[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sweetening agents have been recommended in position statements and consensus documents for procedural pain management in neonates; however, it is not clear if this has resulted in widespread adoption in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to investigate unit-specific protocols for the use of sweetening agents.
Structured telephone survey with qualified personnel in special care (level II) nurseries and neonatal intensive care (level III) units across Canada. The frequency and pattern of recommended use of sweetening agents was documented.
Eighty-six of 92 units (93.5%) participated. Sixty-four percent recommended sucrose and 2.3% recommended glucose for procedural pain management; 87.7% had a guideline. Sweetening agents were most commonly recommended for venipuncture/venous cannulation (91.2% for both), lumbar puncture (87.7%), and heel lance (82.5%). Dosing guidelines ranged from 0.05 mL of 24% sucrose solution to 3 mL of 25% sucrose solution. Sweeteners were not recommended for infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (77.2%) or those who were nil per os (75%).
Sweetening agents were recommended for procedural pain management in two-thirds of special care nurseries and neonatal intensive care units across Canada with extensive variability in specific dosing guidelines. Audits of pain management practices should therefore account for unit-specific practice guidelines.
No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · The Clinical journal of pain
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence and identification of hypertriglyceridemia in youths will likely will increase in the future as a consequence of childhood obesity and increased screening for dyslipidemias. We sought to review our clinical experience with hypertriglyceridemia, evaluate factors associated with increased triglyceride levels, and review treatment options to provide guidance for management.
Clinical review of data for all patients who had > or =1 elevated triglyceride level (>4 mmol/L [>350 mg/dL]) while being monitored in a specialized lipid disorders clinic was performed.
The study population consisted of 76 patients with 761 clinic visits. Hypertriglyceridemia was secondary to lifestyle factors for 13 patients. The rest had primary hypertriglyceridemia, with 32 patients having familial combined hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia (type II), 25 patients having primary hypertriglyceridemia (type IV), 4 patients having familial lipase deficiency (type I), and 2 patients having hyperlipoproteinemia E2/E2 phenotype (type III). Triglyceride levels were highest in type I and III hypertriglyceridemia (>10 mmol/L [>900 mg/dL]), followed by type IV and adiposity-related hypertriglyceridemia (>4 mmol/L [>350 mg/dL]) and finally type II familial combined hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia (>2 mmol/L [>180 mg/dL]). A total of 34 patients received 37 trials of drug therapy as part of triglyceride level management (bile acid-binding resins, n = 12; fibrates, n = 19; statins, n = 6). Triglyceride levels were found to decrease over time with the use of fibrates, to increase with the use of bile acid-binding resins, and not to change with the use of statins.
Lifestyle modifications remain the primary therapeutic avenue for the management of pediatric hypertriglyceridemia. We propose an algorithm for the management of this heterogeneous population to guide clinicians in their treatment decisions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sucrose is widely used to manage procedural pain in term newborns despite a lack of evidence of its effectiveness for different procedures and infant populations. Our objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of sucrose in newborns undergoing various medical procedures within 2 days of birth.
We performed a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. We included newborns (>or= 36 weeks gestation) of diabetic mothers and nondiabetic mothers. Each newborn received 2 mL of a 24%-sucrose or placebo solution before all procedures. We used the Premature Infant Pain Profile to assess pain during intramuscular injection of vitamin K, venipuncture for the newborn screening test and the first 3 heel lances for glucose monitoring (newborns of diabetic mothers only). Scores ranged from from 0 (no pain) to 18 (maximum pain).
We included 240 newborns (120 from diabetic mothers, 120 from nondiabetic mothers). The overall mean pain score was lower among newborns who received sucrose than among those who received a placebo (mean difference -1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.0 to -0.6). We found that pain scores during intramuscular injection did not differ significantly between the sucrose and placebo groups for newborns of diabetic or nondiabetic mothers (newborns of nondiabetic mothers: mean difference -1.1, 95% CI -2.4 to 0.2; newborns of diabetic mothers: mean difference -1.0, 95% CI -2.4 to 0.4). During venipuncture, newborns who received sucrose had lower pain scores compared with those who received a placebo (newborns of nondiabetic mothers: mean difference -3.2, 95% CI -4.6 to -1.8; newborns of diabetic mothers: mean difference -2.4, 95% CI -3.8 to -1.0). Among newborns of diabetic mothers, there was no difference in pain during the first 3 heel lances or mean glucose levels between the sucrose and placebo groups (p = 0.94 and p = 0.29 respectively).
We found a modest reduction of pain in newborns of both diabetic and nondiabetic mothers when sucrose was used for all medical procedures performed in the first 2 days after birth. However, when each procedure was analyzed separately, we found that the effectiveness of sucrose was limited to venipuncture for the newborn screening test. (http://Clinicaltrials.gov trial register no. NCT00213213.).
Full-text · Article · Jul 2008 · Canadian Medical Association Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore physiological and anxiety responses of caregivers who witness a venipuncture being performed on their child and the effects of caregivers' responses on child pain and distress.
Observational study between March 13, 2006, and June 8, 2006.
Tertiary-level pediatric emergency department in Toronto, Ontario.
Fifty-five caregivers of children aged 1 month to 18 years.
Observing a child receive an intravenous cannulation.
The caregiver's heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety (measured using a 10-cm visual analogue scale). Child-caregiver interactions were measured using the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Short Form (child age, > or = 2 years) or the Measure of Adult and Infant Soothing and Distress (child age, < 2 years). Child pain was measured using the Faces Pain Scale-Revised.
During cannulation, there was a significant increase in a caregiver's heart rate (median maximum difference = 12 beats per minute; P<.001) and anxiety (median difference = 2.65 cm; P<.001). Mean arterial pressure decreased after cannulation (median difference = 4.4 mm Hg; P = .004). Backward linear regression revealed that 34% of the variability in child cannulation pain was predicted by caregiver anxiety and caregiver distress-promoting behavior; 31% of the variability in a child's distress during cannulation was predicted by caregiver distress-promoting behavior. Caregiver heart rate and anxiety during cannulation and caregiver distress-promoting behavior during recovery accounted for 51% of the variability in the child's distress during recovery.
Caregivers witnessing an intravenous cannulation in their child had elevated heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety. These responses predicted child pain and distress. Future studies should evaluate interventions designed to decrease distress responses in caregivers.
No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if there is a relationship between low serum ferritin and sleep disturbance in children with autism spectrum disorder, an 8-week open-label treatment trial with oral iron supplementation was conducted as a pilot study. At baseline and posttreatment visits, parents completed a Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children and a Food Record. Blood samples were obtained. Thirty-three children completed the study. Seventy-seven percent had restless sleep at baseline, which improved significantly with iron therapy, suggesting a relationship between sleep disturbance and iron deficiency in children with autism spectrum disorder. Sixty-nine percent of preschoolers and 35% of school-aged children had insufficient dietary iron intake. Mean ferritin increased significantly (16 microg/L to 29 microg/L), as did mean corpuscular volume and hemoglobin, suggesting that low ferritin in this patient group resulted from insufficient iron intake. Similar prevalence of low ferritin at school age as preschool age indicates that children with autism spectrum disorder require ongoing screening for iron deficiency.
No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Pediatric Neurology