[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is a common hereditary disorder of lipoprotein metabolism estimated to cause 10% to 20% of premature coronary heart disease. We investigated whether functional abnormalities exist in coronary reactivity in asymptomatic patients with FCHL.
We studied 21 male FCHL patients (age, 34.8+/-5.4 years) and a matched group of 21 healthy control subjects. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured at baseline and during dipyridamole-induced hyperemia with PET and 15O-labeled water. The baseline MBF was similar in patients and control subjects (0.79+/-0.19 versus 0.88+/-0.20 mL. g-1. min-1, P=NS). An increase in MBF was seen in both groups after dipyridamole infusion, but MBF at maximal vasodilation was lower in FCHL patients (3.54+/-1.59 versus 4.54+/-1.17 mL. g-1. min-1, P=0.025). The difference in coronary flow reserve (CFR) was not statistically significant (4.7+/-2.2 versus 5.3+/-1.6, P=NS, patients versus control subjects). Considerable variability in CFR values was detected within the FCHL group. Patients with phenotype IIB (n=8) had lower flow during hyperemia (2.5+/-1.2 versus 4.2+/-1.5 mL. g-1. min-1, P<0.05) and lower CFR (3.4+/-2.1 versus 5.4+/-2.0, P<0.05) compared with phenotype IIA (n=13).
Abnormalities in coronary flow regulation exist in young asymptomatic FCHL patients expressing phenotype IIB (characterized by abnormalities in both serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations). This is in line with previous observations suggesting that the metabolic abnormalities related to the pathophysiology of FCHL are associated with the phenotype IIB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with dysfunction of the vascular endothelium. Smokers have also been shown to be insulin-resistant, at least in some studies. Since insulin-induced vasodilation is dependent on endothelial cell nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, we tested the hypothesis that decreased skeletal muscle blood flow causes insulin resistance in smokers. We studied 37 young normotensive normolipidemic nondiabetic men, of which 14 were smokers and 23 lifelong nonsmokers. The groups were similar with respect to age, body mass index (BMI), and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Basal and insulin-stimulated femoral muscle blood flow was measured using [(15)O]H2O and insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake using [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET). Whole-body glucose uptake was measured using the hyperinsulinemic (insulin infusion 5 mU/kg x min)-euglycemic clamp technique. In the basal state, muscle blood flow was 51% lower in smokers (17 +/- 3 mL/kg muscle x min) versus nonsmokers (35 +/- 17 mL/kg x min, P < .0001). Insulin increased muscle blood flow comparably in both groups; the mean rate of insulin-stimulated blood flow was 30 +/- 10 and 55 +/- 38 mL/kg x min (P = .049), respectively. Whole-body and skeletal muscle glucose uptake were similar in both groups during insulin infusion. We conclude that muscle blood flow is lower in chronic smokers compared with nonsmokers under both fasting and hyperinsulinemic conditions. The insulin-induced increase in muscle blood flow and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake appear normal, suggesting that the vasodilatory and metabolic effects of insulin are intact in smokers and the reduced muscle blood flow per se does not cause insulin resistance in these subjects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether functional abnormalities in coronary vasomotion are present in young healthy asymptomatic men fulfilling the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for borderline hypertension.
Previous studies have reported reduced coronary flow reserve in middle-aged subjects with sustained hypertension and hypertension-induced microvascular heart disease or left ventricular hypertrophy.
Myocardial blood flow was measured at baseline and during dipyridamole-induced hyperemia by means of positron emission tomography and oxygen-15-labeled water in asymptomatic young men with borderline hypertension (group 1: n = 16, mean +/- SD age 37 +/- 4 years, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure 135 +/- 10/81 +/- 9 mm Hg) and matched healthy control subjects (group 2: n = 19, age 35 +/- 3 years, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure 119 +/- 8/69 +/- 8 mm Hg, p < 0.001). Left ventricular (LV) mass, dimensions and function were measured by echocardiography.
LV mass, dimensions and diastolic function were similar in the study groups. Baseline myocardial blood flow was similar (0.83 +/- 0.21 vs. 0.80 +/- 0.22 ml/g per min, group 1 vs. group 2, respectively, p = NS), and a significant increase in flow was detected after dipyridamole infusion (0.56 mg/kg body weight in 4 min intravenously) in both groups. However, the flow response to dipyridamole was significantly lower in group 1, leading to lower hyperemic flow in group 1 than in group 2 (2.85 +/- 1.20 vs. 3.80 +/- 1.44 ml/g per min, respectively). Consequently, the coronary flow response was lower in hypertensive than in normotensive men (3.46 +/- 1.23 vs. 4.99 +/- 2.5 ml/g per min, group 1 vs. group 2, respectively, p < 0.05).
These results demonstrate reduced coronary reactivity present in young asymptomatic men with borderline hypertension and no signs of hypertension-induced angina or left ventricular hypertrophy. Because baseline basal myocardial blood flow was unchanged, the reduction in coronary flow reserve depends on an impaired maximal vasodilator capacity.
Full-text · Article · Aug 1998 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disturbances of coronary circulation have been reported in diabetic patients with microvascular complications but without obstructive coronary atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate coronary flow reserve in young adult patients with IDDM but without microalbuminuria and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Coronary flow reserve was determined in 12 nonsmoking male patients with IDDM (age 30.0 +/- 6.6 years) and 12 healthy matched volunteers. Groups were similar with respect to blood pressure and serum lipid concentrations, and no subject had a positive family history of coronary heart disease. The patients with IDDM had normal exercise echocardiography and autonomic nervous function tests. Five patients had minimal background retinopathy, and none had microalbuminuria. Positron emission tomography and [15O]H2O were used to measure myocardial blood flow at rest and after dipyridamole administration. The studies were performed during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia (serum insulin approximately 70 mU/l). The baseline myocardial blood flow was similar in patients with IDDM and in control subjects (0.84 +/- 0.18 vs. 0.88 +/- 0.25 ml x g(-1) x min(-1), NS). The myocardial blood flow during hyperemia was 29% lower in patients with IDDM (3.17 +/- 1.57) compared with the control subjects (4.45 +/- 1.37 ml x g(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.05). Consequently, coronary flow reserve (the ratio of flow during hyperemia and at rest) was lower in diabetic patients than in control subjects (3.76 +/- 1.69 vs. 5.31 +/- 1.86, P < 0.05) and the total coronary resistance during hyperemia was higher in diabetic patients (53.7 +/- 31.5) compared with the control subjects (31.4 +/- 11.6 mmHg x min x g x ml(-1), P < 0.05). The coronary flow reserve was similar in diabetic patients with and without mild background retinopathy. No association was found between the coronary flow reserve and serum lipid or HbA1c values in either group. Coronary flow reserve is impaired in young adult males with IDDM and no or minimal microvascular complications and without any evidence of coronary heart disease. This abnormality cannot be explained by standard coronary heart disease risk factors. The results imply early impairment of coronary vascular reactivity in IDDM patients, which may represent an early precursor of future coronary heart disease or may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to examine the relation of in vivo low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and other lipid risk factors to coronary reactivity in normal subjects.
Experimental studies have shown that oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) particles are injurious to the vascular wall by impairing its normal vasodilator function.
We used noninvasive positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging with intravenous dipyridamole to measure coronary flow reserve, a marker of coronary endothelial and smooth muscle function, in 30 healthy men (mean [+/-SD] age 34.4 +/- 3.2 years). As a marker of in vivo LDL oxidation, the autoantibody titer against ox-LDL was measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method.
Plasma levels of autoantibody titer against ox-LDL were inversely associated with coronary flow reserve (r = -0.42, p = 0.023). High LDL cholesterol levels (above median > 3.0 mmol/liter) were associated with a low coronary flow reserve only in subjects expressing simultaneously high levels of ox-LDL titer (above median). Subjects with simultaneously high levels of LDL cholesterol and ox-LDL titer had lower coronary flow reserve values than subjects in other groups (3.89 vs. > 5.0 in other groups, p = 0.066).
These data provide evidence for the role of ox-LDL in affecting the coronary reactivity in vivo and support the concept that oxidative modification of LDL particles provides a mechanism by which high LDL concentrations exhibit injurious effects on the coronary vascular bed.
Full-text · Article · Aug 1997 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to investigate whether functional abnormalities in coronary vasomotion exist in young adults by studying 15 men (age 31 +/- 8 years [mean +/- SD]) with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and a matched group of 20 healthy control subjects.
Precursors of morphologic coronary artery disease are known to be present in adolescents and young adults with a high risk factor profile.
Myocardial blood flow was measured at the basal state and during dipyridamole-induced hyperemia using positron emission tomography and oxygen-15-labeled water.
Serum total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were higher in the patients than in the control subjects (mean +/- SD): 7.7 +/- 1.9 versus 5.3 +/- 1.5 mmol/liter (298 +/- 73 vs. 205 +/- 58 mg/dl) and 6.1 +/- 1.8 versus 3.5 +/- 1.4 mmol/liter (236 +/- 70 vs. 135 +/- 54 mg/dl), respectively (both p < 0.001). The baseline myocardial blood flow was similar in the patients and control subjects: 0.92 +/- 0.24 versus 0.83 +/- 0.13 ml/g per min, respectively (p = 0.21). A significant increase in flow was observed in both groups after dipyridamole infusion, but the flow at maximal vasodilation was 29% lower in the patients: 3.19 +/- 1.59 versus 4.49 +/- 1.27 ml/g per min (p = 0.011). Consequently, coronary flow reserve (the ratio of hyperemia flow to basal flow) was 35% lower in the patients than in the control subjects: 3.5 +/- 1.6 versus 5.4 +/- 1.5 (p = 0.0008). Total coronary resistance during hyperemia was higher in the patients than in the control subjects: 36 +/- 25 versus 21 +/- 10 mm Hg/min per g per ml (p = 0.045). Coronary flow reserve was inversely associated with serum total cholesterol concentration: r = -0.43 (p = 0.009).
Coronary flow reserve is reduced in young men with FH, and, consequently, coronary resistance during hyperemia is increased. The results demonstrate very early impairment of coronary vasomotion in hypercholesterolemic patients.
No preview · Article · Dec 1996 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Defects in insulin stimulation of blood flow have been used suggested to contribute to insulin resistance. To directly test whether glucose uptake can be altered by changing blood flow, we infused bradykinin (27 microgram over 100 min), an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, into the femoral artery of 12 normal subjects (age 25+/-1 yr, body mass index 22+/-1 kg/m2) after an overnight fast (n = 5) and during normoglycemic hyperinsulinemic (n = 7) conditions (serum insulin 465+/-11 pmol/liter, 0-100 min). Blood flow was measured simultaneously in both femoral regions using [15O]-labeled water ([15O]H2O) and positron emission tomography (PET), before and during (50 min) the bradykinin infusion. Glucose uptake was measured immediately after the blood flow measurement simultaneously in both femoral regions using [18F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose ([18F]FDG) and PET. During hyperinsulinemia, muscle blood flow was 58% higher in the bradykinin-infused (38+/-9 ml/kg muscle x min) than in the control leg (24+/-5, P<0.01). Femoral muscle glucose uptake was identical in both legs (60.6+/-9.5 vs. 58.7+/-9.0 micromol/kg x min, bradykinin-infused vs control leg, NS). Glucose extraction by skeletal muscle was 44% higher in the control (2.6+/-0.2 mmol/liter) than the bradykinin-infused leg (1.8+/-0.2 mmol/liter, P<0.01). When bradykinin was infused in the basal state, flow was 98% higher in the bradykinin-infused (58+/-12 ml/kg muscle x min) than the control leg (28+/-6 ml/kg muscle x min, P<0.01) but rates of muscle glucose uptake were identical in both legs (10.1+/-0.9 vs. 10.6+/-0.8 micromol/kg x min). We conclude that bradykinin increases skeletal muscle blood flow but not muscle glucose uptake in vivo. These data provide direct evidence against the hypothesis that blood flow is an independent regulator of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in humans.
Full-text · Article · May 1996 · Journal of Clinical Investigation