[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a growing recognition that nutrition may have a positive impact on public health and that it may reduce medical expenditures. Yet, such claims need to be substantiated by evidence. This evidence could be delivered by health technology assessment (HTA), which can be thought of as the evaluation of technologies for clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and ethical, legal, and social impacts. The application of HTA to the field of ‘nutrition interventions’ is recent. So far, HTA and nutrition have represented two worlds far apart in many respects. This contribution, roughly, addresses the following issues: is there a need for HTAs in the field of nutrition, what would such HTAs look like, and how can the results coming from these HTAs optimally aid policy making?
Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Frontiers in Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
preoperative anxiety at induction and postoperative emergence delirium (ED) in children are associated with postoperative behavioral changes and adjustment disorders. This study's aim is to assess the value of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) score in order to predict anxiety during induction and emergence delirium after anesthesia in children undergoing elective day-care surgery.
Anxiety at induction, assessed by the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS), was studied as outcome in 401 children (60.1% male, age range: 1.5-16 years). For 343 of these children (59.8% male, age range: 1.5-16 years) ED could be investigated postoperatively, as assessed by the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale (PAED). Demographic data, healthcare contacts, anesthesia and surgical data were registered. Preoperative emotional/behavioral problems, during the 6 months prior to surgery, were assessed by the CBCL. Hierarchical, multiple regression was used to test whether anxiety and ED could be predicted by CBCL scores.
Children with a higher CBCL score on preoperative internalizing problems (e.g. anxious/depression) showed preoperative more anxiety at induction (P=0.003). A higher CBCL score on preoperative emotional/behavioral problems was not associated with ED.
The CBCL predicted anxiety at induction but not ED.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Minerva anestesiologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Economic evaluations for medical nutrition, such as oral nutritional supplements (ONS), are relatively uncommon compared with other health technologies, and represent an area that has not been reviewed so far. In this systematic review, economic evaluations of enteral medical nutrition in the management of disease-related malnutrition (DRM) were reviewed and qualified to estimate the economic value. Initially, 481 studies were found, of which 37 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and were rated on their quality using the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument. The final review focused on the high QHES quality economic evaluation studies. As both the studied medical nutrition intervention and the form of the economic evaluation varied, a quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis) was not attempted but a critical analysis and comparison of the individual study results were performed. ONS was the most studied intervention, covering several patient populations and different health care settings. Outcomes included cost savings (n = 3), no significant extra costs per unit of clinical and/or functional improvement (n = 1), or significantly higher costs per unit of clinical and/or functional improvement but still cost-effective for the used threshold (n = 4). This review shows that the use of enteral medical nutrition in the management of DRM can be efficient from a health economic perspective.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections in children are an increasingly recognized serious safety problem worldwide, but are often preventable. Central venous catheter bundles have proved effective to prevent such infections. Successful implementation requires changes in the hospital system as well as in healthcare professionals' behaviour. The aim of the study is to evaluate process and outcome of implementation of a state-of-the-art central venous catheter insertion and maintenance bundle in a large university children's hospital.Methods/ design: An interrupted time series design will be used; the study will encompass all children who need a central venous catheter. New state-of-the-art central venous catheter bundles will be developed. The Pronovost-model will guide the implementation process. We developed a tailored multifaceted implementation strategy consisting of reminders, feedback, management support, local opinion leaders, and education. Primary outcome measure is the number of catheter-associated infections per 1000 line-days. The process outcome is degree of adherence to use of these central venous catheter bundles is the secondary outcome. A cost-effectiveness analysis is part of the study. Outcomes will be monitored during three periods: baseline, pre-intervention, and post-intervention for over 48 months.
This model-based implementation strategy will reveal the challenges of implementing a hospital-wide safety program. This work will add to the body of knowledge in the field of implementation. We postulate that healthcare workers' willingness to shift from providing habitual care to state-of-the-art care may reflect the need for consistent care improvement. Trial registration: Dutch trials registry, trial # 3635.Trial registration: Dutch trials registry (www.trialregister.nl), trial # 3635.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · BMC Health Services Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Congenital malformations are a significant component of the global burden of disease among children, accounting for 25 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) worldwide. Unfortunately, efforts to estimate the burden of pediatric surgical disease in Africa are limited by the absence of population-based data. The objective of this study was to estimate both the prevalence and the disease burden of several common congenital surgical malformations among children in Kenya.
Community volunteers randomly surveyed households at sites across Kenya. Caretakers were asked to identify on a photographic portfolio, several congenital malformations present among the children in their household, including club foot, hypospadias, hydrocephalus, spina bifida/encephalocele, cleft lip, bladder exstrophy and imperforate anus. DALYs were then calculated based on life expectancy tables and published and estimated disability weights for the conditions encountered.
The caregivers of 5559 children (54% female) were surveyed in 1909 households, 56% of which were rural, 31% suburban and 12% urban. The overall prevalence of congenital malformations was 6.3 per 1000 children, amounting to 54-120 DALYs per 1000 children, depending on the life tables used. The most prevalent condition in the survey was club foot, whereas spina bifida had the highest burden of disease.
This study is the first to document the prevalence of selected surgical congenital malformations among children in Kenya and the burden of disease associated with them. The results will serve to inform strategies aimed at reducing the unmet burden of surgical disease in resource-limited regions.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between nutrition and health-economic outcomes is important at both the individual and the societal level. While personal nutritional choices affect an individual's health condition, thus influencing productivity and economic contribution to society, nutrition interventions carried out by the state also have the potential to affect economic output in significant ways. This review summarizes studies of nutrition interventions in which health-related economic implications of the intervention have been addressed. Results of the search strategy have been categorized into three areas: economic studies of micronutrient deficiencies and malnutrition; economic studies of dietary improvements; and economic studies of functional foods. The findings show that a significant number of studies have calculated the health-economic impacts of nutrition interventions, but approaches and methodologies are sometimes ad hoc in nature and vary widely in quality. Development of an encompassing economic framework to evaluate costs and benefits from such interventions is a potentially fruitful area for future research.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Nutrition Reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Improving health through better nutrition of the population may contribute to enhanced efficiency and sustainability of healthcare systems. A recent expert meeting investigated in detail a number of methodological aspects related to the discipline of nutrition economics. The role of nutrition in health maintenance and in the prevention of non-communicable diseases is now generally recognised. However, the main scope of those seeking to contain healthcare expenditures tends to focus on the management of existing chronic diseases. Identifying additional relevant dimensions to measure and the context of use will become increasingly important in selecting and developing outcome measurements for nutrition interventions. The translation of nutrition-related research data into public health guidance raises the challenging issue of carrying out more pragmatic trials in many areas where these would generate the most useful evidence for health policy decision-making. Nutrition exemplifies all the types of interventions and policy which need evaluating across the health field. There is a need to start actively engaging key stakeholders in order to collect data and to widen health technology assessment approaches for achieving a policy shift from evidence-based medicine to evidence-based decision-making in the field of nutrition.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · The British journal of nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies on the long-term effects of short bowel syndrome (SBS) on the quality of life are scarce. Therefore, we determined health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents with a history of infantile SBS compared with that of same-aged controls drawn from the general population.
Cross-sectional assessment (2005-2007) of HRQoL in children with a history of infantile SBS treated in their first year of life, born between 1987 and 2002, using generic HRQoL measures was performed. Children aged 5 to 18 years and their parents filled out the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Differences in scores between subjects and controls were analyzed using independent sample t tests.
Thirty-one children with a history of SBS (19 girls and 12 boys; mean age, 11.8 ± 4.2 years) participated, giving an overall response rate of 70%. The children and their parents reported significantly lower HRQoL than 275 healthy age-matched children and their parents (P < .05).
Children with a history of infantile SBS have a lower HRQoL than healthy age-matched controls. This difference lasts beyond childhood and way beyond the period of intestinal rehabilitation early in life. These findings highlight the need for targeted interventions to address these dimensions of impaired HRQoL.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis has become a major health concern, carrying a substantial burden in terms of health outcomes and costs. We constructed a model to quantify the potential effect of an additional intake of calcium from dairy foods on the risk of osteoporotic fracture, taking a health economics perspective. INTRODUCTION: This study seeks, first, to estimate the impact of an increased dairy consumption on reducing the burden of osteoporosis in terms of health outcomes and costs, and, second, to contribute to a generic methodology for assessing the health-economic outcomes of food products. METHODS: We constructed a model that generated the number of hip fractures that potentially can be prevented with dairy foods intakes, and then calculated costs avoided, considering the healthcare costs of hip fractures and the costs of additional dairy foods, as well as the number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to hip fractures associated with low nutritional calcium intake. Separate analyses were done for The Netherlands, France, and Sweden, three countries with different levels of dairy products consumption. RESULTS: The number of hip fractures that may potentially be prevented each year with additional dairy products was highest in France (2,023), followed by Sweden (455) and The Netherlands (132). The yearly number of DALYs lost was 6,263 for France, 1,246 for Sweden, and 374 for The Netherlands. The corresponding total costs that might potentially be avoided are about 129 million, 34 million, and 6 million Euros, in these countries, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study quantified the potential nutrition economic impact of increased dairy consumption on osteoporotic fractures, building connections between the fields of nutrition and health economics. Future research should further collect longitudinal population data for documenting the net benefits of increasing dairy consumption on bone health and on the related utilization of healthcare resources.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Osteoporosis International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgeons prefer to close ostomies at least 6 weeks after the primary operation because of the anticipated postoperative abdominal adhesions. Limited data support this habit. Our aim was to evaluate adhesion formation-together with an analysis of resource consumption and costs-in patients with necrotizing enterocolitis who underwent early closure (EC), compared with a group of patients who underwent late closure (LC).
Chart reviews and cost analyses were performed on all patients with necrotizing enterocolitis undergoing ostomy closure from 1997 to 2009. Operative reports were independently scored for adhesions by 2 surgeons.
Thirteen patients underwent EC (median, 39 days; range, 32-40), whereas 62 patients underwent LC (median, 94 days; range, 54-150). Adhesion formation in the EC group (10/13 patients, or 77%) was not significantly different (P = 1.000) from the LC group (47/59 patients, or 80%). No differences were found in the costs of hospital stay, surgical interventions, and outpatient clinic visits.
Ostomy closure within 6 weeks of the initial procedure was not associated with more adhesions or with changes in direct medical costs. Therefore, after stabilization of the patient, ostomy closure can be considered within 6 weeks during the same admission as the initial laparotomy.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relatively few attempts to measure the effects on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of informal caregivers within the context of economic evaluations have been reported. This paper is an exploratory attempt to find suitable methods to assess caregivers' HRQoL, using a population of parents of children with major congenital anomalies.
A total of 306 parents of children born with either congenital anorectal malformations (ARM) or congenital diaphragmatic hernia were surveyed. They rated their current HRQoL on the EQ-VAS. After that, they rated their HRQoL again on the assumption that someone would take over their caregiving activities completely and free of charge. Finally, the parents classified their HRQoL on the EQ-5D. The caregivers' scores on the EQ-VAS and the EQ-5D were compared with scores elicited in the general population.
Most parents indicated that their HRQoL would not change if someone else took on their caregiving activities. Some methodological issues may have influenced this outcome, such as difficulties in self-assessing HRQoL changes due to caregiving, process utility, protest answers, and difficulties in understanding the hypothetical question. The HRQoL of the parents was relatively low compared with population statistics, especially in the parents of children with ARM and in mothers. This can be illustrated by the difference between the mean EQ-5D score of the mothers aged 25-34 years of the children with ARM and that of the general population (0.83 vs. 0.93; P = 0.002).
Significant HRQoL differences exist between parents caring for children with congenital anomalies and the general population. It would be useful to further improve our understanding of the HRQoL impact of informal caregiving, separating 'caregiving effects' from 'family effects', and distinguishing parent-child relationships from other caregiving situations. This study underlines the importance of considering caregivers, also in the context of economic evaluations. It indicates that general HRQoL measures, as used in patients, may be able to detect HRQoL effects in caregivers, which facilitates the incorporation in common economic evaluations of HRQoL effects in carers. Analysts and policy makers should be aware that if HRQoL improvement is an important aim, they should register HRQoL changes not only in patients but also in their caregivers.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Quality of Life Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nowadays, the belief is widespread that a safety culture is crucial to achieving patient safety, yet there has been virtually no analysis of the safety culture in pediatric hospital settings so far. Our aim was to measure the safety climate in our unit, compare it with benchmarking data, and identify potential deficiencies.
Prospective longitudinal survey study at two points in time.
Pediatric surgical intensive care unit at a Dutch university hospital.
All unit personnel.
To measure the safety climate, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire was administered to physicians, nurses, nursing assistants, pharmacists, technicians, and ward clerks in both May 2006 and May 2007. This questionnaire assesses caregiver attitudes through use of the six following scales: teamwork climate, job satisfaction, perceptions of management, safety climate, working conditions, and stress recognition. Earlier research showed that the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire has good psychometric properties and produced benchmarking data that can be used to evaluate strengths and weaknesses in a given clinical unit against peers.
The response rates for the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire were 85% (May 2006) and 74% (May 2007). There were mixed findings regarding the difference between physicians and nurses: on three scales (i.e., teamwork climate, safety climate, and stress recognition), physicians scored better than nurses at both points in time. On another two scales (i.e., perceptions of management and working conditions), nurses consistently had higher mean scale scores. Probably due to the small number of physicians, only some of these differences between physicians and nurses reached the level of statistical significance. Compared to benchmarking data, scores on perceptions of management were higher than expected (p < .01), whereas scores on stress recognition were low (p < .001). The scores on the other scales were somewhat above (job satisfaction), close to (teamwork climate, safety climate), or somewhat below (working conditions) what was expected on the basis of benchmarking data, but no persistent significant differences were observed on these scales.
Although on most domains the safety culture in our unit was good when compared to benchmark data, there is still room for improvement. This requires us to continue working on interventions intended to improve the safety culture, including crew resource management training, safety briefings, and senior executive walk rounds. More research is needed into the impact of creating a safety culture on patient outcomes.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate compliance and costs of referral of nonurgent children, who present at the emergency department, to the general practitioner cooperative (GPC).
In a prospective observational before-after study, during 6 months in 2008, the triage nurse discussed referral to the GPC with parents, when self-referred children with a nontraumatic problem, aged 3 months-16 years were triaged as nonurgent (levels 4 and 5) according to the Manchester Triage System. A telephone follow-up was performed 2-4 days after referral. Real costs were calculated for emergency department consultation (preintervention period) and GPC referral (postintervention period). Compliance of referral was studied for 4 days a week.
One hundred and forty patients were referred to the GPC, of which 101 out of 140 patients (72%) attended a follow-up. After discharge seven patients (7%) had an unscheduled revisit. No patients were subsequently hospitalized. In total 275 patients were included to study compliance, with 28 (10%) reported missing. Ninety-five out of 247 (38%) patients were referred to the general practitioner and 46 out of 247 parents (19%) refused referral. For 106 out of 247 patients (43%) referral was not initiated by the nurse mainly because of comorbidity. Mean costs per patient were €106 for the preintervention period and €101 for the postintervention period.
Compliance of referring low urgent patients is low, mainly because it was difficult for nursing staff to refer. Total overall cost benefit is minimal. Cost savings may be achieved in different settings, where general practitioner services are colocated and where large numbers can be referred.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · European Journal of Emergency Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · The British journal of nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To date, there are hardly any data on the treatment costs of infantile short bowel syndrome (SBS), despite growing interest in evidence-based and cost-effective medicine. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate resource consumption and costs, next to studying nutritional and growth outcomes, in children with SBS who were treated by an interdisciplinary short bowel team.
Data were collected for 10 children with infantile SBS (<or=1 year of age) born between 2002 and 2007. Data included demographic and medical data of the first admission and data on resource consumption, growth, and type of nutrition for the total follow-up period. Real economic costs were calculated in Euro (euro) and US dollar ($).
Seven of the 10 patients were discharged with home parenteral nutrition. Total follow-up varied between 9 months and 5.5 years (median, 1.5 years). Six patients could be weaned off parenteral nutrition and 5 patients off enteral tube feeding, resulting in full oral intake. Seven patients had normal growth. Median duration of initial hospital admission was 174 days, and average costs of initial admission amounted to euro166,045 ($218,681). Average total costs were euro269,700 ($355,195), reaching to a maximum of euro455,400 ($599,762). These costs mainly comprised hospital admissions (82%), followed by nutrition (12%), surgical interventions (5%), and outpatient visits (1%).
This study is among the first to describe resource consumption and costs in infants with SBS, examining real economic costs and extending beyond the initial hospitalization. Treatment of SBS requires considerable resource consumption, especially when patients depend on parenteral nutrition. Because the costs mainly comprise those of hospital admissions, early home parenteral nutrition could contribute to costs reduction. Interdisciplinary teams have the potential to facilitate early home parenteral nutrition and thus may reduce health care costs.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility of infants' weaning of opioids and sedatives at home.
Retrospective observational study.
Level 3 pediatric intensive care unit.
Neonates treated for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).
Eligible infants were discharged early and further weaned of analgesics and/or sedatives at home.
Of the 30 neonates treated for CDH with ECMO from 2003 to 2005, 15 survived. Five of these were weaned at home, on the guidance of telephone contact once a week. The mean infusion rates of morphine and midazolam for these children were significantly higher than those for other infants. Weaning at home took 11, 42, 107, 173, and 180 days, respectively, in the resultant mean savings on hospitalization costs per patient amounted to Euro150, 000.
The results indicate that home weaning reduced the length of hospital stay by a median of 107 days for the five infants in this study, and thereby considerably reduced healthcare costs. Parents need to be informed clearly about possible withdrawal symptoms and should consent in this strategy. The strategy of final weaning with the aid of weekly telephone consultations with a consultant pediatric intensivist was feasible for these parents.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Journal of opioid management
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since 1999 a multidisciplinary follow-up programme for parents and children with major anatomical congenital anomalies is in place in our hospital, run by a dedicated team. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the services of this team from a parental perspective.
Parents completed a questionnaire including open and closed questions about satisfaction with the various professional disciplines involved in the follow-up, statements on usefulness of the follow-up services and suggestions for improvement.
Four hundred and sixty-nine surveys were sent out, of which 71% were returned. Non-responding parents included significantly more parents of non-Dutch origin (P= 0.038) and parents who never responded to invitations for follow-up examinations (P < 0.001). Parental satisfaction differed for the various disciplines. Eighty per cent of the parents were (very) satisfied with the social worker, compared with 92% with nurses. More than half of the parents agreed that the follow-up services give peace of mind. Almost a quarter of parents, however, considered the follow-up services as redundant. The children of these parents had significantly shorter intensive care unit stay (P= 0.02), were older at the time of the questionnaire (P= 0.04), of higher socio-economic status (P= 0.001) and less likely to be of non-Dutch origin (P= 0.008). Sixty-one per cent of the parents had contacted the 24-h helpline. Ninety per cent of the parents were satisfied with the intensive care unit, almost 80% with the general ward.
Overall, parents were satisfied with the services of the follow-up team. Some parents, however, saw room for improvement related to better communication, recognizability of the team and better planning and organization.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Child Care Health and Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In many countries of the Western world, the role of health technology assessment (HTA) in funding decisions of medical technologies is increasing. HTAs are expected to support decision-makers in delineating the collectively funded benefits package. To maximize their potential, it is essential that assessments are valid, reliable and timely, and that it is transparent how information provided in assessments is used in decision-making. Against this background, this article aims to review the current state of affairs regarding the use of HTA in the area of medical specialist care in The Netherlands and to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the HTA-based system for priority setting. The reason to do so was the introduction of a new hospital financing system in The Netherlands, which allowed for expansion of the HTA system that already existed for pharmaceuticals to medical specialist care. A comprehensive account of the HTA system for medical specialist care was created using the so-called Hutton framework, followed by an exploration of its strengths and weaknesses. An important lesson to be learned from the early Dutch experiences with HTA in the area of medical specialist care is that the nature and complexity of health technologies in this area create practical problems regarding the amount and quality of available data needed to make the HTA-based system work. This hampers an unambiguous interpretation of assessment data and thus calls for stronger requirements regarding transparency and stakeholder participation. Future work focusing on the role of HTA in funding decisions is needed to provide insights in best practices for HTA systems in circumstances where a delicate balance needs to be achieved between promoting innovation, supporting effective and timely decision-making and preventing the coverage of technologies that represent a waste of resources.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper is a report of a study to evaluate how often and for what reason parents of children born with severe anatomical congenital anomalies use a 24-hour telephone helpline, and to identify differences between callers and non-callers.
Children born with severe congenital anomalies often remain dependent on medical care and technology after discharge. Adequate medical consultation in the home situation may lower parental burden.
Observational study of telephone contacts from 2000 to 2006 with parents of congenital anomaly patients discharged home after neonatal intensive care admission. Frequency of telephone calls was categorized per type of anomaly. Resulting interventions in terms of consultation and hospital admission were recorded. Finally, costs of personnel needed to provide 24-hour telephone helpline availability were calculated.
A total of 670 calls occurred outside office hours, from 34.4% of all parents; 23.7% of these calls concerned feeding problems. Parents of children with oesophageal atresia, urogenital malformation and congenital diaphragmatic hernia called most frequently (44.3-50.6%). Non-callers were more often first-time parents, divorced/separated or immigrants. Nurses handled 24.5% of calls by themselves and 20.2% of calls led to emergency room consultations resulting in 4.9% admissions. First contact took place at median age 3 months, last contact at median age 8 months. Total personnel costs amounted to euro27,191 per year.
A 24-hour telephone helpline provides easy access to medical and supportive care for parents of children with congenital anomalies at relatively low cost. Nurses can effectively run this telephone helpline with paediatrician back-up.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Journal of Advanced Nursing