[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) family of serine-threonine phosphatases contributes to human cell transformation. Depletion of PP2A complexes containing the PP2A B56gamma regulatory subunit in immortalized human cells induces cell transformation in vitro. To examine the function of PP2A B56gamma complexes, we applied tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry to detect proteins that bind to PP2A B56gamma. We identified liprin alpha1 as a novel PP2A B56gamma interacting protein. B56gamma-liprin alpha1 complexes are distinct from PP2A complexes containing B56gamma. Consistent with this finding, liprin alpha1 does not directly contribute to cell transformation. However, suppression of liprin alpha1 by RNA interference alters cell morphology. These findings suggest a novel role for PP2A B56gamma independent of its regulation of PP2A activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) family of serine-threonine phosphatases contributes to human cell transformation. Depletion of PP2A complexes containing the PP2A B56γ regulatory subunit in immortalized human cells induces cell transformation in vitro. To examine the function of PP2A B56γ complexes, we applied tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry to detect proteins that bind to PP2A B56γ. We identified liprin α1 as a novel PP2A B56γ interacting protein. B56γ-liprin α1 complexes are distinct from PP2A complexes containing B56γ. Consistent with this finding, liprin α1 does not directly contribute to cell transformation. However, suppression of liprin α1 by RNA interference alters cell morphology. These findings suggest a novel role for PP2A B56γ independent of its regulation of PP2A activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Author Summary
The study of how DNA tumor viruses induce malignant transformation has led to the identification of key pathways that also play a role in spontaneously arising cancers. One such virus, simian virus 40 (SV40), produces two proteins, the large T and small t antigens, that bind and inactivate tumor suppressor genes important for cell transformation. Specifically, SV40 small t antigen (ST) binds to and perturbs the function of the abundant protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). PP2A is a family of heterotrimeric enzymes, composed of a structural A subunit, a catalytic C subunit, and one of several regulatory B subunits. Here we have determined the structure of SV40 ST in complex with the PP2A structural subunit Aα. SV40 ST consists of an N-terminal J domain and a C-terminal unique domain that contains two separate zinc-binding motifs. SV40 ST binds to the same region of PP2A as the regulatory subunit B56, which provides a structural explanation for the displacement of regulatory B subunits by SV40 ST. Taken together, these observations provide a structural basis for understanding the oncogenic functions of ST.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The serine-threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric enzyme family that regulates numerous signaling pathways. Biallelic mutations of the structural PP2A Abeta subunit occur in several types of human tumors; however, the functional consequences of these cancer-associated PP2A Abeta mutations in cell transformation remain undefined. Here we show that suppression of PP2A Abeta expression permits immortalized human cells to achieve a tumorigenic state. Cancer-associated Abeta mutants fail to reverse tumorigenic phenotype induced by PP2A Abeta suppression, indicating that these mutants function as null alleles. Wild-type PP2A Abeta but not cancer-derived Abeta mutants form a complex with the small GTPase RalA. PP2A Abeta-containing complexes dephosphorylate RalA at Ser183 and Ser194, inactivating RalA and abolishing its transforming function. These observations identify PP2A Abeta as a tumor suppressor gene that transforms immortalized human cells by regulating the function of RalA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA-responsive checkpoints prevent cell-cycle progression following DNA damage or replication inhibition. The mitotic activator Cdc25 is suppressed by checkpoints through inhibitory phosphorylation at Ser287 (Xenopus numbering) and docking of 14-3-3. Ser287 phosphorylation is a major locus of G2/M checkpoint control, although several checkpoint-independent kinases can phosphorylate this site. We reported previously that mitotic entry requires 14-3-3 removal and Ser287 dephosphorylation. We show here that DNA-responsive checkpoints also activate PP2A/B56delta phosphatase complexes to dephosphorylate Cdc25 at a site distinct from Ser287 (T138), the phosphorylation of which is required for 14-3-3 release. However, phosphorylation of T138 is not sufficient for 14-3-3 release from Cdc25. Our data suggest that creation of a 14-3-3 "sink," consisting of phosphorylated 14-3-3 binding intermediate filament proteins, including keratins, coupled with reduced Cdc25-14-3-3 affinity, contribute to Cdc25 activation. These observations identify PP2A/B56delta as a central checkpoint effector and suggest a mechanism for controlling 14-3-3 interactions to promote mitosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-apoptotic activity of BCL-2 is mediated by phosphorylation at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but how this phosphorylation is regulated and the mechanism(s) by which it regulates apoptosis are unknown. We purified macromolecular complexes containing BCL-2 from ER membranes and found that BCL-2 co-purified with the main two subunits of the serine/threonine phosphatase, PP2A. The association of endogenous PP2A and BCL-2 at the ER was verified by co-immunoprecipitation and microcystin affinity purification. Knock down or pharmacological inhibition of PP2A caused degradation of phosphorylated BCL-2 and led to an overall reduction in BCL-2 levels. We found that this degradation was due to the action of the proteasome acting selectively at the ER. Conversely, overexpression of PP2A caused elevation in endogenous BCL-2. Most importantly, we found that PP2A knock down sensitized cells to several classes of death stimuli (including ER stress), but this effect was abolished in a genetic background featuring knock in of a non-phosphorylatable BCL-2 allele. These studies support the hypothesis that PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of BCL-2 is required to protect BCL-2 from proteasome-dependent degradation, affecting resistance to ER stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the small DNA tumor virus SV40 (simian virus 40) fails to replicate in human cells, understanding how SV40 transforms human and murine cells has and continues to provide important insights into cancer initiation and maintenance. The early region of SV40 encodes two oncoproteins: the large T (LT) and small t (ST) antigens. SV40 LT contributes to murine and human cell transformation in part by inactivating the p53 and retinoblastoma protein tumor suppressor proteins. SV40 ST inhibits the activity of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) family of serine-threonine phosphatases, and this interaction is required for SV40-mediated transformation of human cells. PP2A regulates multiple signaling pathways, suggesting many possible targets important for viral replication and cell transformation. Genetic manipulation of particular PP2A subunits has confirmed a role for specific complexes in transformation, and recent work implicates the perturbation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway and c-Myc stability in transformation by ST and PP2A. Mutations in PP2A subunits occur at low frequency in human tumors, suggesting that alterations of PP2A signaling play a role in both experimentally induced and spontaneously arising cancers. Unraveling the complexity of PP2A signaling will not only provide further insights into cancer development but may identify novel targets with promise for therapeutic manipulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The introduction of SV40 small t antigen or the suppression of PP2A B56gamma subunit expression contributes to the experimental transformation of human cells. To investigate the role of cancer-associated PP2A Aalpha subunit mutants in transformation, we introduced several PP2A Aalpha mutants into immortalized but nontumorigenic human cells. These PP2A Aalpha mutants exhibited defects in binding to other PP2A subunits and impaired phosphatase activity. Although overexpression of these mutants failed to render immortalized cells tumorigenic, partial suppression of endogenous PP2A Aalpha expression activated the AKT pathway and permitted cells to form tumors in immunodeficient mice. These findings suggest that cancer-associated Aalpha mutations contribute to cancer development by inducing functional haploinsufficiency, disturbing PP2A holoenzyme composition, and altering the enzymatic activity of PP2A.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MITF, TFE3, TFEB, and TFEC comprise a transcription factor family (MiT) that regulates key developmental pathways in several cell lineages. Like MYC, MiT members are basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcription factors. MiT members share virtually perfect homology in their DNA binding domains and bind a common DNA motif. Translocations of TFE3 occur in specific subsets of human renal cell carcinomas and in alveolar soft part sarcomas. Although multiple translocation partners are fused to TFE3, each translocation product retains TFE3's basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper. We have identified the genes fused by the chromosomal translocation t(6;11)(p21.1;q13), characteristic of another subset of renal neoplasms. In two primary tumors we found that Alpha, an intronless gene, rearranges with the first intron of TFEB, just upstream of TFEB's initiation ATG, preserving the entire TFEB coding sequence. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the involvement of both TFEB and Alpha in this translocation. Although the Alpha promoter drives expression of this fusion gene, the Alpha gene does not contribute to the ORF. Whereas TFE3 is typically fused to partner proteins in subsets of renal tumors, we found that wild-type, unfused TFE3 stimulates clonogenic growth in a cell-based assay, suggesting that dysregulated expression, rather than altered function of TFEB or TFE3 fusions, may confer neoplastic properties, a mechanism reminiscent of MYC activation by promoter substitution in Burkitt's lymphoma. Alpha-TFEB is thus identified as a fusion gene in a subset of pediatric renal neoplasms.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2003 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences