[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gut incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and the intestinotropic hormone GLP-2 are released from enteroendocrine L cells in response to ingested nutrients. Treatment with an exogenous GLP-2 analogue increases intestinal villous mass and prevents intestinal injury. Since GLP-2 is rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), DPP4 inhibition may be an effective treatment for intestinal ulcers. We measured mRNA expression and DPP enzymatic activity in intestinal segments. Mucosal DPP activity and GLP concentrations were measured after administration of the DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin (STG). Small intestinal ulcers were induced by indomethacin (IM) injection. STG was given before IM treatment, or orally administered after IM treatment with or without an elemental diet (ED). DPP4 mRNA expression and enzymatic activity were high in the jejunum and ileum. STG dose-dependently suppressed ileal mucosal enzyme activity. Treatment with STG prior to IM reduced small intestinal ulcer scores. Combined treatment with STG and ED accelerated intestinal ulcer healing, accompanied by increased mucosal GLP-2 concentrations. The reduction of ulcers by ED and STG was reversed by co-administration of the GLP-2 receptor antagonist. DPP4 inhibition combined with luminal nutrients, which up-regulate mucosal concentrations of GLP-2, may be an effective therapy for the treatment of small intestinal ulcers.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and AimLuminal nutrients stimulate enteroendocrine L cells to release gut hormones, including intestinotrophic glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). Because L cells express the bile acid receptor TGR5 and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV) rapidly degrades GLPs, we hypothesized that luminal TGR5 activation may attenuate intestinal injury via GLP-2 release, which is enhanced by DPPIV inhibition.Methods
Intestinal injury was induced in mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water (free access to water containing 5% DSS for 7 days). The selective TGR5 agonist betulinic acid (BTA) and the DPPIV inhibitor sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate (STG) were administered orally for 7 days. Male C57BL/6 mice (6-7 weeks old) were divided into five groups: normal control group, disease control group, BTA low group (drinking water containing 15 mg/L BTA), BTA high group (50 mg/L BTA), and BTA high + STG (3 mg/kg, i.g.) group.ResultsThe selective TGR5 agonist BTA dose-dependently suppressed disease activity index and mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the colon. Nevertheless, STG administration had little additive effect on BTA-induced protection. Fibroblast activation protein mRNA expression, but not expression of other DPP family members, was increased in the colon of DSS-treated mice with increased mucosal DPPIV. Co-administration of the selective GLP-2 antagonist GLP-2 (3-33) reversed the effect of BTA.Conclusion
The selective TGR5 agonist BTA ameliorated DSS-induced colitis in mice via the GLP-2 pathway with no effect of DPPIV inhibition, suggesting that other DPP enzymatic activity is involved in GLP-2 degradation.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the efficacy and safety of rapid induction therapy with oral tacrolimus without a meal in steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) patients.
This was a prospective, multicenter, observational study. Between May 2010 and August 2012, 49 steroid-refractory UC patients (55 flare-ups) were consecutively enrolled. All patients were treated with oral tacrolimus without a meal at an initial dose of 0.1 mg/kg per day. The dose was adjusted to maintain trough whole-blood levels of 10-15 ng/mL for the first 2 wk. Induction of remission at 2 and 4 wk after tacrolimus treatment initiation was evaluated using Lichtiger's clinical activity index (CAI).
The mean CAI was 12.6 ± 3.6 at onset. Within the first 7 d, 93.5% of patients maintained high trough levels (10-15 ng/mL). The CAI significantly decreased beginning 2 d after treatment initiation. At 2 wk, 73.1% of patients experienced clinical responses. After tacrolimus initiation, 31.4% and 75.6% of patients achieved clinical remission at 2 and 4 wk, respectively. Treatment was well tolerated.
Rapid induction therapy with oral tacrolimus shortened the time to achievement of appropriate trough levels and demonstrated a high remission rate 28 d after treatment initiation. Rapid induction therapy with oral tacrolimus appears to be a useful therapy for the treatment of refractory UC.
Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxic megacolon is an infrequent but life-threatening complication that occurs most commonly in patients with severe ulcerative colitis. Intravenous steroids are often recommended for patients with toxic megacolon secondary to ulcerative colitis. However, steroid dependency may mask the presence of intra-abdominal sepsis and is associated with refractoriness, during which cytomegalovirus reactivation may occur. In this report, we present two rare cases of megacolon accompanying pancolonic severe ulcerative colitis that were successfully treated with oral tacrolimus, including one steroid-naïve patient. In cases of ulcerative colitis with megacolon, treatment with oral tacrolimus is recommended, thereby avoiding steroid dependency and improving the long-term prognosis.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
A treatment strategy to inhibit nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small intestinal lesions has not yet been established. To clarify whether monotherapy with a gastromucoprotective drug, geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), inhibits NSAID-induced acute mucosal injury of the upper digestive tract and small intestine.
A prospective, randomized, comparative study. All procedures were performed at Osaka Medical College. The subjects, thirty healthy adult volunteers, were randomly divided into two groups. In the NSAID-GGA group, 75 mg/day of diclofenac sodium and 150 mg/day of GGA were orally administered for two weeks. In the NSAID-FAM group, 75 mg/day of diclofenac sodium and 20 mg/day of famotidine (FAM) were orally administered for two weeks. esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and video capsule endoscopy (VCE) were performed before and two weeks after drug administration. In addition, we measured fecal occult blood reactions and the fecal calprotectin levels.
No significant differences were observed between the groups in the mean increase in esophageal/gastroduodenal lesions. The mean increases in the scores in the NSAID-FAM group (NSAID-GGA group) of small bowel lesions were as follows: erythema: 1.93 ± 0.67 (0.30 ± 0.60), erosions: 1.13 ± 0.54 (0.38 ± 0.35), ulcers: 0.73 ± 0.33 (0.07 ± 0.07) and edema: 0.53 ± 0.44 (0.07 ± 0.07). The scores for erythema and ulcers were significantly lower in the NSAID-GGA group than in the NSAID-FAM group (p=0.032 and 0.0165, respectively).
We compared the prophylactic effects of a mucoprotective drug, GGA, and an H2RA, famotidine, on mucosal injury involving the esophagus to the small intestine related to the two-week oral administration of diclofenac sodium in healthy volunteers. In the upper digestive tract, the prophylactic effects were similar between the two drugs. However, in the small intestine, GGA more markedly inhibited the development of lesions compared to famotidine.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proton-pump inhibitors such as omeprazole are a standard treatment to prevent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced upper gastrointestinal mucosal injuries. However, it is unclear which drugs may protect against all NSAID-induced digestive-tract injuries. Here, we compare the efficacy of the gastromucoprotective drug irsogladine with omeprazole in preventing NSAID-induced esophagitis, peptic ulcers, and small-intestinal mucosal injury in healthy subjects.
Thirty-two healthy volunteers were assigned to an irsogladine group (Group I; n = 16) receiving diclofenac sodium 75 mg and irsogladine 4 mg daily for 14 days, or an omeprazole group (Group O; n = 16) receiving diclofenac sodium 75 mg and omeprazole 10 mg daily for 14 days. Esophagitis and peptic ulcers were evaluated by esophagogastroduodenoscopy and small-intestinal injuries by capsule endoscopy, fecal calprotectin, and fecal occult blood before and after treatment.
There was no significant difference between Group I and Group O with respect to the change in lesion score in the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum before and after treatment.NSAID treatment significantly increased the number of small intestinal mucosal breaks per subject by capsule endoscopic evaluation, from a basal level of 0.1 ± 0.3 up to 1.9 ± 2.0 lesions in Group O (p = 0.0002). In contrast, there were no significant changes in the mean number of mucosal breaks before and after co-treatment in Group I (0.3 ± 0.8 to 0.5 ± 0.7, p = 0.62), and the between-group difference was significant (p = 0.0040). Fecal calprotectin concentration, when the concentration before treatment was defined as 1, was significantly increased both in Group O (from 1.0 ± 0.0 to 18.1 ± 37.1, p = 0.0002) and Group I (from 1.0 ± 0.0 to 6.0 ± 11.1, p = 0.0280); the degree of increase in Group O was significantly higher compared with that in Group I (p<0.05). In addition, fecal occult blood levels increased significantly in Group O (p = 0.0018), but there was no change in Group I (p = 1.0), and the between-group difference was significant (p = 0.0031).
Irsogladine protected against NSAID-induced mucosal injuries throughout the gastrointestinal tract, from esophagus to small intestine, significantly better than omeprazole.
This study was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (Registry ID number; UMIN000008114)
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · BMC Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
To assess adalimumab's efficacy with concomitant azathioprine (AZA) for induction and maintenance of clinical remission in Japanese Crohn's disease (CD) patients.
This retrospective, observational, single-center study enrolled 28 consecutive CD patients treated with adalimumab (ADA). Mean age and mean disease duration were 38.1 ± 11.8 years and 11.8 ± 10.1 years, respectively. The baseline mean Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) and C-reactive protein were 177.8 ± 82.0 and 0.70 ± 0.83 mg/dL, respectively. Twelve of these patients also received a concomitant stable dose of AZA. ADA was subcutaneously administered: 160 mg at week 0, 80 mg at week 2, followed by 40 mg every other week. Clinical response and remission rates were assessed via CDAI and C-reactive protein for 24 wk.
The mean CDAI at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 24 was 124.4, 120.2, 123.6, and 135.1, respectively. The CDAI was significantly decreased at weeks 2 and 4 with ADA and was significantly suppressed at 24 wk with ADA/AZA. Overall clinical remission rates at weeks 4 and 24 were 66.7% and 63.2%, respectively. Although no statistically significant difference in C-reactive protein was demonstrated, ADA with AZA resulted in a greater statistically significant improvement in CDAI at 24 wk, compared to ADA alone.
Scheduled ADA with concomitant AZA may be more effective for clinical remission achievement at 24 wk in Japanese Crohn's disease patients.
Preview · Article · May 2013 · World Journal of Gastroenterology