[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Angiogenesis is tightly controlled by growth factors and cytokines in pathophysiological settings. Interleukin 37 (IL-37) is a newly identified cytokine of the IL-1 family, some members of which are important in inflammation and angiogenesis. However, the function of IL-37 in angiogenesis remains unknown. We aimed to explore the regulatory role of IL-37 in pathological and physiological angiogenesis.
Approach and results:
We found that IL-37 was expressed and secreted in endothelial cells and upregulated under hypoxic conditions. IL-37 enhanced endothelial cell proliferation, capillary formation, migration, and vessel sprouting from aortic rings with potency comparable with that of vascular endothelial growth factor. IL-37 activates survival signals including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and AKT in endothelial cells. IL-37 promoted vessel growth in implanted Matrigel plug in vivo in a dose-dependent manner with potency comparable with that of basic ﬁbroblast growth factor. In the mouse model of retinal vascular development, neonatal mice administrated with IL-37 displayed increased neovascularization. We demonstrated further that IL-37 promoted pathological angiogenesis in the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy.
Our findings suggest that IL-37 is a novel and potent proangiogenic cytokine with essential role in pathophysiological settings.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Hyperglycemia-induced inflammation causes the dysfunction of blood vessels, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a key role in inflammation-induced angiogenesis. However, the impact of TLR4 on the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the expression of TLR4 in retinal vascular endothelial cells of patients with DR and diabetic mice, and explored the role of TLR4 in mediating inflammatory responses by human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) under high-glucose condition.
The expression of TLR4 in retinal vascular endothelial cells of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic mice induced by streptozotocin was examined using immunofluorescence. HMEC-1 cells were cultured and the expression of TLR4, MyD88 and Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was examined under high-glucose condition. Endothelial cells with TLR4 silencing and antagonist of TLR4 as well as endothelial cells from TLR4 deficient mice were used to study the effect of activated TLR4 on inflammation induced by high-glucose treatment.
We observed that TLR4 was detected in CD31-labled human retinal vascular endothelia and its expression was markedly increased in fibrovascular membranes from DR patients and in retinal vascular endothelial cells of diabetic mice. The expression of TLR4, MyD88 and IL-1β was enhanced by high glucose in cultured HMEC-1 and the expression of TLR4 and IL-1β was inhibited by TLR4 siRNA knock-down and TLR4 antagonist. The expression of IL-1β by endothelial cells from TLR4 deficient mice under high glucose condition was decreased.
Our results revealed that hyperglycemia induced overexpression and activation of TLR4 in endothelial cells. This effect may lead to inflammatory responses contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.
Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: .
S1647T has been identified as a polymorphic risk variant for Parkinson’s disease (PD) in Chinese individuals. As
is the most common genetic cause for PD, it has drawn great interest regarding whether cognitive impairments in PD are related with
. This study aimed to explore the effects of
S1647T polymorphism on cognitive function in PD.
. 90 PD patients were randomly recruited. They underwent a series of clinical evaluations and genetic testing for the
S1647T polymorphism. Global intellect and five cognitive domains (language fluency, visuospatial function, attention, memory, and executive function) were compared between S1647T carriers and noncarriers.
. No differences in motor features were found between two groups, but the executive function evaluation showed that Stroop word colour test time (SWCT-TIME) scores were lower in
S1647T carriers than in noncarriers (
). However, multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the correlation between S1647T polymorphism and SWCT-TIME scores did not reach significant level (
. Our findings suggest that cognitive impairments are not correlated with different
S1647T polymorphisms in Chinese PD individuals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with stroke suffer from nutrition impairments and often rely on enteral nutrition (EN), which is associated with respiratory complications such as regurgitation and aspiration.
To evaluate the incidence of regurgitation and aspiration in patients with severe stroke infused with different volumes of EN.
A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 210 patients with severe stroke undergoing EN therapy. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups. Subjects in the treatment group received EN with an initial rate defined according to the total volume and the infusion rate was adjusted based on gastric residual volume (GRV) assessed every 4 hours. Subjects of the control group received EN without monitoring the GRV and reached the target infusion volume within 72 hours. The incidence of reflux and aspiration was recorded.
The incidences of regurgitation and aspiration were significantly lower in treatment group (6.3% and 7.9%, respectively) than control group (18.8% and 17.5%, respectively). In the treatment group, 1 patient developed regurgitation while 2 developed aspiration when EN was 500 mL. When EN increased to 1000 mL, 2 patients developed regurgitation and 2 developed aspiration, and 5 patients developed regurgitation and 6 had aspiration when EN was 1500 mL. There was no significant difference in the risk of reflux and aspiration when total volume of EN increased from 500 to 1500 mL.
During EN therapy for patients with stroke, using feeding pump with a continuous infusion for 20 hours and adjusting infusion rate based on GRV could reduce the incidence of respiratory complications.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To study the relationship between sleep disturbances and symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD).
The Parkinson’s Disease Sleep Scale-Chinese Version (PDSS-CV) was used to evaluate the sleep disturbances of PD patients in a cross sectional study. The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) parts II-IV, and the Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) stage were used to determine the level of motor function in PD and the severity of PD. The Spearman correlation and a multiple regression analysis were used to identify the relationship between sleep disturbances and symptoms of PD. The quantities derived from the UPDRS and the H&Y stage and disease duration were compared between groups of patients either with or without sleep disturbances identified by the PDSS. This study was conducted from December 2011 to March 2012 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, in Guangzhou.
A total of 136 PD patients were included in this study. The overall total PDSS score in PD patients was 107.58 ± 23.35 points (range: 30–146). There were significant differences in the disease duration, the H&Y stage, and the UPDRS section subscores between groups of patients either with or without sleep disturbances (Kruskal-Wallis Test, p <0.05). There were significant negative correlations between PDSS scores and the UPDRS subscores, the H&Y stage and the disease duration (Spearman correlation, p < 0.05). The multiple regression analysis indicated that sleep disturbances identified by the PDSS were only associated with daily life activity, tremor intensity and clinical fluctuation (R2 = 0.22, F(3,132) = 12.4, p < 0.001). The correlations were also significant when the contribution of the other two factors was excluded using partial correlations.
The level of daily life activity and the occurrences of tremor and clinical fluctuation are likely to be important factors that lead to PD patients’ sleep disturbances. This study may elucidate an important clue for the relationship between sleep disturbances and PD symptoms.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Translational Neurodegeneration
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate gene transcription by modifying the acetylation of histone and nonhistone proteins. Deregulated expression of HDACs has been implicated in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the effect of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a potent inhibitor of HDACs, on inflammatory corneal angiogenesis. In a mouse model of alkali-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV), topical application of SAHA to the injured corneas attenuated CNV. In addition, in vivo treatment with SAHA downregulated the expression of the pro-angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1), and epidermal growth factor (EGF), but upregulated the expression of the anti-angiogenic factors thrombospondin (TSP)-1, TSP-2, and ADAMTS-1 in the injured corneas. Furthermore, SAHA inhibited the expression of pro-angiogenic factors, migration, proliferation, and tube formation by human microvascular endothelial cells (HEMC-1) in vitro. These data indicate that SAHA has therapeutic potential for CNV.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-28A (IL-28A), a member of type III interferons (IFN-λs), promotes antiviral, antitumor and immune responses. However, its ability to regulate autoimmune diseases is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the effect of IL-28A on retinal antigen-induced experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU), a mouse model of human T-cell-mediated autoimmune eye disease. We found that administration of IL-28A enhanced EAU scores and autoimmune response parameters including delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), Ag-specific T cell proliferation and the production of Ag-specific IL-17 and IFN-γ in the priming phase. The effect of IL-28A was abrogated by administration of a neutralizing antibody against IL-28A. Our results suggest that IL-28A is capable of exacerbating a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease. Thus, targeting IL-28A may provide a new therapeutic approach to T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases such as uveitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that plays a critical role in initiating immunoinflammatory responses. In this study, we generated recombinant mouse IL-1β and anti-mouse IL-1β polyclonal antibodies to examine the effect of IL-1β on experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU), a mouse model for T cell-mediated eye autoimmune disease. Administration of mouse IL-1β by i.p. in the priming phase, but not in the effector phase, of immune response of EAU enhanced disease scores and its related immune responses including DTH, Ag-specific T cell proliferation and the production of IL-17 and IFN-γ. Furthermore, administration of anti-IL-1β antibody in the priming phase reduced EAU scores. These results suggest that IL-1β is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as uveitis.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · International Immunopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate gene transcription by modifying the acetylation level of histone and nonhistone proteins. In this study, we examined the effect of largazole, an inhibitor of class I HDACs, on inflammatory corneal angiogenesis. In a mouse model of alkali-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV), topical application of largazole to the injured corneas attenuated CNV. In addition, in vivo treatment with largazole down-regulated the expression of the pro-angiogenic factors VEGF, b-FGF, TGFβ1 and EGF but up-regulated the expression of the anti-angiogenic factors Thrombospondin-1 (Tsp-1), Tsp-2 and ADAMTS-1 in the injured corneas. Furthermore, largazole inhibited the expression of pro-angiogenic factors, migration, proliferation and tube formation by human microvascular endothelial cells (HEMC-1) in vitro. These data indicate that largazole has therapeutic potential for angiogenesis-associated diseases.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · European Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) belongs to IL-1 family and is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine. It is known to be also involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In addition to its pathophysiologic role in host protection, IL-1β promotes the progression of a number of autoimmune diseases. Most of such diseases can be controlled by anti-IL-1β treatment. This review discusses the contribution of IL-1β to the course of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatic diseases, uveitis, autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED), multiple sclerosis (MS), myocarditis, hepatitis and kidney diseases. The critical involvement of IL-1β in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases provides targets for developing therapeutic treatment.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · International immunopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Müller cells, the principal glial cells of the retina, play an important role in immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are members of the pattern recognition receptor family and mediate innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we isolated, characterized Müller cells from mouse retina, and analyzed the expression of TLRs in these cells. We found that the mRNA of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR5 was highly expressed by Müller cells. PAM3 and LPS, the agonists for TLR2 and TLR4, promoted Müller cells to produce the inflammatory cytokine Interleukine-6 and the chemokine MIP-2/CXCL2. These results suggest that Müller cells may be involved in innate and adaptive responses via TLR signaling in the eye. Our study should facilitate further study of the role of Müller cell in eye diseases and identification of the potential therapeutic targets.
Preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Neurological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
To investigate the changes of color vision and central visual field in a cohort of patients with Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada (VKH) syndrome.
Sixteen VKH patients (32 eyes) were enrolled in this study. All the patients were treated with immunosuppressive agents. The best visual acuity, visual field testing and color vision testing were available from the records in all these patients at different time points, i.e. before treatment and 1 month (±7 days), 3 months (±15 days), 6 months (±20 days) and 12 months (±30 days) after treatment.
All patients showed active intraocular inflammation at their first visit. A decreased visual acuity, abnormality of color vision and abnormal visual field were observed at presentation. Visual acuity and color vision rapidly improved at 1 and 3 months and gradually improved thereafter. Visual field defects significantly improved at 6 months and gradually improved thereafter. However, visual field defects were still observed in 27.5% of the tested patients following a 12-month treatment. Color vision returned to the normal level only in about one-third of these patients at this time point.
Visual function was severely impaired in VKH patients with active uveitis but rapidly improved following immunosuppressive therapy. Visual fields are much more severely affected by the disease than visual acuity and its improvement lagged behind that of visual acuity and color vision.
Preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairments have been reported to be common in Parkinson's disease (PD) without dementia, which occur not only in the late stages of PD, but also in the early and middle stages. Until now, no reports on the profile of cognitive impairment in Chinese non-demented PD population have been published yet. Different ethnic groups should be assessed to improve evaluation of cognitive impairment in clinical practice. The aims of this study are to estimate the frequencies and profile of cognitive impairments and to explore the risk factors of cognitive impairments in Han Chinese non-demented PD patients at early and middle stages.
Eighty non-demented PD patients in early and middle stages and 86 healthy controls were invited to participate in this study. Neuropsychological batteries testing executive function, visuospatial function, memory and attention were evaluated. Cognitive impairments were defined as impaired performance in at least one cognitive domain.
Neuropsychological batteries detected 30 cases with executive dysfunction, 27 cases with memory impairment, eight cases with visuospatial dysfunction and seven cases with attention impairment. As many as 48 cases (60%) of PD patients presented cognitive impairment. Logistic regression analysis indicated that education level and Hoehn & Yahr stage were associated with cognitive impairment in PD.
Cognitive impairment is common in the early and middle stages of PD without dementia; executive function is the most common domain impaired in a Chinese PD population. Cognitive impairment might be predicted by lower education level and higher Hoehn and Yahr stage.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Parkinsonism & Related Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the clinical features of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease presenting as acute angle closure glaucoma at onset.
Retrospective non-comparative case series.
Four hundred and eighty-six VKH patients seen from February 2001 to March 2010.
The history and clinical findings of all patients were reviewed. Auxiliary examinations, including ultrasound biomicroscopy, fundus fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography, were performed in certain cases. Corticosteroids with or without cyclosporine A were used to treat these patients.
Patients' demographics, clinical presentation and auxiliary examination findings.
Eight out of 486 VKH patients were misdiagnosed as acute angle closure glaucoma. The mean age of these eight patients was 55.6 years. Six patients were female. The mean intraocular pressure (IOP) at disease onset was 32.9 mmHg. All of these patients had a shallow anterior chamber and a narrow or closed angle at their first visit. The complaints of these patients were mostly headache and sudden decreased vision in both eyes. Alterations shown on ultrasound biomicroscopy included detachment of the ciliary body and peripheral choroid. The increased IOP did not respond to anti-glaucoma therapy, but resolved following treatment with corticosteroids. The eye of one patient was enucleated after failed trabeculectomies prior to referral to our uveitis centre.
VKH disease presenting with a bilateral increased IOP mostly occurs in older women. The strikingly decreased visual acuity associated with mild to moderate increased IOP is a clue to the diagnosis. The increased IOP responded well to corticosteroids but not to anti-glaucoma treatment.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and environmental toxins such as rotenone play an important role in causing degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Melatonin, a major secretory product of pineal, is recently reported to protect against rotenone-induced cell death in animal models. Yet, the mechanism involved in this protection needs to be elucidated. Here, we report that rotenone treatment (0-100 μM) decreased cell survival of Hela cells in a dose-dependent manner. At concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 μM, rotenone induced a dose-dependent increase in the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II, a protein associated with the autophagosomal membrane. Knockdown of Bax or Omi using shRNA inhibited 1 μM rotenone-induced autophagy. To determine whether melatonin would protect cells against rotenone-induced cell death and autophagy, we pretreated Hela cells with 250 μM melatonin for 24 hr in the presence of rotenone. Melatonin inhibited Bax expression and the release of the omi/HtrA2 into the cytoplasm induced by 1 μM rotenone. Melatonin 250 μM treatment also suppressed cell death induced by 0.1-100 μM rotenone and protected against the formation of LC3-II in cells exposed to 1 μM rotenone. This work demonstrates a novel role for melatonin as a neuroprotective agent against rotenone.
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Journal of Pineal Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) plays important roles in inflammation, immune responses, and tumor progression. Since HMGB1 and its components have been shown to be mediators of a number of diseases but several sources of recombinant HMGB1 showed controversial biological activity, it is important to obtain recombinant HMGB1 with properties that resemble the native protein. For this purpose, we cloned genes coding for human HMGB1 and its active components A box and B box by PCR and inserted the cloned genes into pET28a vectors for transformation of Escherichia coli BL21. The E. coli expressed proteins were then purified with a Ni(2+)-NTA column and the endotoxin content was removed. Recombinant human HMGB1 (rhHMGB1) and its B box thus obtained stimulated, but A box inhibited, the production of the chemokine CXCL8/IL-8 by THP-1 monocytic cell line. We also used purified rhHMGB1 to immunize rabbits and generated potent anti-sera, which was capable of neutralizing the activity of rhHMGB1 in vitro and detecting the increased HMGB1 expression in inflammatory tissues in mice and humans. Thus, we have established essential means to produce biologically active rhHMGB1 that will facilitate us to study its role in diseases and to explore its potential as a therapeutic agent.
No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · International immunopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation is closely linked to angiogenesis, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the key mediators of inflammatory responses. However, the impact of TLRs on angiogenesis is incompletely understood. In this study, we determined the involvement of TLRs in angiogenesis.
In a mouse model of alkali-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV), we found that CNV was attenuated in TLR4-/- but not TLR2-/- mice. Further study revealed that the absence of TLR4 led to decreased production of proangiogenic factors in association with reduced accumulation of macrophages at the site of wounds, which was associated with reduced expression of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein, an endogenous ligand for TLR4. Topical application of HMGB1 to the injured cornea promoted CNV with increased macrophage accumulation in wild-type mice but not in TLR4-/- mice. HMGB1 treatment in vitro also promoted the production of proangiogenic factors by mouse macrophages in a TLR4-dependent manner. Furthermore, antagonists of HMGB1 and TLR4 reduced CNV and macrophage recruitment in the injured cornea of wild-type mice.
Our results suggest that the release of HMGB1 in the wounds initiates TLR4-dependent responses that contribute to neovascularization. Thus, targeting HMGB1-TLR4 signaling cascade may constitute a novel therapeutic approach to angiogenesis-related diseases.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viral components can trigger autoimmunity, but the involved mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and appears to play an important role in this context. Our previous studies showed that signaling of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4 and TLR9 is highly redundant in the adjuvant effect needed to induce experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), an animal model of human autoimmune eye disease. In this study, we analyzed the effects of systemic delivery of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a mimic of viral dsRNA, in the induction of EAU. We found that TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) enhanced EAU scores, DTH responses and Ag-specific T cell proliferation. In addition, Ag-specific Interleukin 17 (IL-17) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by draining lymph node cells was markedly increased in the poly(I:C)-treated group. Our results suggest that activation of innate immune system mediated by TLR3 signaling pathway is of importance in the pathogenesis of virus-induced autoimmune diseases.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · International immunopharmacology