[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although genetic and environmental factors explain approximately half of the interindividual variability in warfarin dose requirement in adults, there is limited information available in children. In a cross-sectional study of anticoagulated children from 5 tertiary care centers, 120 children with a stable warfarin dose were genotyped for VKORC1 (-1639G > A; rs9923231), CYP2C9 (*2 and *3 alleles; rs1799853 and rs1057910), and CYP4F2 (V433M; rs2108622) polymorphisms. Clinical and demographic features were recorded. Multiple regression analysis of the data showed that, although CYP4F2 made no contribution to the dose model, 72.4% of the variability in warfarin dose requirement is attributed to by patient height, genetic polymorphisms in VKORC1 and CYP2C9, and indication for warfarin. The recently published International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium pharmacogenetic-based warfarin dosing algorithm (based on data derived from anticoagulated adults) consistently overestimated warfarin dose for our cohort of children. A similar proportion of the interindividual variability in warfarin dose is explained by genetic factors in children compared with adult patients, although height is a greater predictor in children. A pharmacogenomic approach to warfarin dosing has the potential to improve the efficacy and safety of warfarin therapy in children. However, algorithms should be derived from data in children if their potential benefit is to be realized.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the cause of mild mucocutaneous bleeding in a 14-year-old male patient (P1). Platelet aggregation and ATP secretion induced by arachidonic acid and the thromboxane A(2) receptor (TxA(2)R) agonist U46619 were reduced in P1 compared with controls, whereas the responses to other platelet agonists were retained. P1 was heterozygous for a transversion within the TBXA2R gene predictive of a D304N substitution in the TxA(2)R. In Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells expressing the variant D304N TxA(2)R, U46619 did not increase cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration, indicating loss of receptor function. The TxA(2)R antagonist [(3)H]-SQ29548 showed an approximate 50% decrease in binding to platelets from P1 but absent binding to Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells expressing variant D304N TxA(2)R. This is the second naturally occurring TxA(2)R variant to be associated with platelet dysfunction and the first in which loss of receptor function is associated with reduced ligand binding. D304 lies within a conserved NPXXY motif in transmembrane domain 7 of the TxA(2)R that is a key structural element in family A G protein-coupled receptors. Our demonstration that the D304N substitution causes clinically significant platelet dysfunction by reducing ligand binding establishes the importance of the NPXXY motif for TxA(2)R function in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inherited platelet disorders are an uncommon cause of symptomatic bleeding. They may be difficult to diagnose (and are likely to be under-diagnosed) and pose problems in management. This review discusses the inherited platelet disorders summarising the current state of the art with respect to investigation and diagnosis and suggests how to manage bleeding manifestations with particular attention to surgical interventions and the management of pregnancy.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pseudo-von Willebrand disease (p-VWD) and type 2B von Willebrand disease (VWD) have similar phenotypic parameters and clinical symptoms, but different aetiologies. Fourteen individuals from five families with a historical diagnosis of type 2B VWD but with no mutation in the von Willebrand factor gene were re-investigated for the possibility of p-VWD, using platelet aggregation in the presence of cryoprecipitate. p-VWD was confirmed by targeted DNA sequencing of the glycoprotein Ibalpha gene, identifying a heterozygous Glycine 233 Valine substitution. This study suggests that p-VWD may be under diagnosed, and that platelet aggregation in the presence of cryoprecipitate is useful in differentiating this disorder from type 2B VWD.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bleeding problems are associated with defects in platelet alpha-granules, yet little is known about how these granules are formed and released. Mutations affecting VPS33B, a novel Sec1/Munc18 protein, have recently been linked to arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis (ARC) syndrome. We have characterized platelets from patients with ARC syndrome and observed reduced aggregation with arachidonate and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Structural abnormalities seen in ARC platelets included increased platelet size, a pale appearance in blood films, elevated numbers of delta-granules, and completely absent alpha-granules. Soluble and membrane-bound alpha-granule proteins were significantly decreased or undetectable in ARC platelets, suggesting that both the releasable protein pools and membrane components of alpha-granules were absent. The role of VPS33B in platelet granule biogenesis was evaluated by immunofluorescence microscopy in normal human megakaryocytes. VPS33B colocalized appreciably with markers of alpha-granules, moderately with late endosomes/lysosomes, minimally with delta-granules/lysosomes, and not with cis-Golgi complexes. VPS33B protein expression determined by immunoblotting confirmed the presence of VPS33B in control fibroblasts but not in ARC fibroblasts, and in normal megakaryocytes but not in platelets. We conclude that like other Sec1/Munc18 proteins, VPS33B is involved in intracellular vesicle trafficking, being essential for the development of platelet alpha-granules but not for granule secretion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: These guidelines address developmental aspects of neonatal haemostasis and thrombosis, the laboratory investigation of the neonate, and the diagnosis and clinical management of haemostatic and thrombotic conditions occurring in this period (defined as the first 4 weeks of life following birth). Relevant scientific papers were identified by a systematic literature review from Medline 1975-2000 using index terms which incorporated the various component subjects of these guidelines. Further publications were obtained from the references cited and from reviews known to the members of the working party and to the Haemostasis and Thrombosis Task Force. Evidence and graded recommendations presented in these guidelines are in accordance with the US Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, as described in the Appendix. It will be noted that there is a lack of a strong evidence base for many of the recommendations suggested, as the appropriate clinical and laboratory trials have not been and perhaps never will be undertaken in neonates. Most of the recommendations are therefore of Grade C evidence levels IV: higher levels are mentioned specifically throughout the document when relevant.
Preview · Article · Dec 2002 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is caused by an absolute deficiency of von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease. The recent identification of this protease and the development of assays for its detection have enabled its quantification in a number of plasma products, including some commercial intermediate-purity plasma-derived factor VIII preparations. We report the successful, weekly prophylactic use of a commercial intermediate-purity plasma-derived factor VIII concentrate in the treatment of a 14-year-old girl with severe congenital TTP who had previously required transfusions of fresh-frozen plasma every 2 weeks from the age of 4 months.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2002 · British Journal of Haematology