Mark C Udey

National Cancer Institute (USA), 베서스다, Maryland, United States

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Publications (118)820.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is an anti-inflammatory glycoprotein that mediates the clearance of apoptotic cells and is implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. As MFG-E8 also controls bone metabolism, we investigated its role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) focusing on inflammation and joint destruction. The regulation of MFG-E8 by inflammation was assessed in vitro using osteoblasts, in arthritic mice and in patients with RA. K/BxN serum transfer arthritis (STA) was applied to MFG-E8 knock-out mice to assess its role in the pathogenesis of arthritis. Stimulation of osteoblasts with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α down-regulated the expression of MFG-E8 by 30-35%. MFG-E8-deficient osteoblasts responded to LPS with a stronger production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In vivo, MFG-E8 mRNA levels were 52% lower in the paws of collagen-induced arthritic (CIA) mice and 24-42% lower in the serum of arthritic mice using two different arthritis models (CIA and STA). Similarly, patients with RA (n = 93) had lower serum concentrations of MFG-E8 (-17%) as compared to healthy controls (n = 140). In a subgroup of patients who had a moderate to high disease activity (n = 21) serum concentrations of MFG-E8 rose after complete or partial remission had been achieved (+67%). Finally, MFG-E8-deficient mice subjected to STA exhibited a stronger disease burden, an increased number of neutrophils in the joints, and a more extensive local and systemic bone loss. This was accompanied by an increased activation of osteoclasts and a suppression of osteoblast function in MFG-E8-deficient mice. Thus, MFG-E8 is a protective factor in the pathogenesis of RA and subsequent bone loss. Whether MFG-E8 qualifies as a novel biomarker or therapeutic target for the treatment of RA is worth addressing in further studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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    ABSTRACT: Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a glycoprotein that controls the engulfment of apoptotic cells and exerts inflammation-modulatory effects. Recently, it has been implicated in osteoclastogenesis and the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal bone loss, but its role in physiological bone homeostasis is still not well defined. Here, we evaluated the influence of MFG-E8 on osteoblasts and osteoclasts and its impact on bone remodeling in healthy and ovariectomized mice as a model for post-menopausal osteoporosis. Total and trabecular bone mineral density at the lumbar spine in 6-week-old MFG-E8 KO mice were reduced by 11% (p<0.05) and 17% (p<0.01), respectively, as compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Accordingly, serum levels of the bone formation marker P1NP were decreased by 37% (p<0.01) in MFG-E8 KO mice as was the ex vivo mineralization capacity and expression of osteoblast genes (Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin) in MFG-E8 KO osteoblasts. In contrast, serum bone resorption markers CTX1 and TRAP5b were increased by 30% and 60% (p<0.05), respectively, in MFG-E8 KO mice. Furthermore, bone marrow macrophages from MFG-E8-KO mice differentiated more effectively into osteoclasts, as compared to WT cells. MFG-E8-deficient osteoclasts displayed increased bone resorption ex vivo, which could be reversed by the presence of recombinant MFG-E8. To determine the significance of the enhanced osteoclastogenesis in MFG-E8 KO mice, we performed an ovariectomy, which is associated with bone loss due to increased osteoclast activity. Indeed, MFG-E8 KO mice lost 12% more trabecular bone density than WT mice after ovariectomy. Together, these data indicate that MFG-E8 controls steady-state and pathological bone turnover and may therefore represent a new target gene in the treatment of bone diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Bone
  • Keisuke Nagao · Mark C Udey
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanisms responsible for protective immunity against epicutaneous Candida infections are incompletely characterized. In this issue of Immunity, Kashem et al. demonstrate that different Candida life forms engage selected skin dendritic cell subsets in distinct compartments, resulting in qualitatively different immune responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Immunity
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    ABSTRACT: Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a type I cytokine that plays a central role in induction of allergic inflammatory responses. Its principal targets have been reported to be dendritic cells and/or CD4 T cells; epithelial cells are a principal source. We report in this study the development of a reporter mouse (TSLP-ZsG) in which a ZsGreen (ZsG)-encoding construct has been inserted by recombineering into a bacterial artificial chromosome immediately at the translation initiating ATG of TSLP. The expression of ZsG by mice transgenic for the recombinant BAC appears to be a faithful surrogate for TSLP expression, particularly in keratinocytes and medullary thymic epithelial cells. Limited ZsG and TSLP mRNA was observed in bone marrow-derived mast cells, basophils, and dendritic cells. Using the TSLP-ZsG reporter mouse, we show that TNF-α and IL-4/IL-13 are potent inducers of TSLP expression by keratinocytes and that local activation of Th2 and Th1 cells induces keratinocyte TSLP expression. We suggest that the capacity of TSLP to both induce Th2 differentiation and to be induced by activated Th2 cells raises the possibility that TSLP may be involved in a positive feedback loop to enhance allergic inflammatory conditions.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Langerhans cells participate in the immune response in leprosy by their ability to activate T cells that recognize the pathogen, Mycobacterium leprae, in a langerin dependent manner. We hypothesized that langerin, the distinguishing C-type lectin of Langerhans cells, would recognize the highly mannosylated structures in pathogenic Mycobacterium spp. The coding region for the extracellular and neck domain of human langerin was cloned and expressed to produce a recombinant active trimeric form of human langerin (r-langerin). Binding assays performed in microtiter plates, by 2-D Western blot, and by surface plasmon resonance demonstrated r-langerin possessed carbohydrate dependent affinity to glycoproteins in the cell wall of M. leprae. This lectin, however, yielded less binding to mannose capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) and even lower levels of binding to phosphatidylinositol mannosides. However, the superoxide dismutase C (SodC) protein of the M. leprae cell wall was identified as a langerin reactive ligand. Tandem mass spectrometry verified the glycosylation of a recombinant form of M. leprae SodC (rSodC) produced in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Analysis of r-langerin affinity by surface plasmon resonance revealed a carbohydrate dependent affinity of rSodC (KD=0.862 μM) that was 20-fold greater than for M. leprae ManLAM (KD=18.69 μM). These data strongly suggest that a subset of the presumptively mannosylated M. leprae glycoproteins act as ligands for langerin and may facilitate the interaction of M. leprae with Langerhans cells. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Bacteriology
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    ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by abnormal keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation and by an influx of inflammatory cells. The mechanisms underlying psoriasis in humans and in mouse models are poorly understood, although evidence strongly points to crucial contributions of IL-17 cytokines, which signal via the obligatory adaptor CIKS/Act1. Here we identify critical roles of CIKS/Act1-mediated signaling in imiquimod-induced psoriatic inflammation, a mouse model that shares features with the human disease. We found that IL-17 cytokines/CIKS-mediated signaling into keratinocytes is essential for neutrophilic microabscess formation and contributes to hyperproliferation and markedly attenuated differentiation of keratinocytes, at least in part via direct effects. In contrast, IL-17 cytokines/CIKS-mediated signaling into nonkeratinocytes, particularly into dermal fibroblasts, promotes cellular infiltration and, importantly, leads to enhanced the accumulation of IL-17-producing γδT cells in skin, comprising a positive feed-forward mechanism. Thus, CIKS-mediated signaling is central in the development of both dermal and epidermal hallmarks of psoriasis, inducing distinct pathologies via target cell-specific effects. CIKS-mediated signaling represents a potential therapeutic target in psoriasis.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The glycoprotein milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor factor 8 (MFG-E8) is expressed in several tissues and mediates diverse homeostatic functions. However, whether it plays a role in bone homeostasis has not been established. In this study, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that osteoclasts express and are regulated by MFG-E8. Bone marrow-derived osteoclast precursors from MFG-E8-deficient (Mfge8(-/-)) mice underwent increased receptor activator of NF-κB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis, leading to enhanced resorption pit formation compared with wild-type controls. Consistently, exogenously added MFG-E8 inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis from mouse or human osteoclast precursors. Upon induction of experimental periodontitis, an oral inflammatory disease characterized by loss of bone support of the dentition, Mfge8(-/-) mice exhibited higher numbers of osteoclasts and more bone loss than did wild-type controls. Accordingly, local microinjection of anti-MFG-E8 mAb exacerbated periodontal bone loss in wild-type mice. Conversely, microinjection of MFG-E8 inhibited bone loss in experimental mouse periodontitis. In comparison with wild-type controls, Mfge8(-/-) mice also experienced >60% more naturally occurring chronic periodontal bone loss. In conclusion, MFG-E8 is a novel homeostatic regulator of osteoclasts that could be exploited therapeutically to treat periodontitis and perhaps other immunological disorders associated with inflammatory bone loss.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Our research group recently demonstrated that pericytes are major sources of the secreted glycoprotein and integrin ligand lactadherin (MFG-E8) in B16 melanoma tumors, and that MFG-E8 promotes angiogenesis via enhanced PDGF-PDGFRβ signaling mediated by integrin-growth factor receptor crosstalk. However, sources of MFG-E8 and its possible roles in skin physiology are not well characterized. The objective of this study was to characterize the involvement of MFG-E8 in skin wound healing. In the dermis of normal murine and human skin, accumulations of MFG-E8 were found around CD31(+) blood vessels, and MFG-E8 colocalized with PDGFRβ(+), αSMA(+), and NG2(+) pericytes. MFG-E8 protein and mRNA levels were elevated in the dermis during full-thickness wound healing in mice. MFG-E8 was diffusely present in granulation tissue and was localized around blood vessels. Wound healing was delayed in MFG-E8 knockout mice, compared with the wild type, and myofibroblast and vessel numbers in wound areas were significantly reduced in knockout mice. Inhibition of MFG-E8 production with siRNA attenuated the formation of capillary-like structures in vitro. Expression of MFG-E8 in fibrous human granulation tissue with scant blood vessels was less than that in granulation tissue with many blood vessels. These findings suggest that MFG-E8 promotes cutaneous wound healing by enhancing angiogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · American Journal Of Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Abbreviations: BCC, basal cell carcinoma; TIC, tumor-initiating cell
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Sep 2013

  • No preview · Article · May 2013
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    Chuan-Jin Wu · Poonam Mannan · Michael Lu · Mark C Udey
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    ABSTRACT: EpCAM (CD326) is a surface glycoprotein expressed by invasive carcinomas and some epithelia. Herein we report that EpCAM regulates the composition and function of tight junctions (TJ). EpCAM accumulated on lateral interfaces of human colon carcinoma and normal intestinal epithelial cells, but did not co-localize with TJ. Knockdown of EpCAM in T84 and Caco-2 cells using shRNAs led to changes in morphology and adhesiveness. TJ formed readily after EpCAM-knockdown, acquisition of trans-epithelial electroresistance (TEER) was enhanced and TJ showed increased resistance to disruption by calcium chelation. Preparative immunoprecipitation demonstrated that EpCAM bound tightly to claudin-7. Co-immunoprecipitation documented associations of EpCAM with claudin-7 and claudin-1, but not claudin-2 or claudin-4. Claudin-1 associated with claudin-7 in co-transfection experiments, and claudin-7 was required for association of claudin-1 with EpCAM. EpCAM knockdown resulted in decreases in claudin-7 and claudin-1 protein that were reversed with lysosome inhibitors. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that claudin-7 and claudin-1 continually trafficked into lysosomes. Although EpCAM knockdown decreased claudin-1 and claudin-7 protein levels overall, accumulations of claudin-1 and claudin-7 in TJ increased. Physical interactions between EpCAM and claudins were required for claudin stabilization. These findings suggest that EpCAM modulates adhesion and TJ function by regulating intracellular localization and degradation of selected claudins.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Biological Chemistry

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Dermatological Science

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Dermatological Science
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    ABSTRACT: Smoothened antagonists directly target the genetic basis of human basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common of all cancers. These drugs inhibit BCC growth, but they are not curative. Although BCC cells are monomorphic, immunofluorescence microscopy reveals a complex hierarchical pattern of growth with inward differentiation along hair follicle lineages. Most BCC cells express the transcription factor KLF4 and are committed to terminal differentiation. A small CD200(+) CD45(-) BCC subpopulation that represents 1.63 ± 1.11% of all BCC cells resides in small clusters at the tumor periphery. By using reproducible in vivo xenograft growth assays, we determined that tumor initiating cell frequencies approximate one per 1.5 million unsorted BCC cells. The CD200(+) CD45(-) BCC subpopulation recreated BCC tumor growth in vivo with typical histological architecture and expression of sonic hedgehog-regulated genes. Reproducible in vivo BCC growth was achieved with as few as 10,000 CD200(+) CD45(-) cells, representing ∼1,500-fold enrichment. CD200(-) CD45(-) BCC cells were unable to form tumors. These findings establish a platform to study the effects of Smoothened antagonists on BCC tumor initiating cell and also suggest that currently available anti-CD200 therapy be considered, either as monotherapy or an adjunct to Smoothened antagonists, in the treatment of inoperable BCC.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Overexpression of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) in mouse epidermis causes cutaneous inflammation and keratinocyte hyperproliferation. Here we examined acute effects of TGFβ1 overproduction by keratinocytes on skin dendritic cells (DCs). TGFβ1 induction for 2 and 4 days increased the numbers and CD86 expression of B220(+) plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and CD207(+)CD103(+), CD207(-)CD103(-)CD11b(+), and CD207(-)CD103(-)CD11b(-) dermal DCs (dDCs) in skin-draining lymph nodes (SDLNs). The dermis of TGFβ1-overexpressing mice had significantly more pDCs, CD207(+)CD103(+) dDCs, and CD207(-)CD11b(+) dDCs in the absence of increased dermal proliferation. Application of dye, tetramethyl rhodamine iso-thiocyanate (TRITC), in dibutylpthalate (DBP) solution after TGFβ1 induction increased the numbers of TRITC(+)CD207(-) dDCs in SDLNs, and augmented TRITC/DBP-induced Langerhans cell (LC) migration 72 hours post TRITC treatment. Consistent with this, LC migration was increased in vitro by TGFβ1 overexpression in skin explants and by exogenous TGFβ1 in culture media. Transient TGFβ1 induction during DNFB sensitization increased contact hypersensitivity responses by 1.5-fold. Thus, elevated epidermal TGFβ1 alone is sufficient to alter homeostasis of multiple cutaneous DC subsets, and enhance DC migration and immune responses to contact sensitizers. These results highlight a role for keratinocyte-derived TGFβ1 in DC trafficking and in the initiation of skin inflammation.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 26 July 2012; doi:10.1038/jid.2012.241.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: Langerhans cells (LCs) are epidermal dendritic cells with incompletely understood origins that associate with hair follicles for unknown reasons. Here we show that in response to external stress, mouse hair follicles recruited Gr-1(hi) monocyte-derived precursors of LCs whose epidermal entry was dependent on the chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR6, whereas the chemokine receptor CCR8 inhibited the recruitment of LCs. Distinct hair-follicle regions had differences in their expression of ligands for CCR2 and CCR6. The isthmus expressed the chemokine CCL2; the infundibulum expressed the chemokine CCL20; and keratinocytes in the bulge produced the chemokine CCL8, which is the ligand for CCR8. Thus, distinct hair-follicle keratinocyte subpopulations promoted or inhibited repopulation with LCs via differences in chemokine production, a feature also noted in humans. Pre-LCs failed to enter hairless skin in mice or humans, which establishes hair follicles as portals for LCs.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Nature Immunology
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    Mark C Udey
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    ABSTRACT: Allergic contact dermatitis is a common disorder that has fascinated dermatologists and immunologists for decades. Extensive studies of contact sensitivity reactions in mice established a mechanistic paradigm that has been revisited in recent years, and the involvement of Langerhans cells (LCs), a population of epidermal dendritic cells, in immune responses to epicutaneously applied antigens has been questioned. In this issue of the JCI, Gomez de Agüero et al. describe an elegant series of experiments that implicate LCs in tolerance induction, positioning these cells as key regulators of immunologic barrier function.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2012 · The Journal of clinical investigation
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    ABSTRACT: After activation, Langerhans cells (LC), a distinct subpopulation of epidermis-resident dendritic cells, migrate from skin to lymph nodes where they regulate the magnitude and quality of immune responses initiated by epicutaneously applied antigens. Modulation of LC-keratinocyte adhesion is likely to be central to regulation of LC migration. LC express high levels of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM; CD326), a cell-surface protein that is characteristic of some epithelia and many carcinomas and that has been implicated in intercellular adhesion and metastasis. To gain insight into EpCAM function in a physiologic context in vivo, we generated conditional knockout mice with EpCAM-deficient LC and characterized them. Epidermis from these mice contained increased numbers of LC with normal levels of MHC and costimulatory molecules and T-cell-stimulatory activity in vitro. Migration of EpCAM-deficient LC from skin explants was inhibited, but chemotaxis of dissociated LC was not. Correspondingly, the ability of contact allergen-stimulated, EpCAM-deficient LC to exit epidermis in vivo was delayed, and strikingly fewer hapten-bearing LC subsequently accumulated in lymph nodes. Attenuated migration of EpCAM-deficient LC resulted in enhanced contact hypersensitivity responses as previously described in LC-deficient mice. Intravital microscopy revealed reduced translocation and dendrite motility in EpCAM-deficient LC in vivo in contact allergen-treated mice. These results conclusively link EpCAM expression to LC motility/migration and LC migration to immune regulation. EpCAM appears to promote LC migration from epidermis by decreasing LC-keratinocyte adhesion and may modulate intercellular adhesion and cell movement within in epithelia during development and carcinogenesis in an analogous fashion.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2012

Publication Stats

6k Citations
820.65 Total Impact Points


  • 1993-2015
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Dermatology Branch
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1991-2014
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Branch of Dermatology
      • • Center for Cancer Research
      Maryland, United States
  • 1998-2013
    • NCI-Frederick
      Фредерик, Maryland, United States
    • The Rockefeller University
      New York, New York, United States
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      • Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases (LPD)
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2008
    • Northern Inyo Hospital
      BIH, California, United States
  • 2002
    • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      • Department of Dermatology
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 2001
    • Technische Universität München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1997
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Biological Structure
      Seattle, Washington, United States