Toni Rikkonen

University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Eastern Finland Province, Finland

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Publications (38)114.35 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary protein intake might be beneficial to physical function (PF) in the elderly. We examined the cross-sectional and prospective associations of protein intake of g/kg body weight (BW), fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) with PF in 554 women aged 65·3-71·6 years belonging to the Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Fracture Prevention Study. Participants filled a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and 3-d food record in 2002. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and PF measures were performed at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Sarcopaenia was defined using European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria. At the baseline, women with higher protein intake (≥1·2 g/kg BW) had better performance in hand-grip strength/body mass (GS/BM) (P=0·001), knee extension/BM (P=0·003), one-leg stance (P=0·047), chair rise (P=0·043), squat (P=0·019), squat to the ground (P=0·001), faster walking speed for 10 m (P=0·005) and higher short physical performance battery score (P=0·004) compared with those with moderate and lower intakes (0·81-1·19 and ≤0·8 g/kg BW, respectively). In follow-up results, higher protein intake was associated with less decline in GS/BM, one-leg stance and tandem walk for 6 m over 3 years. Overall, results were no longer significant after controlling for FM. Associations were detected between protein intake and PF in non-sarcopaenic women but not in sarcopaenic women, except for change of GS (P=0·037). Further, FM but not LM was negatively associated with PF measures (P<0·050). This study suggests that higher protein intake and lower FM might be positively associated with PF in elderly women.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The British journal of nutrition
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    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To investigate the relationships of severe health disorders (SHD) with bone loss, grip strength (GS) and mobility in postmenopausal women. Method: The study sample consisted of 2227 Finnish women (mean age 53.2) from the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention (OSTPRE) cohort. Postal inquiries and clinical measurements were completed during the 15-year follow-up at 5-year intervals between 1989 and 2004. Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) and GS were measured. Life-style factors and mobility were obtained via postal inquiries. Work disability pension according to the ICD-9 was an indicator of a SHD. Results: At the baseline 242 women had SHD, 506 got late SHD during 1989-1995, whereas 1479 women had none until 1996. The women with baseline SHD had higher annual bone loss (0.44%) than those without SHD (0.34%) (p < 0.05), those with late SHD (0.39%) no difference was seen. Bone loss was highest with respiratory diseases, but BMD was lowest throughout the follow-up in nervous and sense organ diseases. Lower GS and mobility was also associated with SHD. Conclusion: Effects of SHDs on BMD, GS, and mobility are disease-specific. Thus, rehabilitation should be encouraged in postmenopausal women with SHD, especially in case of diseases of respiratory and nervous system. Implications for Rehabilitation Osteoporosis, muscle strength and co-morbidity Women with severe health disorders (SHD) leading to work disability have impaired musculoskeletal health. Active monitoring of the musculoskeletal health is advised for those with SHD. Women with SHD may benefit from rehabilitative treatment in order to avoid complications of musculoskeletal impairments.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Disability and Rehabilitation
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low protein intake can lead to declined lean mass (LM) in elderly. We examined the associations of total protein (TP), animal protein (AP) and plant protein (PP) intakes with LM. The association of TP intake with LM change was further evaluated according to weight change status. This cross-sectional and prospective cohort study included 554 women aged 68 ( sd 1·9) years from the Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention – Fracture Prevention Study (OSTPRE-FPS). The intervention group ( n 270) received daily cholecalciferol (800 IU; 20 μg) and Ca (1000 mg) for 3 years while the control group received neither supplementation nor placebo ( n 282). Participants filled out a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and a 3-d food record in 2002 and underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition measurements at baseline and 3 years. Multiple linear regressions evaluated the association between protein intake and LM, adjusting for relevant covariates. At the baseline TP and AP intakes were positively associated with LM and trunk LM, TP was associated also with appendicular LM (aLM). Follow-up results showed that in the total population and the intervention group, higher TP and AP were associated with increased LM and aLM ( P ≤ 0·050). No such associations were observed in the control group. PP intake was also associated with aLM change in the total population. Overall, the associations were independent of fat mass. Further, among weight maintainers, TP intake was positively associated with LM, aLM and trunk LM changes ( P ≤ 0·020). In conclusion, dietary TP, especially AP, intake may be a modifiable risk factor for sarcopenia by preserving LM in the elderly.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
  • No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives Higher vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) has been found to be related with lumbar disc degeneration (LDD), while relationship between femoral neck BMD and LDD remains controversial. The aim of our research was to study the relationship between LDD and BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Study design The study population consisted of 168 postmenopausal women (aged 63.3–75.0 years, mean 68.6 years) from the prospective OSTPRE and OSTPRE-FPS study cohorts. The severity of LDD was graded from T2-weighted MRI images using the five-grade Pfirrmann classification. Four vertebral levels (L1-L4) were studied (total 672 discs). The association between lumbar BMD and Z-score and the severity of LDD was studied separately for each vertebral level with AN(C)OVA analysis, using potential confounders as covariates. Results Higher lumbar BMD and Z-score were associated with more severe LDD at all studied levels (L1-L4): between L4-L5 disc and L4 BMD (p = 0.044) and L4 Z-score (p = 0.052), between L2-L3 disc and L3 BMD (p = 0.001) and at all other levels (p < 0.001). The mean degeneration grade of the studied discs was associated with the mean L1-L4 BMD and Z-score (p < 0.001). Statistical significance of any result did not alter after controlling for confounding factors. There was no significant association between femoral neck BMD and LDD. Conclusions Higher lumbar BMD/Z-score were associated with more severe LDD. There was no significant association between femoral neck BMD and disc degeneration. Femoral neck BMD may be a more reliable measurement for diagnosing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with degenerative changes in the lumbar spine.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Maturitas
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives Atherosclerosis (AS) and osteoporosis are common diseases in elderly people and may be metabolically related. The aim of this cross-sectional population-based study was to explore the association between common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT), carotid artery calcification (CAC), and BMD in postmenopausal women. In addition, the association of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) and selected diseases with cIMT and carotid calcification was studied. Study design: The 290 women (mean age 73.6 years) included in this BoneBrainAtherosclerosis study (OSTPRE-BBA) were randomly selected from the population-based Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention (OSTPRE) study cohort, Finland. Main outcome measures: For this cross-sectional study, cIMT was measured with B-mode ultrasound; femoral neck and total body BMD were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results There were no statistically significant associations between mean cIMT and femoral neck T-score (p > 0.05). However, an increased maximum cIMT was significantly associated with low femoral neck T-score. In the osteoporotic group (T-score <-2.5, n = 20), the maximum cIMT was 2.51 ± 0.88 mm (mean ± SD); in the normal BMD group (T-score >-1, n = 122), it was 1.93 ± 0.64 mm (p = 0.001). The odds of having CAC were approximately four-fold higher in the osteoporotic group compared with the group with a normal femoral neck T-score (odds ratio [OR] = 4.2, p = 0.038). The maximum cIMT was smaller in HT users (1.98 ± 0.56 mm, n = 190) than in non-users (2.16 ± 0.74 mm, n = 156, p = 0.036). Conclusions The results of our population-based study suggest that BMD is related to AS, at least in carotid arteries. They indirectly support the hypothesis of partially shared pathophysiological mechanisms between these two disorders.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Maturitas
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimCorticosteroids have harmful dose-dependent effects on bone metabolism and growth. This study used a new method for volumetric measurements to evaluate the association between inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for asthma and bone mineral density (BMD) in school-aged children. Methods We evaluated children hospitalised for wheezing at the age of <24 months at 12.3 years (median). Volumetric BMD (vBMD) was measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) from the distal tibia and radius in 82 children. Data on ICSs used were collected from hospital records and parent interviews. Cumulative doses and the duration of ICS therapy were calculated. ResultsGirls had higher total and cortical vBMD in the tibia than boys. Pubertal children had higher total and cortical vBMD in the radius than pre-pubertal children. Higher cumulative doses of ICSs were associated with lower total (r= -0.175, adjusted p= 0.016), cortical (r= -0.138, adjusted p= 0.016) and trabecular (r= -0.156, adjusted p= 0.039) vBMD in the radius, but not in the tibia. Age, weight, or the cumulative dose of systemic corticosteroids had no significant associations with vBMD. Conclusion Although correlations between cumulative ICS doses and vBMD were weak, ICS use during childhood may reduce BMD in the radius at school age.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Acta Paediatrica
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the role of muscle strength, lean tissue distribution, and overall body composition as indicators of osteoporosis (OP) in a pooled sample of 979 Finnish postmenopausal women (mean age 68.1 years) from the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention study. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck (FN) and total body composition were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. The women (n = 979) were divided into three groups according to WHO criteria, based on FN BMD T score: normal (n = 474), osteopenia (n = 468), and OP (n = 37). Soft tissue proportions, fat mass index (FMI, fat/height²), lean mass index (LMI, lean/height²), and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM, (arms + legs)/height²) were calculated. Handgrip and knee extension strength measurements were made. OP subjects had significantly smaller LMI (p = 0.001), ASM (p = 0.001), grip strength (p < 0.0001), and knee extension strength (p < 0.05) but not FMI (p > 0.05) compared to other subjects. Grip and knee extension strength were 19 and 16 % weaker in OP women compared to others, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 69 % for grip and 71 % for knee extension strength. In tissue proportions only LMI showed predictive power (63 %, p = 0.016). An overall linear association of LMI (R 2 = 0.007, p = 0.01) and FMI (R 2 = 0.028, p < 0.001) with FN BMD remained significant. In the multivariate model, after adjusting for age, grip strength, leg extension strength, FMI, LMI, number of medications, alcohol consumption, current smoking, dietary calcium intake, and hormone therapy, grip strength (adjusted OR = 0.899, 95 % CI 0.84–0.97, p < 0.01), leg extension strength (OR = 0.998, 95 % CI 0.99–1, p < 0.05), and years of hormone therapy (OR = 0.905, 95 % CI 0.82–1, p < 0.05) remained as significant determinants of OP. Muscle strength tests, especially grip strength, serve as an independent and useful tool for postmenopausal OP risk assessment. In addition, lean mass contributes to OP in this age group. Muscle strength and lean mass should be considered separately since both are independently associated with postmenopausal BMD.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Calcified Tissue International
  • No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2012
  • No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2012
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    Full-text · Chapter · Jan 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the health risks of excess body weight in the light of its protective effects on bone fragility. Femoral neck and lumbar spine dual X-ray absorptiometry was performed for 1970 Finnish women with a mean baseline age of 58.8 years (range 53.1-65.7 years) in 1994 and 2004. Women were categorized according to baseline BMI into normal <25 kg/m2, overweight 25-29.9 kg/m(2) and obese ≥30 kg/m(2). Weight change (kg) was categorized into tertiles. Co-morbidities, not allowed to be present at baseline, was based on self-reports. Osteoporosis was defined as femoral neck or spinal (L2-L4) T-score <-2.5 SD at 10-year follow-up or <-2.0 SD+low trauma energy follow-up fracture. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the 10-year risk of incident health disorders. Adjustment for age, number of diseases, alcohol intake and smoking was used in the multivariate models. Obesity (Ob) and overweight (Ow) were related with higher 10-year risk of hypertension (OR=2.6 (Ob)/OR=1.7 (Ow), p<0.001), coronary artery disease (OR=1.6, p<0.05/OR=1.2, p=NS), diabetes (OR=11.7/OR=5.3, p<0.001), osteoarthritis (OR=1.4, p<0.05/OR=1.1, p=NS), chronic back pain (OR=1.6, p=0.007/OR=1.2, p=NS) and poor self-rated health (OR=2.4, p<0.05/OR=1.5, p=NS) and lower risk of osteoporosis (OR=0.13/OR=0.28, p<0.001). Weight change of less than +1 kg was associated 1.8 and 2.6 times lower 10-year risk of having hypertension and breast cancer than weight change over 6.2 kg. Among obese women the absolute risk increase of hypertension was 17%, of diabetes 12%, and absolute risk reduction of osteoporosis 14% in comparison to BMI <25 kg/m(2). Health related risks of high BMI outweigh its protective effects on bone. Weight gain increases the risk hypertension and breast cancer.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Maturitas
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: About 75% of patients suffering from osteoporosis are not diagnosed. This study describes a multi-site bone ultrasound method for osteoporosis diagnostics. In comparison with axial dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the ultrasound method showed good diagnostic performance and could discriminate fracture subjects among elderly females. Axial DXA, the gold standard diagnostic method for osteoporosis, predicts fractures only moderately. At present, no reliable diagnostic methods are available at the primary health care level. Here, a multi-site ultrasound method is proposed for osteoporosis diagnostics. Thirty elderly women were examined using the ultrasound backscatter measurements in proximal femur, proximal radius, proximal and distal tibia in vivo. First, we predicted the areal bone mineral density (BMD) at femoral neck by ultrasound measurements in tibia combined with specific subject characteristics (density index, DI) and, second, we tested the ability of ultrasound backscatter measurements at proximal femur to discriminate between individuals with previously fractured hips from those without fractures. Areal BMD was determined by axial DXA. Combined ultrasound parameters, cortical thickness at distal and proximal tibia, with age and weight of the subject, provided a significant estimate of BMD(neck) (r = 0.86, p < 0.001, n = 30). When inserted into FRAX (World Health Organization fracture risk assessment tool), the DI indicated the same treatment proposal as the BMD(neck) with 86% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The receiver operating characteristic analyses, with a combination of ultrasound parameters and patient characteristics, discriminated fracture subjects from the controls similarly as the model combining BMD(neck) and patient characteristics. For the first time, ultrasound backscatter measurements of proximal femur were conducted in vivo. The results indicate that ultrasound parameters, combined with patient characteristics, may provide a means for osteoporosis diagnostics.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Osteoporosis International
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    Full-text · Chapter · Jan 2011
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the bone health related factors that were associated with the use of bisphosphonates (BP) among 2,050 postmenopausal Finnish women. Low BMD + low trauma energy fracture was the strongest determinant of BP use, while other secondary causes of osteoporosis were less strongly related with BP use. BP use was associated with reduced femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) bone loss rate. The aim was to identify bone health related factors associated with the use of BP in a community setting. A population-based sample of 2,050 Finnish postmenopausal women was measured with dual X-ray absorptiometry at the FN and LS in 1989, 1994, 1999 and 2004, and information on osteoporosis risk factors, including low-trauma energy fractures, were collected with postal inquiries. Self-reported use of BP in 2004 was considered as the end point variable. Among BP users, 12% had T-score > -2.0 SD and no fracture during follow-up (FU). In women without any bone medication, 26% had T-score < -2.0 SD or low-trauma energy fracture or both during the FU. In BP users, a significant reduction in FN and LS bone loss rate, cumulative with duration of use, was observed in ANCOVA (p < 0.001). Among BP users, there was a significantly higher proportion of women with several independent risk factors for osteoporosis and more spine and humerus fractures but less ankle fractures. T-score < -2 SD combined with low-trauma energy fracture was significantly related to the use of BPs (p < 0.001, OR = 15.96) and T-score < -2 SD was a stronger predictor of BP use (p < 0.001, OR = 13.29) than fracture (p > 0.05, OR = 1.35) in multivariate logistic regression. Other factors related with BP use were vitamin D use (p = 0.001, OR = 2.27), high number of medications (p < 0.001, OR = 1.26) and rheumatoid arthritis (p < 0.05, OR 2.55). These findings reveal the recent bone health-related indications for BP prescription.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Osteoporosis International
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Results on fracture risk among physically active persons are contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term association between the self-reported physical activity (PA), the risk of fractures, and bone loss among peri- and postmenopausal women. The association between PA and fracture risk was examined during 15 years of follow-up in the population-based Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention (OSTPRE) Study among 8560 women with a mean age of 52.2 years (range 47 to 56 years) at baseline. The amount and type of PA, as well as the types and mechanisms of fractures, were registered with self-administered questionnaires at 5-year intervals (ie, 1989, 1994, 1999, and 2004). A total of 2641 follow-up fractures were verified in 2073 women (24.2%). The study cohort was divided into quartiles by average hours of reported PA during the whole follow-up. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the proximal femur (n = 2050) and lumbar spine (L(2)-L(4); n = 1417) was followed at 5-year intervals from a random stratified subsample with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Risk of fracture was estimated by using the Cox proportional hazards model with a mean follow-up time of 15.2 years. Weekly average time spent on leisure-time PA was 0.4, 1.7, 3.3, and 7.0 hours from the least to the most active quartiles, respectively. The risk of wrist fracture was higher in the active quartiles (II to IV) than in the most inactive quartile (I), with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.57, p = .014] for the second (II), 1.2 (95% CI 1.01-1.51, p = .045) for the third (III), and 1.4 (95% CI 1.14-1.69, p = .001) for the fourth (IV) quartile, respectively. Overall, most of the fractures were reported as a result of a fall (69.0%), with a 2.1 times higher rate of wrist fractures during the winter (November to April) than during summer season. There were no significant associations of PA with any other fracture types. Bone loss at the femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward's triangle was significantly associated with long-term PA (ANCOVA p < .05), whereas no associations of bone loss and PA in lumbar spine were seen. PA is associated with a moderate rise in wrist fracture risk, which might be explained in part by a higher number of outdoor activities. Regular PA of at least 1½ hours per week does not seem to increase the risk of other fractures and might significantly decrease proximal femur bone loss among peri- and postmenopausal women.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antifracture efficacy of high-dose vitamin D (800 IU) and calcium (1000 mg) remains controversial. To determine whether daily 800 IU of vitamin D and 1000 mg of calcium supplementation prevents fractures, we randomized 3432 women of the population-based Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention (OSTPRE) Study cohort (ages 65 to 71 years) living in the region of northern Savonia, Finland (latitude 62 degrees to 64 degrees N) for 3 years to receive 800 IU of cholecalciferol and 1000 mg of calcium as calcium carbonate or to a control group that did not receive placebo. The main outcome measure was incident fractures. Fracture data were collected in telephone interviews and validated. Data on 3195 women, 1586 in the intervention group and 1609 in the control group, were available for analysis. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, the risk of any fracture decreased in the vitamin D and calcium group by 17% [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-1.12], and the risk of any nonvertebral fracture decreased by 13% (aHR = 0.87; 95% CI 0.63-1.19). The risk of distal forearm fractures decreased by 30% (aHR = 0.70; 95% CI 0.41-1.20), and the risk of any upper extremity fractures decreased by 25% (aHR = 0.75; 95% CI 0.49-1.16), whereas the risk of lower extremity fractures remained essentially equal (aHR = 1.02; 95% CI 0.58-1.80). None of these effects reached statistical significance. In conclusion, this study did not produce statistically significant evidence that vitamin D and calcium supplementation prevents fractures in a 65- to 71-year-old general population of postmenopausal women.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
  • O. Riekkinen · T. Rikkonen · J. Toyras · H. Kroger · J. Jurvelin
    No preview · Conference Paper · May 2010
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hypothesis was that the calcium and vitamin D supplementation prevents falls at the population level.Study design: The OSTPRE-FPS was a randomized population-based open-trial with 3-year follow-up. The supplementation group (n=1566) received daily cholecalciferol 800IU+calcium carbonate 1000mg, while the control group (n=1573) received no supplementation or placebo. A randomly selected subsample of 593 subjects underwent a detailed measurement program including serum 25(OH)D measurements. The occurrence of falls was the primary outcome of the study. The participants in the subsample were telephoned at 4 months intervals and the rest of the trial population was interviewed by phone once a year. In the entire trial population (ETP), there were 812 women with 1832 falls in the intervention group and 833 women with 1944 falls in the control group (risk ratio was 0.98, 95% CI 0.92-1.05, P=0.160). The supplementation was not associated with single or multiple falls in the ETP. However, in the subsample, multiple fall incidence decreased by 30% (odds ratio (OR) 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.97, P=0.034) in the supplementation group. Further, the supplementation decreased the incidence of multiple falls requiring medical attention (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.53-0.97, P=0.031) in the ETP. The mean compliance in the entire trial population was 78% and in the subsample 79%. Overall, the primary analysis showed no association between calcium and vitamin D supplementation and risk of falls. However, the results of a post hoc analysis suggested that there was a decreased risk of multiple falls requiring medical attention: this finding requires confirmation.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Maturitas