[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Before 1971, several million women were exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES) given to their mothers to prevent pregnancy complications. Several adverse outcomes have been linked to such exposure, but their cumulative effects are not well understood.
We combined data from three studies initiated in the 1970s with continued long-term follow-up of 4653 women exposed in utero to DES and 1927 unexposed controls. We assessed the risks of 12 adverse outcomes linked to DES exposure, including cumulative risks to 45 years of age for reproductive outcomes and to 55 years of age for other outcomes, and their relationships to the baseline presence or absence of vaginal epithelial changes, which are correlated with a higher dose of, and earlier exposure to, DES in utero.
Cumulative risks in women exposed to DES, as compared with those not exposed, were as follows: for infertility, 33.3% vs. 15.5% (hazard ratio, 2.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.05 to 2.75); spontaneous abortion, 50.3% vs. 38.6% (hazard ratio, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.42 to 1.88); preterm delivery, 53.3% vs. 17.8% (hazard ratio, 4.68; 95% CI, 3.74 to 5.86); loss of second-trimester pregnancy, 16.4% vs. 1.7% (hazard ratio, 3.77; 95% CI, 2.56 to 5.54); ectopic pregnancy, 14.6% vs. 2.9% (hazard ratio, 3.72; 95% CI, 2.58 to 5.38); preeclampsia, 26.4% vs. 13.7% (hazard ratio 1.42; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.89); stillbirth, 8.9% vs. 2.6% (hazard ratio, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.33 to 4.54); early menopause, 5.1% vs. 1.7% (hazard ratio, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.67 to 3.31); grade 2 or higher cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, 6.9% vs. 3.4% (hazard ratio, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.59 to 3.27); and breast cancer at 40 years of age or older, 3.9% vs. 2.2% (hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.18). For most outcomes, the risks among exposed women were higher for those with vaginal epithelial changes than for those without such changes.
In utero exposure of women to DES is associated with a high lifetime risk of a broad spectrum of adverse health outcomes. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute.).
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Animal studies have suggested that prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure may alter immune system development and function including antigen self-recognition. A cohort study was conducted to investigate whether prenatal DES exposure might influence the incidence of at least some specific autoimmune diseases in women.
A group of women who were and were not prenatally exposed to DES have been followed for more than 25 years for numerous health outcomes including autoimmune disease. To verify diagnoses, medical records or physician abstracts were requested for all women who reported a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), optic neuritis (ON), and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Incidence rates of these autoimmune diseases were compared between women who were and who were not prenatally DES-exposed.
Overall, there was no increase in verified autoimmune disease among DES-exposed women relative to those who were not exposed (RR 1.2; 95% CI 0.7, 2.1). There was, however, a positive association between prenatal DES exposure and RA among women younger than 45 years (RR 4.9; 95% CI 1.1, 21.6) and an inverse association among women who were 45 years and older (RR 0.1; 95% CI 0.01, 0.7).
Overall, these data provide little support for an association between prenatal DES exposure and development of autoimmune disease. The implication that such exposure may be related to RA in an unusual age-related manner is based on small numbers of cases and warrants further study.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · The Journal of Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is associated with adverse health outcomes, including anatomic anomalies of the reproductive tract in women and of the genitourinary tract in men. The mouse model, which replicates many DES-related effects seen in humans, suggests that prenatal DES exposure causes alterations that may affect the next generation of offspring.
We asked women participating in a large, multi-centre study of prenatal DES exposure to report birth defects occurring among 4029 sons and 3808 daughters (i.e., the third generation). A subcohort of 793 third generation daughters was also queried for birth defects. We used logistic regression models to generate odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals for the association between prenatal DES exposure in the mother and birth defects in the offspring.
Based on the mothers’ reports, overall birth defects were elevated in the sons (OR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.23) and in the daughters (OR = 2.35; 95% CI = 1.44, 3.82). Most estimates of association were imprecise, but daughters appeared to have an excess of heart conditions (OR = 4.56; 95% CI = 1.27, 16.34).
Our data suggest a possible association between the mother’s prenatal DES exposure and birth defects in their offspring, particularly in daughters. We cannot, however, rule-out the possible influence of reporting bias. In particular, the exposed daughters’ elevated risk of cardiac defects may be as a result of the underreporting of these conditions by unexposed mothers.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · International Journal of Andrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen widely prescribed to pregnant women during the 1940s-70s, has been shown to cause reproductive problems in the daughters. Studies of prenatally-exposed males have yielded conflicting results.
In data from a collaborative follow-up of three U.S. cohorts of DES-exposed sons, we examined the relation of prenatal DES exposure to occurrence of male urogenital abnormalities. Exposure status was determined through review of prenatal records. Mailed questionnaires (1994, 1997, 2001) asked about specified abnormalities of the urogenital tract. Risk ratios (RR) were estimated by Cox regression with constant time at risk and control for year of birth.
Prenatal DES exposure was not associated with varicocele, structural abnormalities of the penis, urethral stenosis, benign prostatic hypertrophy, or inflammation/infection of the prostate, urethra, or epididymus. However, RRs were 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.1-3.4) for cryptorchidism, 2.5 (1.5-4.3) for epididymal cyst, and 2.4 (1.5-4.4) for testicular inflammation/infection. Stronger associations were observed for DES exposure that began before the 11th week of pregnancy: RRs were 2.9 (1.6-5.2) for cryptorchidism, 3.5 (2.0-6.0) for epididymal cyst, and 3.0 (1.7-5.4) for inflammation/infection of testes.
These results indicate that prenatal exposure to DES increases risk of male urogenital abnormalities and that the association is strongest for exposure that occurs early in gestation. The findings support the hypothesis that endocrine disrupting chemicals may be a cause of the increased prevalence of cryptorchidism that has been seen in recent years.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Environmental Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES) are more likely than unexposed women to receive recommended or additional breast cancer screening examinations.
1994 Diethylstilbestrol-Adenosis (DESAD) cohort data are used to assess the degree of recommended compliance of breast cancer screenings found in 3140 DES-exposed and 826 unexposed women. Participants were enrolled at four sites: Houston, Boston, Rochester, and Los Angeles. Logistic regression modeling was used to analyze mailed questionnaire data that included reported frequency over the preceding 5 years (1990-1994) of breast-self examinations (BSEs), clinical breast examinations (CBEs), and mammograms.
DES-exposed women exceeded annual recommendations for CBEs (aOR 2.20, 95% CI, 1.04-4.67) among women without a history of benign breast disease (BBD) compared with unexposed women. There were no other statistically significant differences between exposed and unexposed women who reported performing BSEs, CBEs (<40 years of age), and mammographies, regardless of BBD history.
The majority of DES-exposed women receive breast cancer screenings at least at recommended intervals, but over two thirds do not perform monthly BSEs. Future efforts should be focused on further educating this and other at-risk populations through mailed reminders and during patient consultations on the benefits of screening examinations.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Journal of Women's Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate whether women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES) report receiving more cervical and general physical examinations compared to unexposed women.
1994 Diethylstilbestrol Adenosis cohort data are used to assess the degree of recommended compliance of cervical screenings found in 3,140 DES-exposed and 826 unexposed women. Participants were enrolled at 4 sites: Houston, Boston, Rochester, and Los Angeles. Logistic regression modeling was used to analyze mailed questionnaire data, which included reported frequency over the preceding 5 years (1990-1994) of Papanicolaou smears and general physical examinations.
Diethylstilbestrol-exposed women exceeded the recommended frequency of Papanicolaou smear screenings [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.15, 95% CI (confidence interval) = 1.60-2.88] compared to the unexposed. This association held among those without a history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (aOR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.35-2.62). Diethylstilbestrol-exposed women exceeded annual recommendations for physical examinations (aOR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.16-4.43) among women without a history of chronic disease when compared to unexposed women.
Most DES-exposed women are receiving cervical cancer screening at least at recommended intervals, but one third of the women are not receiving annual Papanicolaou smear examinations.
Full-text · Article · May 2008 · Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Menopause onset, on average, occurs earlier among women who smoke cigarettes than among women who do not smoke. Prenatal smoke exposure may also influence age at menopause through possible effects on follicle production in utero. Smoking information was obtained from the mothers of 4,025 participants in the National Cooperative Diethylstilbestrol Adenosis (DESAD) Project, a US study begun in 1975 to examine the health effects of prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure. Between 1994 and 2001, participants provided information on menopausal status. Cox proportional hazards modeling compared the probability of menopause among participants who were and were not prenatally exposed to maternal cigarette smoke. Participants prenatally exposed to maternal cigarette smoke were more likely than those unexposed to be postmenopause (hazard ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.43). The association was present among only those participants who themselves had never smoked cigarettes (hazard ratio = 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.74) and was absent among active smokers (hazard ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 0.81, 1.31). In this cohort of participants predominantly exposed to diethylstilbestrol, results suggest that prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoke may play a role in programming age at menopause. The possibility that active cigarette smoking modifies this effect is also suggested.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · American journal of epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Animal studies suggest that prenatal exposure to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) causes epigenetic changes that may be transmitted to the next generation. Specifically, these studies show an elevated incidence of reproductive tumors in the female offspring of prenatally-exposed mice.
We assessed cancer and benign pathology diagnoses occurring in the offspring of women whose prenatal exposure to DES (or lack of exposure) was verified by medical record. Our data arose from 2 sources: the mothers' reports of cancers occurring in 8216 sons and daughters, and pathology-confirmed cancers and benign diagnoses self-reported by a subset of 793 daughters.
Although statistical power is limited, our data are consistent with no overall increase of cancer in the sons or daughters of women exposed in utero to DES. Based on pathology-confirmed diagnoses reported by the daughters, we saw no association between DES and risk of benign breast disease or reproductive tract conditions. Based on 3 cases, the incidence of ovarian cancer was higher than expected in the daughters of women exposed prenatally to DES.
Our data do not support an overall increase of cancer risk in the sons or daughters of women exposed prenatally to DES, but the number of ovarian cancer cases was greater than expected. While preliminary, this finding supports continued monitoring of these daughters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the relation with birth weight and umbilical cord blood concentrations of haematopoietic stem and progenitor populations in 288 singleton infants. Across the whole range of birth weight, there was a positive relation between birth weight and CD34+CD38(-) cells, with each 500 g increase in birth weight being associated with a 15.5% higher (95% confidence interval: 1.6-31.3%) cell concentration. CD34+ and CD34+c-kit+ cells had J-shaped relations and CFU-GM cells had a U-shaped relation with birth weight. Among newborns with >or=3000 g birth weights, concentrations of these cells increased with birth weight, while those below 3000 g had higher stem cell concentrations than the reference category of 3000-3499 g. Adjustment for cord blood plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 levels weakened the stem and progenitor cell-birth weight associations. The positive associations between birth weight and stem cell measurements for term newborns with a normal-to-high birth weight support the stem cell burden hypothesis of cancer risk.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen widely prescribed to pregnant women during the mid-1900s, is a potent endocrine disruptor. Previous studies have suggested an association between endocrine-disrupting compounds and secondary sex ratio.
Data were provided by women participating in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) DES Combined Cohort Study. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relation of in utero DES exposure to sex ratio (proportion of male births). Models were adjusted for maternal age, child's birth year, parity, and cohort, and accounted for clustering among women with multiple pregnancies.
The OR for having a male birth comparing DES-exposed to unexposed women was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.95-1.17). For exposed women with complete data on cumulative DES dose and timing (33%), those first exposed to DES earlier in gestation and to higher doses had the highest odds of having a male birth. The ORs were 0.91 (95% C, 0.65-1.27) for first exposure at > or = 13 weeks gestation to < 5 g DES; 0.95 (95% CI, 0.71-1.27) for first exposure at > or = 13 weeks to > or = 5 g; 1.16 (95% CI, 0.96-1.41) for first exposure at < 13 weeks to < 5 g; and 1.24 (95% CI, 1.04-1.48) for first exposure at < 13 weeks to > or = 5 g compared with no exposure. Results did not vary appreciably by maternal age, parity, cohort, or infertility history.
Overall, no association was observed between in utero DES exposure and secondary sex ratio, but a significant increase in the proportion of male births was found among women first exposed to DES earlier in gestation and to a higher cumulative dose.
Preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Environmental Health Perspectives
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prenatal levels of mitogens may influence the lifetime breast cancer risk by driving stem cell proliferation and increasing the number of target cells, and thereby increasing the chance of mutation events that initiate oncogenesis. We examined in umbilical cord blood the correlation of potential breast epithelial mitogens, including hormones and growth factors, with hematopoietic stem cell concentrations serving as surrogates of overall stem cell potential.
We analyzed cord blood samples from 289 deliveries. Levels of hormones and growth factors were correlated with concentrations of stem cell and progenitor populations (CD34+ cells, CD34+CD38- cells, CD34+c-kit+ cells, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units). Changes in stem cell concentration associated with each standard deviation change in mitogens and the associated 95% confidence intervals were calculated from multiple regression analysis.
Cord blood plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were strongly correlated with all the hematopoietic stem and progenitor concentrations examined (one standard-deviation increase in IGF-1 being associated with a 15-19% increase in stem/progenitor concentrations, all P < 0.02). Estriol and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 levels were positively and significantly correlated with some of these cell populations. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels were negatively correlated with these stem/progenitor pools. These relationships were stronger in Caucasians and Hispanics and were weaker or not present in Asian-Americans and African-Americans.
Our data support the concept that in utero mitogens may drive the expansion of stem cell populations. The correlations with IGF-1 and estrogen are noteworthy, as both are crucial for mammary gland development.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Breast cancer research: BCR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reduction of cervical cancer risk by 70% or more becomes a theoretic possibility depending on the number of carcinogenic HPV types eventually included in a future HPV prophylactic vaccine and on the percent of the population vaccinated. However, even under the best of circumstances, it will be many decades before this could become a reality. Vaccinating young girls will not have a substantial impact on cervical cancer rates until they attain the median age of cervical cancer diagnosis, 48 years.38 Ultimately, cervical cancer rates will depend on (1) the degree of vaccination coverage of the at-risk population; (2) the number of carcinogenic HPV types targeted by the prophylactic vaccine; (3) the durability of protection; and (4) whether the medical community and the public continue to follow recommended screening guidelines. If immune protection wanes with time, booster HPV vaccine shots may theoretically provide ongoing protection, but population protection will depend on the percent of the population obtaining the booster and the efficacy of that booster. If prophylactic vaccine availability leads to declining participation in screening programs, then cancers will develop that may have been otherwise prevented. VLP vaccines for all the important carcinogenic HPV types may, theoretically, be produced. But until long after HPV vaccines are available, women will continue to require screening to prevent cancers that occur from the other carcinogenic HPV types not in the present vaccines. Screening will also need to continue to protect women who will not get the vaccine and who are already infected prevaccination. These realities caution against scaling back cervical cancer screening, as premature relaxation of cervical cancer control measures already in place could potentially cause cervical cancer rates to increase.8 Cervical screening will continue to be necessary for the foreseeable future.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · CA A Cancer Journal for Clinicians
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age at natural menopause is related to several health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Age at menopause may be influenced by the number of follicles formed during gestation, suggesting that prenatal factors could influence menopausal age. Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a nonsteroidal estrogen widely prescribed during the 1950s and 1960s, is related to reproductive tract abnormalities, infertility, and vaginal cancer in prenatally exposed daughters but has not been studied in relation to age at menopause. The authors used survival analyses to estimate the risk of natural menopause in 4,210 DES-exposed versus 1,829 unexposed US women based on responses to questionnaires mailed in 1994, 1997, and 2001. DES-exposed women were 50% more likely to experience natural menopause at any given age (hazard ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval: 1.28, 1.74). Among women for whom dose information was complete, there were dose-response effects, with a greater than twofold risk for those exposed to >10,000 mg. The causal mechanism for earlier menopause may be related to a smaller follicle pool, more rapid follicle depletion, or changes in hormone synthesis and metabolism in DES-exposed daughters. Age at menopause has been related, albeit inconsistently, to several exposures, but, to the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to suggest that a prenatal exposure may influence reproductive lifespan.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2006 · American Journal of Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In women, prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is associated with adult reproductive dysfunction. The mouse model, which replicates many DES outcomes, suggests DES causes epigenetic alterations, which are transmissable to daughters of prenatally exposed animals. We report menstrual and reproductive characteristics in a unique cohort comprising daughters of women exposed prenatally to DES.
Menstrual and reproductive outcomes and baseline characteristics were assessed by mailed questionnaire in 793 women whose mothers had documented information regarding in utero DES exposure.
Mean age at menarche was 12.6 years in both groups, but daughters of the exposed women attained menstrual regularization later (mean age of 16.2 years vs. 15.8 years; P = 0.05), and were more likely to report irregular menstrual periods, odds ratio (OR) = 1.54 [95% confidence interval (95% CI 1.02-2.32)]. A possible association between mothers' DES exposure and daughters' infertility was compatible with chance, age, and cohort adjusted OR = 2.19 (95% CI 0.95-5.07). We found limited evidence that daughters of the exposed had more adverse reproductive outcomes, but daughters of exposed women had fewer live births (1.6) than the unexposed (1.9) (P = 0.005).
The high risk of reproductive dysfunction seen in women exposed to DES in utero was not observed in their daughters, but most women in our cohort have not yet attempted to start their families, and further follow-up is needed to assess their reproductive health. Our findings of menstrual irregularity and possible infertility in third-generation women are preliminary but compatible with speculation regarding transgenerational transmission of DES-related epigenetic alterations in humans.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2006 · International Journal of Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been hypothesized that breast cancer risk is influenced by prenatal hormone levels. Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen, was widely used by pregnant women in the 1950s and 1960s. Women who took the drug have an increased risk of breast cancer, but whether risk is also increased in the daughters who were exposed in utero is less clear. We assessed the relation of prenatal DES exposure to risk of breast cancer in a cohort of DES-exposed and unexposed women followed since the 1970s by mailed questionnaires. Eighty percent of both exposed and unexposed women completed the most recent questionnaire. Self-reports of breast cancer were confirmed by pathology reports. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute incidence rate ratios (IRR) for prenatal DES exposure relative to no exposure. During follow-up, 102 incident cases of invasive breast cancer occurred, with 76 among DES-exposed women (98,591 person-years) and 26 among unexposed women (35,046 person-years). The overall age-adjusted IRR was 1.40 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.89-2.22]. For breast cancer occurring at ages >or=40 years, the IRR was 1.91 (95% CI, 1.09-3.33) and for cancers occurring at ages >or=50 years, it was 3.00 (95% CI, 1.01-8.98). Control for calendar year, parity, age at first birth, and other factors did not alter the results. These results, from the first prospective study on the subject, suggest that women with prenatal exposure to DES have an increased risk of breast cancer after age 40 years. The findings support the hypothesis that prenatal hormone levels influence breast cancer risk.
No preview · Article · Aug 2006 · Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used Cox regression analyses to assess mortality outcomes in a combined cohort of 7675 women who received diethylstilbestrol (DES) through clinical trial participation or prenatal care. In the combined cohort, the RR for DES in relation to all-cause mortality was 1.06 (95% CI = 0.98-1.16), and 1.11 (95% CI = 1.02-1.21) after adjusting for covariates and omitting breast cancer deaths. The RR was 1.07 (95% CI = 0.94-1.23) for overall cancer mortality, and remained similar after adjusting for covariates and omitting breast cancer deaths. The RR was 1.27 (95% CI = 0.96-1.69) for DES and breast cancer, and 1.38 (95% CI=1.03-1.85) after covariate adjustment. The RR was 1.82 in trial participants and 1.12 in the prenatal care cohort, but the DES-cohort interaction was not significant (P = 0.15). Diethylstilbestrol did not increase mortality from gynaecologic cancers. In summary, diethylstilbestrol was associated with a slight but significant increase in all-cause mortality, but was not significantly associated with overall cancer or gynaecological cancer mortality. The association with breast cancer mortality was more evident in trial participants, who received high DES doses.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2006 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure in relation to male reproductive outcomes.
Prospective observational study.
Participants were identified through record review, clinical trial participation, or an obstetrics clinic.
A total of 1,085 DES-exposed and 1,047 unexposed men.
Participants were exposed prenatally to DES through the mother's obstetrics care or clinical trial participation.
Infertility; never fathering a pregnancy or live birth; number of pregnancies or live births fathered.
We found little evidence that prenatal DES exposure affects the likelihood of never fathering a pregnancy or live birth, or influences the mean number of fathered pregnancies or live births. Our data suggest that DES-exposed men are slightly more likely to experience infertility (relative risk [RR] = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.6). The DES dose and gestational timing did not influence infertility or the number of pregnancies or live births fathered, but results were inconsistent for dose effects on the likelihood of never fathering a pregnancy or a live birth.
Prenatal DES exposure may be associated with a slightly increased risk of having an infertility experience, but does not increase the likelihood of never fathering a pregnancy or a live birth, or the number of pregnancies or live births fathered.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · Fertility and sterility
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visual assessment of digitized cervigrams through the Internet needs to be optimized. The National Cancer Institute and National Library of Medicine are involved in a large effort to improve colposcopic assessment and, in preparation, are conducting methodologic research.
We selected 50 cervigrams with diagnoses ranging from normal to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 or invasive cancer. Those pictures were scanned at 5 resolution levels from 1,550 to 4,000 dots per inch (dpi) and were presented to 4 expert colposcopists to assess image quality. After the ideal resolution level was determined, pictures were compressed at 7 compression ratios from 20:1 to 80:1 to determine the optimal level of compression that permitted full assessment of key visual details.
There were no statistically significant differences between the 3,000 and 4,000 dpi pictures. At 2,000 dpi resolution, only one colposcopist found a slightly statistically significant difference (p = 0.02) compared with the gold standard. There was a clear loss of quality of the pictures at 1,660 dpi. At compression ratio 60:1, 3 of 4 evaluators found statistically significant differences when comparing against the gold standard.
Our results suggest that 2,000 dpi is the optimal level for digitizing cervigrams, and the optimal compression ratio is 50:1 using a novel wavelet-based technology. At these parameters, pictures have no significant differences with the gold standard.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical cytology screening is the best cancer-screening tool ever developed. In all countries where it has been widely used, the incidence of cervical cancer has been decreased by about 70%. In the past 2 decades there has been great progress in our understanding of the natural history of cervical neoplasia. We should now adopt changes in our practices of cytology screening and the evaluation of abnormal reports based on that new knowledge.
Preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Obstetrics and Gynecology