[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glenoid component survival is critical to good long-term outcomes in total shoulder arthroplasty. Optimizing the fixation environment is paramount. The purpose of this study was to compare two glenoid cementing techniques for fixation in total shoulder arthroplasty.
Sixteen cadaveric specimens were randomized to receive peg-only cementation (CPEG) or full back-side cementation (CBACK). Physiological cyclic loading was performed and implant displacement was recorded using an optical tracking system. The cement mantle was examined with micro-computed tomography before and after cyclic loading.
Significantly greater implant displacement away from the inferior portion of the glenoid was observed in the peg cementation group when compared to the fully cemented group during the physiological loading. The displacement was greatest at the beginning of the loading protocol and persisted at a diminished rate during the remainder of the loading protocol. Micro-CT scanning demonstrated that the cement mantle remained intact in both groups and that three specimens in the CBACK group demonstrated microfracturing in one area only.
Displacement of the CPEG implants away from the inferior subchondral bone may represent a suboptimal condition for long-term implant survival. Cement around the back of the implant is suggested to improve initial stability of all polyethylene glenoid implants.
Full cementation provides greater implant stability when compared to limited cementation techniques for insertion of glenoid implants. Loading characteristics are more favorable when cement is placed along the entire back of the implant contacting the subchondral bone.
Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fractures of the capitellum and trochlea account for a small proportion of elbow trauma. Clinicians need to be vigilant in their assessment as they are commonly associated with other injuries about the elbow. To optimize outcomes, the goals of management include a stable, anatomic reduction and early range of motion. Closed reduction of noncomminuted fractures may be successful but requires close follow-up. Open reduction and internal fixation is the preferred management of displaced capitellum-trochlear fractures. Elbow stiffness is the most commonly reported complication in operatively treated fractures. Arthroscopic-assisted reduction and internal fixation and arthroplasty are evolving management options.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As worldwide use of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) increases, a range of implant sizes may be required to match regional and ethnic variation in patients' height and bone size. The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of RSA using a mini 25-mm-diameter glenoid baseplate in smaller patients with rotator cuff arthropathy.
Between 2009 and 2012, 28 patients underwent RSA for cuff-tear arthropathy using a 25-mm circular glenoid baseplate (Aequlais Reversed, Tornier, Bloomington, MN, USA). Twenty-four patients were able to return for comprehensive follow-up. The mean height of the entire cohort was 158 ± 10 cm (5 ft. 2 in.). The indication to use a smaller baseplate was a combination of preoperative templating using computed tomography (CT) and intraoperative measurements of glenoid width.
At a mean of 36 ± 8 months' follow-up, there were no revisions or glenoid-sided failures. The mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score was 70 ± 10, the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) was 10 ± 2, the Constant was 60 ± 10 and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) was 18 ± 15. Mean active forward elevation was 140 ± 15°, active external rotation was 21 ± 15° and active internal rotation was to the sacroiliac joint. Mean shoulder strength in flexion was 5.2 ± 1.7 kg, in external rotation was 2.9 ± 1.4 kg and in internal rotation was 4.3 ± 1.2 kg. Radiographs demonstrated no evidence of glenoid loosening. There was, however, a 62 % rate of scapular notching.
Short-term outcomes of mini 25-mm baseplate RSA in proportionally smaller patients are good and demonstrate implant safety and effectiveness. Scapular notching rates are worrisome, and additional follow-up is necessary to determine if notching is progressive and becomes symptomatic.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · International Orthopaedics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hand dominance has been reported to be an important factor affecting outcomes following upper extremity trauma; but remains unstudied following hemiarthroplasty for fracture. This study determined whether dominance affected outcomes following hemiarthroplasty for proximal humerus fractures.
Retrospective Cohort Study SETTING:: Tertiary Care Referral Center PATIENTS:: INTERVENTION:: Fracture-specific proximal humeral hemiarthroplasty for displaced proximal humerus fractures.
Patients were assessed with self-reported outcomes (VAS pain, ASES, DASH, SST, and SF-12), and objective (range-of-motion and hand-held dynamometer strength) testing.
At 49 months mean follow-up, there were no significant differences between groups for gender, age, follow up time, or VAS pain (p>0.256). The Dominant-affected group had significantly worse scores for ASES (p=0.043), DASH (p=0.039) and SST (p=0.021). The Dominant-affected group also had consistently higher correlations between self-reported and objective outcomes than the Non-Dominant group.
Patients who underwent hemiarthroplasty for fracture on their dominant shoulders had significantly poorer outcomes than patients with non-dominant sided injuries. Although positive outcomes can be expected following hemiarthroplasty, patients should be instructed that they may have less satisfactory function and strength if their injury was on the dominant side.
Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Frozen Shoulder Syndrome is a fibrosis of the shoulder joint capsule that is clinically associated with Dupuytren's disease, a fibrosis of the palmar fascia. Little is known about any commonalities in the pathophysiology of these connective tissue fibroses. β-catenin, a protein that transactivates gene expression, and levels of IGF2 mRNA, encoding insulin-like growth factor-II, are elevated in Dupuytren's disease. The aim of this study was to determine if correlating changes in β-catenin levels and IGF2 expression are evident in Frozen Shoulder Syndrome.
Tissue from patients with Frozen Shoulder Syndrome and rotator cuff tear were obtained during shoulder arthroscopies. Total protein extracts were prepared from tissue aliquots and β-catenin immunoreactivity was assessed by Western immunoblotting. In parallel, primary fibroblasts were derived from these tissues and assessed for IGF2 expression by quantitative PCR.
β-catenin levels were significantly increased in Frozen Shoulder Syndrome relative to rotator cuff tear when assessed by Western immunoblotting analyses. IGF2 mRNA levels were significantly increased in primary fibroblasts derived from frozen shoulder syndrome tissues relative to fibroblasts derived from rotator cuff tissues.
As in Dupuytren's disease, β-catenin levels and IGF2 expression are elevated in Frozen Shoulder Syndrome. These findings support the hypothesis that these connective tissue fibroses share a common pathophysiology.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Clinical and investigative medicine. Medecine clinique et experimentale
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radial head fractures can occur in isolation or in association with elbow and forearm injuries. Treatment options include nonoperative management, fragment or whole-head excision, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), and radial head arthroplasty. However, the evidence supporting ORIF for repairable radial head fractures is inconclusive.
We compared patients undergoing ORIF for isolated radial head fractures or for radial head fractures associated with other fractures or elbow dislocations in terms of patient-related disability, presence of posttraumatic arthritis, complications, and rate of reoperation for capsular release.
Between 1997 and 2008, 52 patients underwent ORIF of the radial head for isolated radial head fractures (simple group) and 29 underwent ORIF for radial head fracture with an associated fracture or dislocation (complex group). General indications for ORIF included displaced radial fractures, large articular surface fragments, and greater than 2 mm of displacement and/or a mechanical block to forearm rotation or associated fractures or ligament injuries requiring surgery. Thirty-one patients (60%) in the simple group and 20 (69%) in the complex group were available for followup at a mean of 4 years (range, 1.0-9.5 years). We evaluated the patients using a validated self-reported pain and disability questionnaire (Patient-rated Elbow Evaluation [PREE]). Records review included radiographic examination and assessment of major complications and secondary surgery rates for capsular release.
With the numbers available, the groups were not different in terms of the mean PREE scores (8 versus 15 for the simple and complex groups, respectively; p = 0.13, lower values indicate lower pain and disability). The simple and complex groups were also not different with the numbers available in terms of major complications (13% versus 25%, respectively; p = 0.29) or secondary capsular release (3% versus 20%, respectively; p = 0.07).
At short term, we found no differences between patients treated with ORIF for isolated radial head fractures and those treated for radial head fractures in association with other elbow injuries with regard to pain and disability scores; loss to followup in this series precludes making statements with great confidence about function after these injuries. However, the substantial capsular release and complication rates should weigh into the preoperative discussion with patients before selecting ORIF for radial head fractures.
Level III, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The crista supinatoris is the insertion site of the lateral collateral ligament complex on the proximal part of the ulna. The purpose of this study was to report the presentation, management, and outcomes of patients with crista supinatoris fractures.
Twelve patients with fractures of the crista supinatoris were assessed clinically and radiographically and with validated outcomes at a mean of thirty-nine months after injury. Outcome measures included the Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation (PREE), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons elbow (ASES-e) score, and strength measured with a dynamometer.
No crista supinatoris fracture occurred in isolation. Other associated injuries included radial head fracture in ten patients (83%), a radial neck fracture in one patient, and a capitellar fracture in one. At the time of presentation, all crista factures were difficult to identify on standard radiographs, but oblique radiographs and/or computed tomography (CT) allowed definitive fracture identification. Four patients were managed nonoperatively, and eight patients were managed surgically, with the indication for surgery being the associated injuries, not specifically the presence of a crista fracture. At the time of surgery, posterolateral rotatory elbow instability, if present, was due to the crista fracture. At the time of follow-up, all elbows were clinically stable and had radiographic concentric reductions. Elbow flexion and extension were a mean (and standard deviation) of 136° ± 6° and 5° ± 8°, respectively. The mean PREE score was 15 ± 20, and the mean DASH was 13.5 ± 18.
Crista supinatoris fractures are difficult to identify on standard elbow radiographs. Fracture management is based on an assessment of elbow stability and on appropriate treatment of the associated injuries.
Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While the majority of terrible triad elbow injuries (ulnohumeral dislocation with radial head and coronoid fractures) are managed surgically, nonoperative treatment may be appropriate in selected patients, but results with this approach have been limited by very small studies.
We assessed (1) functional outcomes using two validated questionnaires, (2) elbow ROM, strength, and stability, (3) the presence of union and arthritis on radiographs, and (4) complications among a group of patients managed nonoperatively for terrible triad injuries.
Between 2006 and 2012, we retrospectively identified 12 patients with terrible triad elbow injuries who were treated nonoperatively and met the following criteria: (1) a concentric joint reduction, (2) a radial head fracture that did not cause a mechanical block to rotation, (3) a smaller coronoid fracture (Regan-Morrey Type 1 or 2), and (4) a stable arc of motion to a minimum of 30° of extension to allow active motion within the first 10 days. Eleven patients were available for followup of at least 12 months after the injury (mean, 36 months; range, 12-90 months). Outcome measures included two patient-reported functional outcome measures (DASH, Mayo Elbow Performance Index [MEPI]), a standardized physical examination to record elbow ROM and stability, isometric strength measurements, and radiographic evidence of bony union and elbow arthrosis. Complications were also recorded.
At latest followup, mean ± SD DASH score was 8.0 ± 11.0 and mean MEPI score was 94 ± 9. Mean ROM of the affected elbow was 134° ± 5° flexion, 6° ± 8° extension, 87° ± 4° pronation, and 82° ± 10° supination. No instability was detected. Strength assessments demonstrated the following mean percentages of the contralateral, unaffected elbow: flexion 100%, extension 89%, pronation 79%, and supination 89%. Four patients had arthritic changes on radiographs that did not call for treatment as of latest followup. Complications included one patient who underwent surgical stabilization for early recurrent instability and another who underwent arthroscopic débridement for heterotopic bone.
In selected patients, nonoperative treatment of terrible triad injuries is an option that can provide good function and restore stable elbow ROM. However, nonoperative management requires close clinical and radiographic followup to monitor for any delayed elbow subluxation or fracture displacement.
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Frozen Shoulder Syndrome is a fibrosis of the shoulder joint capsule that is clinically associated with Dupuytren's disease, a fibrosis of the palmar fascia. Little is known about any commonalities in the pathophysiology of these connective tissue fibroses. beta-catenin, a protein that transactivates gene expression, and levels of IGF2 mRNA, encoding insulin-like growth factor-II, are elevated in Dupuytren's disease. The aim of this study was to determine if correlating changes in beta-catenin levels and IGF2 expression are evident in Frozen Shoulder Syndrome. Methods: Tissue from patients with Frozen Shoulder Syndrome and rotator cuff tear were obtained during shoulder arthroscopies. Total protein extracts were prepared from tissue aliquots and beta-catenin immunoreactivity was assessed by Western immunoblotting. In parallel, primary fibroblasts were derived from these tissues and assessed for IGF2 expression by quantitative PCR. Results: beta-catenin levels were significantly increased in Frozen Shoulder Syndrome relative to rotator cuff tear when assessed by Western immunoblotting analyses. IGF2 mRNA levels were significantly increased in primary fibroblasts derived from frozen shoulder syndrome tissues relative to fibroblasts derived from rotator cuff tissues. Conclusions: As in Dupuytren's disease, beta-catenin levels and IGF2 expression are elevated in Frozen Shoulder Syndrome. These findings support the hypothesis that these connective tissue fibroses share a common pathophysiology.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Clinical and investigative medicine. Médecine clinique et experimentale
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe and evaluate the lateral para-olecranon approach for total elbow arthroplasty and to compare it with the paratricipital and triceps splitting approaches.
A total of 34 patients who underwent total elbow arthroplasty were evaluated: 25 with rheumatoid arthritis (28 elbows) and 9 with fractures. The average duration of follow-up was 54 months (range, 12-105 mo). Of the 28 elbows with rheumatoid arthritis, 17 underwent a triceps splitting approach, 6 a lateral para-olecranon, and 5 a paratricipital approach. Of the 9 fracture cases, 5 patients underwent a lateral para-olecranon and 4 a paratricipital approach. Extension strength, range of motion, elbow function (Mayo Elbow Performance Index), and complications related to triceps insufficiency were compared for all 3 approaches. In addition, we compared triceps strength after lateral para-olecranon and paratricipital approaches with the contralateral healthy elbow in the 9 fracture cases.
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had better extension torque when the prosthesis was implanted through the lateral para-olecranon approach (20 ± 8 N-m) compared with the triceps splitting (13 ± 4 N-m) or paratricipital approaches (12 ± 6 N-m). In the fracture group, the extension strength of the replaced elbow was similar to the contralateral normal elbow in both the paratricipital and lateral para-olecranon groups.
The lateral para-olecranon approach avoids triceps tendon detachment from and repair to the olecranon, thereby reducing the risk of triceps insufficiency while maintaining better extension strength relative to a triceps splitting approach.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · The Journal of hand surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proximal humerus fractures are common and most often occur in the elderly, who may also suffer from osteopenia and multiple medical comorbidities. Codman first described these fractures as consisting of four parts: Articular head, greater tuberosity, lesser tuberosity and diaphysis. There are multiple modalities to treat these fractures, with the literature reporting that up to 80% can be effectively managed non-operatively. When surgery is indicated, one of the options is arthroplasty. Knowledge of normal shoulder anatomy is important as accurate reduction and fixation of the tuberosities is vital to a good outcome following arthroplasty for trauma. Hemiarthroplasty for fracture of the proximal humerus was first described by Neer, and has been used for over forty years. The results have demonstrated reliable pain relief but variable self-reported scores and functional outcomes, with dependence on anatomic tuberosity healing for satisfactory results. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has recently been introduced for treatment of proximal humerus fractures, demonstrating reliable pain relief and restoration of forward elevation. This review will summarize the available evidence and techniques for arthroplasty for the management of proximal humerus fractures.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Minerva Ortopedica e Traumatologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Double-row suture anchor fixation of the rotator cuff was developed to reduce repair failure rates. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of simulated rotator cuff tears and subsequent repairs using single- and double-row suture anchor fixation on three-dimensional shoulder kinematics. It was hypothesized that both single- and double-row repairs would be effective in restoring active intact kinematics of the shoulder.
Sixteen fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulder specimens (eight matched pairs) were tested using a custom loading apparatus designed to simulate unconstrained motion of the shoulder. In each specimen, the rotator cuff was sectioned to create a medium-sized (2 cm) tear. Within each pair, one specimen was randomized to a single-row suture anchor repair, while the contralateral side underwent a double-row suture anchor repair. Joint kinematics were recorded for intact, torn, and repaired scenarios using an electromagnetic tracking device.
Active kinematics confirmed that a medium-sized rotator cuff tear affected glenohumeral kinematics when compared to the intact state. Single- and double-row suture anchor repairs restored the kinematics of the intact specimen.
This study illustrates the effects of medium-sized rotator cuff tears and their repairs on active glenohumeral kinematics. No significant difference (P ≥ 0.10) was found between the kinematics of single- and double-row techniques in medium-sized rotator cuff repairs.
Determining the relative effects of single- and double-row suture anchor repairs of the rotator cuff will allow physicians to be better equipped to treat patients with rotator cuff disease.
No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · International Journal of Shoulder Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrence of instability after isolated Bankart repairs is common in patients with co-existing glenoid and humeral head bone loss. Remplissage is an arthroscopic procedure used to fill the Hill-Sachs defect and prevent recurrence. This arthroscopic procedure is performed in conjunction with a Bankart repair, filling the humeral head defect with the infraspinatus tendon and the posterior joint capsule. Short-term clinical studies demonstrate a technique with predictable healing, good quality of life outcome scores, an average recurrence rate of 6.6 %, and with most patients returning to pre-injury levels. Biomechanical studies have demonstrated a loss of internal-external rotation after this procedure compared to Bankart repair alone. We suggest remplissage as a procedure for patients with engaging Hill-Sachs defects with minimal glenoid-sided bone loss. Longer-term prospective and comparative studies are still needed to fully evaluate remplissage outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fractures of the radial head are common with most partial articular fractures resulting in an anterolateral fragment. The exact mechanism of radial head fracture is unknown; however, forces transmitted and variations in local bone density are believed important. This study quantifies the regional variations in bone density and volume of the radial head to better understand the pathomechanics of fracture patterns.Methods
Computer tomography scan data of 18 cadaver elbows were imported into imaging analysis software. The radial head was divided into quadrants based on neutral forearm rotation. Bone density and volume were calculated and compared between quadrants.ResultsThe regional densities of bone expressed in Hounsfield units (HU) were posteromedial quadrant (PM) 496 ± 87 HU, anteromedial quadrant (AM) 443 ± 72 HU, anterolateral quadrant (AL) 409 ± 60 HU, and posterolateral quadrant (PL) 406 ± 57 HU. The volume of bone in descending order was PM 1138 ± 179 mm3, PL 1013 ± 213 mm3, AM 1010 ± 210 mm3, and AL 938 ± 175 mm3. The PM quadrant was significantly denser than the AM, AL, and PL quadrants, (P = .001) and the AM quadrant was significantly denser than the AL and PL quadrants (P = .006 and .009). The PM quadrant had significantly more bone volume when compared to the AM, AL, and PL (P = .001). The AM and PL quadrants had significantly greater bone volume compared to AL quadrant (P = .023 and .018, respectively).Conclusion
Radial head bone volume and density is highest in the posteromedial quadrant and lowest in the anterolateral quadrant where fractures occur more frequently.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fractures of the radial head are the most common fractures in the elbow, and they frequently have associated ligamentous, cartilaginous, or other bony injuries. Clinical assessment and radiological investigation allow for accurate diagnosis and the formulation of a management plan. Undisplaced or minimally displaced fractures with no rotational block to motion can be treated nonoperatively with excellent results expected. The minimum amount of displacement in a partial articular radial head fracture required for open reduction and internal fixation to provide a superior outcome to nonoperative management is still unknown. Medium-term data suggest that patients with comminuted radial head fractures do well with radial head replacement.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · The Journal of hand surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Bone mineral density measurements with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are commonly used to diagnose osteoporosis and assess fracture risk. This study describes the association between radiographic measures of proximal humeral cortical bone thickness and bone mineral density measured by DXA. The study also assesses the discriminative capability of clinical cortical bone thickness measurements at the proximal humerus to differentiate patients with osteoporosis.
Patients (N = 108) with shoulder radiographs and DXA studies were evaluated. Cortical bone thickness was assessed with 2 techniques, the gauge method and the average method. Pearson correlations were used to describe the relationship between cortical bone thickness measurement techniques and femoral and lumbar DXA. Sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value for predicting osteoporosis were determined for several cortical bone thickness thresholds. Rater reliability of measures was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients.
The intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of measures was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.85). Average cortical bone thickness measurements at the proximal humerus strongly correlated with DXA femur measurements (r = 0.64, P < .0001) and moderately correlated with DXA lumbar measurements (r = 0.49, P < .0001). Gauge cortical thickness measurements also correlated with DXA femur measurements (R = 0.53, P < .0001) and DXA lumbar measurements (R = 0.35, P < .001). An average proximal humerus cortical thickness measurement of 6 mm was identified as a potential threshold value for predicting osteoporosis, with a sensitivity of 93%, specificity of 52%, and negative predictive value of 95%.
Average cortical bone thickness measurements obtained from standard anteroposterior shoulder radiographs are correlated with DXA. Furthermore, they provide a clinically relevant, rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive method for ruling out osteoporosis.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
This biomechanical study evaluated the effects of 3 remplissage techniques on shoulder stability and motion in a Hill-Sachs (HS) instability model.
Materials and methods:
Cadaveric forequarters were tested on an active shoulder simulator. Three remplissage techniques were performed for 15% and 30% HS defects. Testing conditions included intact and 15% and 30% HS defects, and the 3 remplissage techniques: T1, anchors in the defect valley; T2, anchors in humeral head rim; and T3, anchors in valley with medial suture placement. Outcomes included stability, internal-external rotation range of motion (IE-ROM), and joint stiffness.
All remplissage techniques improved shoulder stability. In 15% HS defects tested in adduction, T3 significantly reduced IE-ROM (P = .037), whereas T1 and T2 did also (mean IE-ROM reductions: T1, 14°; T2, 11°; T3, 21°), but not to significance (P ≥ .088). In abduction, no significant reductions in IE-ROM occurred (P ≥ .060). In 30% HS defects tested in adduction (mean reduction IE-ROM: T1, 11°; T2, 19°; T3, 28°) and abduction (mean reduction: T1, 9°; T2, 15°; T3, 21°), all techniques significantly reduced IE-ROM (P ≤ .046). All techniques increased joint stiffness from 100% to 320% beyond the Bankart repair alone. A significant increase in joint stiffness was observed for T3 compared with the 30% HS group (P = .004), whereas T2 trended toward an increase (P = .078). There was no significant increase in joint stiffness with T1 (P = .249).
All remplissage techniques enhanced shoulder stability, restricted ROM, and increased joint stiffness. No significant differences were found between anchors placed in the valley (T1) vs those placed in the humeral head rim (T2). Medial suture placement (T3) resulted in the greatest joint stiffness values and mean restriction in motion.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.]