; and at 37–41 weeks, for all groups except nulliparous blacks. The pattern of results was similar when restricted to stillbirths due to unknown causes and somewhat stronger when restricted to stillbirths attributable to obstetric causes. Conclusion Increased risks were observed across all gestational ages, and some evidence of heterogeneity of the associations was observed by race-ethnicity and parity.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Importance There is a well-described association between maternal diabetes mellitus and risk of congenital heart disease (CHD) in offspring. Although the clinical diagnoses of type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes are strong risk factors for CHD, subclinical abnormalities of glucose and insulin metabolism are common within the general population and could also confer risk for CHD. We hypothesize that continuous measures of blood analytes related to maternal diabetes are related to odds of cardiac malformations.Objective To explore the potential association of 2 different CHD phenotypes in offspring with maternal midpregnancy measures of glucose and insulin.Design, Setting, and Participants Case-control study from a population-based cohort of 277 pregnant women in southern and central California carrying infants with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (n = 55), dextrotransposition of the great arteries (dTGA) (n = 42), or healthy infants without CHD (n = 180). Serum samples were collected from 2003 through 2007. The analysis was conducted from March through June 2015.Main Outcomes and Measures Blood analytes related to maternal glucose metabolism were measured from random nonfasting second-trimester blood samples. We measured serum insulin levels by a validated radioimmunoassay, and we measured glucose levels. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated the association between these levels and case status.Results Serum glucose values were elevated in the maternal samples for offspring with TOF (median, 97.0 mg/dL [to convert to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.0555]) relative to controls (median, 91.5 mg/dL) (P = .01, Wilcoxon rank sum test), a phenomenon not observed in the maternal samples for offspring with dTGA (median, 90.0 mg/dL) relative to controls (P = .18, Wilcoxon rank sum test). Serum insulin levels were significantly different between controls (median, 18.8 μIU/mL [to convert to picomoles per liter, multiply by 6.945]) and maternal samples for offspring with dTGA (median, 13.1 μIU/mL; P = .048, Wilcoxon rank sum test) but not with TOF (median, 14.3 μIU/mL; P = .35, Wilcoxon rank sum test). Relative to maternal blood glucose levels of infants without cardiac malformations, we observed that maternal blood glucose levels in models including insulin were strongly associated with odds of TOF (adjusted odds ratio = 7.54; 95% CI, 2.30-24.69) but not with dTGA (adjusted odds ratio = 1.16; 95% CI, 0.28-4.79).Conclusions and Relevance These results represent a direct correlation of glucose as a continuous variable to odds of specific cardiac malformations. The association between serum glucose and odds of TOF indicates the need for additional epidemiological and mechanistic investigations into the risk conferred by insulin signaling and glucose metabolism during early pregnancy.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Environmental pollutants and neighbourhood socioeconomic factors have been associated with neural tube defects, but the potential impact of interaction between ambient air pollution and neighbourhood socioeconomic factors on the risks of neural tube defects is not well understood. Methods: We used data from the California Center of the National Birth Defects Study and the Children's Health and Air Pollution Study to investigate whether associations between air pollutant exposure in early gestation and neural tube defects were modified by neighbourhood socioeconomic factors in the San Joaquin Valley of California, 1997-2006. There were 5 pollutant exposures, 3 outcomes, and 9 neighbourhood socioeconomic factors included for a total of 135 investigated associations. Estimates were adjusted for maternal race-ethnicity, education, and multivitamin use. Results: We present below odds ratios (ORs) that exclude 1 and a chi-square test of homogeneity P-value of <0.05. We observed increased odds of spina bifida comparing the highest to lowest quartile of particulate matter <10 μm (PM10 ) among those living in a neighbourhood with: (i) median household income of less than $30 000 per year [OR 5.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7, 15.3]; (ii) more than 20% living below the federal poverty level (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1, 6.0); and (iii) more than 30% with less than or equal to a high school education (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4, 7.4). The ORs were not statistically significant among those higher socioeconomic status (SES) neighbourhoods. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate effect modification by neighbourhood socioeconomic factors in the association of particulate matter and neural tube defects in California.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate whether better diet quality in mothers is associated with lower risk for major non-syndromic congenital heart defects in their children. Design Multicentre population-based case–control study, the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Setting Ten sites in the USA. Participants Mothers of babies with major non-syndromic congenital heart defects (n=9885) and mothers with unaffected babies (n=9468) with estimated date of delivery from 1997 to 2009. Main outcome measures Adjusted ORs for specific major congenital heart defects by quartiles of maternal diet quality in the year before pregnancy, assessed by the Diet Quality Index for pregnancy (DQI-P) and the Mediterranean Diet Score. Quartile 1 (Q1) reflecting the worst diet quality and Q4 the best diet quality. Results Better diet quality was associated with reduced risk for some conotruncal and atrial septal heart defects. For DQI-P, estimated risks reductions (Q4 vs Q1) for conotruncal defects were 37% for tetralogy of Fallot (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.80) and 24% overall (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.91); and for septal defects, 23% for atrial septal defects (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.94) and 14% overall (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.00). Risk reductions were weaker or minimal for most other major congenital heart defects. Conclusions Better diet quality is associated with a reduced occurrence of some conotruncal and septal heart defects. This finding suggests that a reduction in certain cardiac malformations may be an additional benefit of improved maternal diet quality, reinforcing current preconception care recommendations.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the critical role of the human microbiota in health, our understanding of microbiota compositional dynamics during and after pregnancy is incomplete. We conducted a case-control study of 49 pregnant women, 15 of whom delivered preterm. From 40 of these women, we analyzed bacterial taxonomic composition of 3,767 specimens collected prospectively and weekly during gestation and monthly after delivery from the vagina, distal gut, saliva, and tooth/gum. Linear mixed-effects modeling, medoid-based clustering, and Markov chain modeling were used to analyze community temporal trends, community structure, and vaginal community state transitions. Microbiota community taxonomic composition and diversity remained remarkably stable at all four body sites during pregnancy (P > 0.05 for trends over time). Prevalence of a Lactobacillus-poor vaginal community state type (CST 4) was inversely correlated with gestational age at delivery (P = 0.0039). Risk for preterm birth was more pronounced for subjects with CST 4 accompanied by elevated Gardnerella or Ureaplasma abundances. This finding was validated with a set of 246 vaginal specimens from nine women (four of whom delivered preterm). Most women experienced a postdelivery disturbance in the vaginal community characterized by a decrease in Lactobacillus species and an increase in diverse anaerobes such as Peptoniphilus, Prevotella, and Anaerococcus species. This disturbance was unrelated to gestational age at delivery and persisted for up to 1 y. These findings have important implications for predicting premature labor, a major global health problem, and for understanding the potential impact of a persistent, altered postpartum microbiota on maternal health, including outcomes of pregnancies following short interpregnancy intervals.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: To study the relationship between maternal asthma and the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Using a large population-based California cohort, we investigated associations between maternal asthma and preterm birth subtype, as well as maternal asthma and BPD. We used data from 2007-2010 maternal delivery discharge records of 2 009 511 pregnancies and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Preterm birth was defined as <37 weeks gestational age (GA), with subgroups of <28 weeks, 28-32 weeks, and 33-37 weeks GA, as well as preterm subtype, defined as spontaneous, medically indicated, or unknown. Linkage between the 2 California-wide datasets yielded 21 944 singleton preterm infants linked to their mother's records, allowing estimation of the risk of BPD in mothers with asthma and those without asthma. Maternal asthma was associated with increased odds (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.38-1.46) of preterm birth at <37 weeks GA, with the greatest risk for 28-32 GA (aOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.47-1.74). Among 21 944 preterm infants, we did not observe an elevated risk for BPD in infants born to mothers with asthma (aOR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.9-1.2). Stratification by maternal treatment with antenatal steroids revealed increased odds of BPD in infants whose mothers had asthma but did not receive antenatal steroids (aOR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.15-2.06), but not in infants whose mothers had asthma and were treated with antenatal steroids (aOR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.67-1.07). Asthma in mothers who did not receive antenatal steroid treatment is associated with an increased risk of BPD in their preterm infants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Journal of pediatrics

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Annals of epidemiology
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Single-cell technologies have immense potential to shed light on molecular and biological processes that drive human diseases. Mass cytometry (or Cytometry by Time Of Flight mass spectrometry, CyTOF) has already been employed in clinical studies to comprehensively survey patients' circulating immune system. As interest in the "bedside" application of mass cytometry is growing, the delineation of relevant methodological issues is called for. This report uses a newly generated dataset to discuss important methodological considerations when mass cytometry is implemented in a clinical study. Specifically, the use of whole blood samples versus peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), design of mass-tagged antibody panels, technical and analytical implications of sample barcoding, and application of traditional and unsupervised approaches to analyze high-dimensional mass cytometry datasets are discussed. A mass cytometry assay was implemented in a cross-sectional study of 19 women with a history of term or preterm birth to determine whether immune traits in peripheral blood differentiate the two groups in the absence of pregnancy. Twenty-seven phenotypic and 11 intracellular markers were simultaneously analyzed in whole blood samples stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS at 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ng mL-1) to examine dose-dependent signaling responses within the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway. Complementary analyses, grounded in traditional or unsupervised gating strategies of immune cell subsets, indicated that the prpS6 and pMAPKAPK2 responses in classical monocytes are accentuated in women with a history of preterm birth (FDR<1%). The results suggest that women predisposed to preterm birth may be prone to mount an exacerbated TLR4 response during the course of pregnancy. This important hypothesis-generating finding points to the power of single-cell mass cytometry to detect biologically important differences in a relatively small patient cohort.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Cytometry Part A
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    ABSTRACT: In Scandinavia, delivery of a first-born son elevates the risk of preterm delivery and intrauterine growth restriction of the next-born infant. External validity of these results remains unclear. We test this hypothesis for preterm delivery and growth restriction using the linked California birth cohort file. We examined the hypothesis separately by race and/or ethnicity. We retrieved data on 2,852,976 births to 1,426,488 mothers with at least two live births. Our within-mother tests applied Cox proportional hazards (preterm delivery, defined as less than 37 weeks gestation) and linear regression models (birth weight for gestational age percentiles). For non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, Asians, and American Indian and/or Alaska Natives, analyses indicate heightened risk of preterm delivery and growth restriction after a first-born male. The race-specific hazard ratios for preterm delivery range from 1.07 to 1.18. Regression coefficients for birth weight for gestational age percentile range from -0.73 to -1.49. The 95% confidence intervals for all these estimates do not contain the null. By contrast, we could not reject the null for non-Hispanic black mothers. Whereas California findings generally support those from Scandinavia, the null results among non-Hispanic black mothers suggest that we do not detect adverse outcomes after a first-born male in all racial and/or ethnic groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Annals of epidemiology

Publication Stats

12k Citations
1,521.38 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009-2016
    • Stanford University
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Neonatal and Developmental Medicine
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 2009-2015
    • Stanford Medicine
      • • Division of Neonatal and Developmental Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Pediatric Neurology Clinic
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • Division of Nutritional Sciences
      Austin, Texas, United States
  • 2005-2009
    • Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute
      Oakland, California, United States
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1996-2009
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • School of Public Health
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1995-2009
    • Children's Hospital & Research Center Oakland
      Oakland, California, United States
  • 1990-2009
    • March of Dimes Foundation
      White Plains, New York, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Arkansas at Little Rock
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
  • 2002-2006
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • School of Public Health
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Nebraska at Omaha
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
  • 1998-2002
    • Texas A&M University
      College Station, Texas, United States
  • 1999
    • Washington State Department of Health
      Olympia, Washington, United States
    • McGill University
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
  • 1993
    • Battelle Memorial Institute
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 1988
    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
      • Environmental Energy Technologies Division
      Berkeley, California, United States