J R Parikh

National Institute of Occupational Health, Amadavad, Gujarat, India

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Publications (16)11.15 Total impact

  • Rajnarayan R Tiwari · Asim Saha · N G Sathwara · Jagdish R Parikh
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    ABSTRACT: The gem-polishing industry in Jaipur, India employs a substantial proportion of children. The process of polishing may result in exposure to chromium in working children. Thus, this study aims to find out the levels of chromium in these working children and the associated factors. Blood samples were analysed for chromium using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean blood chromium levels were 2.51 ± 1.11 mg/100 ml and 2.33 ± 1.10 mg/100 ml in working and school children, respectively, which is well within the permissible levels. However, the practice of employing children should be totally curbed.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Toxicology and Industrial Health
  • Rajnarayan R Tiwari · Asim Saha · Jagdish R Parikh
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    ABSTRACT: Working children of gem-polishing units are exposed to poor illumination and improper workstations. Also processes require lot of visual and mental concentration for precision. This may result in eyestrain. The study included 432 exposed and 569 comparison group subjects. Self-reported eyestrain was recorded through personal interview. Eyestrain included symptoms like itching, burning, or irritated eyes; tired or heavy eyes; difficulty seeing clearly (including blurred or double vision); and headache. The study variables included age, gender, daily working hours, and duration of exposure. The prevalence of eyestrain in child labourers was 32.2%, which was significantly more than the comparison group subjects. Also, the working children of gem-polishing units were at 1.4 times higher risk of developing eyestrain. Age (3)14 years and female gender were significantly associated with the eyestrain. The prevalence of eyestrain in child labourers was 32.2% and was associated with age (3)14 years and female gender.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Toxicology and Industrial Health
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    R R Tiwari · A Saha · J R Parikh
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    ABSTRACT: There are millions of working children worldwide. In gem polishing industry, exposure to occupational hazards of dust and chemicals used in polishing of gemstone may result in respiratory symptoms and respiratory disorders. The present study included 586 exposed and 569 comparison group subjects. Data was collected through personal interview, clinical examination, and chest radiography. The respiratory morbidity was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms and chest radiography. The study variables included age, sex, daily working hours, and duration of exposure. The mean age of the child laborers was 11.31 +/- 5.34 years. Prevalence of respiratory morbidity was significantly high in the female child laborers. The other study variables namely age, duration of exposure, and daily working hours were found to be statistically non-significant. The prevalence of respiratory morbidity among child laborers of gem polishing industry in Jaipur was found to be 7%.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Toxicology and Industrial Health
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    ABSTRACT: An epidemiological study was undertaken in Gujarat, India to study the acute and chronic health effects of occupational exposure to green tobacco. Non-Flue Cured Virginia (FCV) tobacco is the main crop in many districts of Central Gujarat. Three villages were selected from Anand district for the study and a random sample of 685 exposed workers were examined. Six hundred and fifty-five control workers with the same socio-economic status were examined from two villages where tobacco was not cultivated. The overall prevalence of green tobacco sickness (GTS) was 47.0% among tobacco workers. The prevalence in women workers was 55.7% while in men workers it was 42.66%. To detect the chronic health effects prevalence of hypertension, electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities, and eye problems in all the workers and reproductive abnormalities in women workers, all subjects received a medical examination. The data were compared in exposed and control group but they were non-significant statistically. No case of tobacco amblyopia was detected. The prevalence of GTS among non-FCV tobacco workers is high. However, from viewpoint of severity it can be considered as mild acute nicotine toxicity, which is relieved without medication. No significant difference is observed as regards to chronic health effects among tobacco workers and control workers.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · American Journal of Industrial Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Athough life had been made comfortable due to technological development, it also brought some disadvantages. These include fatal and non-fatal injuries. These injuries can be afflicted at any place of which the workplace is one. At the workplace, injuries, if they occur can either lead to permanent or temporary disability or mortality and account for a significant proportion of deaths and disabilities1-4). These types of injuries are mostly recorded as the victims of these types of grave injuries are often provided with monetary compensation through legislation enacted for the welfare of the workers. But, in many industries, such serious injuries are not common but trivial injuries are frequent and usually remain unnoticed and unreported. These trivial injuries if not properly cared for can lead to wound contamination and sepsis5-8) that can be life threatening. The gem polishing industry at Jaipur is one such industry which exposes the workers to such frequent minor injuries. In Jaipur, approximately 200,000 people are employed in this industry, of whom about 20,000 are children. This industry is an unorganized sector and the workers are not protected by the legislation made for the welfare of workers applicable to the organized sectors. The workers are also not covered by any health service schemes. Secondly, these industries employ a considerable proportion of child workers, even though it is prohibited under the Constitution of India. In the gem polishing industry of Jaipur the raw semi- precious stones are mostly imported from African nations. These raw stones are then cut with the help of a rotating saw to remove those parts that contain some impurities. This is followed by separating the raw stones on the basis of their colours. After sorting, the stones are preshaped with the help of a rotating wheel into the desired shape and then to the desired size and measured with calipers. This is followed by faceting the stone so that the multiple facets using the principle of refraction give a shine to the stone. Finally, these stones are polished with chromic oxide powder and quartz powder to increase the shine and lustre. Some of these finished materials are used for preparing neck jewelleries and are converted into beads with a drill. The schematic flow chart of the process is shown in Fig. 1. The processes which are likely to result in injuries include the cutting process which causes cuts, the faceting process that causes abrasions and the drilling process which causes piercing type of injuries (Fig. 1). Except for the making of jewellery, sorting and marketing, the children work in almost all the processes and therefore are prone to injury. The occurrence of injuries at the workplace depends upon a number of factors including the age of workers, familiarity with the hazardous processes, amount of precision required, daily working duration, etc9). Similarly, the complication of the wound in the form of contamination and sepsis will depend upon the knowledge regarding first aid and proper wound care, but neither this sector of unorganized child labour nor this issue of minor injuries and knowledge regarding wound care has been studied. Therefore we have carried out the present study to find out the prevalence of injuries, factors associated with the occurrence of injuries and knowledge regarding wound care and first aid.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2004 · Journal of Occupational Health
  • P B Doctor · V N Gokani · P K Kulkarni · J R Parikh · H N Saiyed
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    ABSTRACT: A solid-phase extraction method using Drug Test-1 column containing chemically modified silica as a solid support for sample clean up and reversed phase ion-paired high-pressure liquid chromatography method have been developed for the simultaneous determination of nicotine and its metabolite cotinine from the urine samples. Mobile phase was consisted of acetate buffer (containing 0.03 M sodium acetate and 0.1 M acetic acid) pH 3.1 and acetonitrile (78:22% (v/v)) containing 0.02 M sodium octanosulfonate as an ion pair agent. pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 3.6 with triethylamine for better resolution and to prevent peak tailing. The linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5-10 microg/ml concentrations of nicotine and cotinine standards. The correlation coefficients were 0.998 for cotinine and 0.999 for nicotine. The recoveries were obtained in the range of 79-97% with average value of 85% for nicotine and in the range of 82-98% with average value of 88% for cotinine. The limit of detection was 2 ng/ml for cotinine and 5 ng/ml for nicotine with 2 ml urine for extraction, calculated by taking signal to noise ratio 10:3. The intra-day co-efficient of variation (CV) were <4 and 7% and inter-day CV were <9 and 7% for nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The method was applied to the urine samples of tobacco harvesters, who suffer from green tobacco sickness (GTS) to check the absorption of nicotine through dermal route during the various processes of tobacco cultivation due to its good reproducibility and sensitivity.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · Journal of Chromatography B
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    ABSTRACT: In the diagnosis of airway obstruction in byssinosis workers, FEV1 is routinely used. The Maximal Expiratory Flow Volume (MEFV) values i.e. PEF, FEF75, FEF50, FEF25 has an added advantage in differentiating the site of obstruction i.e. larger airways as measured by PFE and FEF75 and smallest airways are measured by FEF50 and FEF25. To find out the site of obstruction, MEFV values along with FVC and FEV1 are evaluated in 115 cotton textile workers with byssinosis symptoms by using average, predicted and percentage of predicted values. The results revealed that the percentage of predicted FVC, FEV1 and MEFV values were below 80.0% and FEV1%, 63.1% indicating presence of both obstructive and restrictive type of functional abnormalities. However, the reflection is more in MEFV values and among MEFV values PEF exhibited higher loss. When the MEFV values are related with WHO suggested chronic changes in FEV1, there is much deterioration in values in mild to moderate and severe FEV1 impaired category workers, but in normal FEV1 workers only PEF among MEFV exhibited abnormality i.e. below 80.0%. The distribution of workers basing on abnormality in FEV1 and PEF also revealed higher percentage of workers having PEF abnormality than FEV1. All these findings demonstrated higher affection in PEF suggesting larger airways are predominantly affected in byssinosis workers.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2001
  • S K Ghosh · V N Gokani · P B Doctor · J R Parikh
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    ABSTRACT: The use of rubber gloves reduced nicotine and cotinine absorption among 29 tobacco harvesters, as evidenced by the urinary excretion rate of nicotine and cotinine. Approximately 20% (n = 6) of the subjects reported that symptoms disappeared when they used gloves, but the remaining 23 workers complained of an occasional headache even when using gloves. Wearing of boots and socks as well as gloves prevented the symptoms and significantly decreased nicotine and cotinine excretion. This suggests that nicotine is absorbed through the feet.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1991 · Archives of Environmental Health An International Journal
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    ABSTRACT: An epidemiological study was carried out in three textile mills of Ahmedabad. A total of 214 cotton dust exposed and 184 control subjects were examined for pulmonary function tests. Pulmonary function tests included forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second. The pulmonary function tests were carried out before starting the shift and after 7 hours of exposure on a vitalograph spirometer. The study shows that among the cotton dust exposed workers byssinotics behave distinctly and show the maximum acute and chronic changes in pulmonary functions. It seems that the effect of cotton dust exposure on the byssinotic subjects is more predominant than the effect of smoking.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1990 · The Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine
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    J R Parikh · L J Bhagia · P K Majumdar · AR Shah · S K Kashyap
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    ABSTRACT: In an epidemiological study carried out in three textile mills at Ahmedabad, India, 929 workers were examined from the spinning departments. The mean prevalence of byssinosis in the blow section was 29.62%, whereas in the card section it was 37.83%. The concentrations of cotton dust (dust less fly) were high in the blow and card sections (4.00 mg/m3 in the blow and 3.06 mg/m3 in the card section). This study suggests that the prevalence of byssinosis is not low in the textile mills of India as reported in many earlier Indian studies.
    Preview · Article · Dec 1989 · British journal of industrial medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Two types of gloves were provided to 85 non-Virginia tobacco harvesters who complained of having "green symptoms." Results show that the use of gloves causes a significant reduction in nicotine absorption as reflected by the nicotine and cotinine excretion rates and also the reduction in the prevalence of "green symptoms," since contact with the leaves and leaf-sap and the abrasions of the palms was avoided by their use. It was found that the use of rubber gloves afforded protection among 93% of the subjects, while with cotton gloves the proportion was somewhat less (78.5%). Cotton gloves were more comfortable but nondurable while the rubber ones were durable but not so comfortable.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1987 · Archives of Environmental Health An International Journal
  • J R Parikh · B B Chatterjee · N M Rao · L J Bhagia

    No preview · Article · Feb 1986 · The Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine
  • S K Ghosh · J R Parikh · V N Gokani · N M Rao · Pankaj B. Doctor
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    ABSTRACT: Occupational health problems among 100 tobacco processing workers were investigated. Symptoms, including vomiting, giddiness, headache, etc. were found among 69 exposed subjects. It was also observed that the excretion rate of nicotine and cotinine increased among exposed subjects. Biochemical parameters were found to be within the normal range. Electrocardiographic findings were non-specific and clinically there was no evidence of hypertension or ischemic heart disease. Therefore, the symptoms in tobacco processing workers might possibly result from mild nicotine toxicity.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1985 · Archives of Environmental Health An International Journal
  • S K Gupta · J R Parikh · M P Shah · S K Chatterjee · S K Kashyap
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    ABSTRACT: The use of organochlorine insecticides for public health programs is indisputably necessary in developing countries. Thus, there is a need to evaluate human response to these chemicals under local field conditions. The effects of a short-term, 16-wk exposure to hexachlorocyclohexane has been evaluated and compared in malaria spraymen with and without any previous occupational exposure to this insecticide by measuring the pre- and post-exposure serum hexachlorocyclohexane concentration. A significant increase in original serum hexachlorocyclohexane concentration. A significant increase in original serum hexachlorocyclohexane concentration was observed in subjects on their first occupational exposure (5X), compared to those with previous exposure (3X). All workers reached approximately the same serum levels within 16 wk, regardless of their history of previous exposure.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1982 · Archives of Environmental Health An International Journal
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    ABSTRACT: An epidemiological study with X-ray, lung function, urine and blood tests was undertaken to ascertain the incidence of ‘green symptoms’ among 290 tobacco workers handling cured or uncured tobacco leaves. The frequency of symptoms was found to be very high (86–20 per cent). The urinary excretion rate of nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine, was significantly increased in most of the cases.
    No preview · Article · Aug 1980 · The Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Occupational sickness among tobacco farmers due to the handling of green tobacco leaves is termed "green symptom." This symptom was investigated among 197 Indian tobacco workers and it was found that 88.83% of the workers were suffering from green symptom when exposed to green tobacco leaves during their occupational operation. Nicotine concentration of the urine was estimated only among male subjects who were smokers. During the exposure period (when subjects were suffering from green symptom), more than a three-fold increase in nicotine concentration in the urine was observed. Both cured and uncured leaves may cause such sickness.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1979 · Journal of occupational medicine.: official publication of the Industrial Medical Association