Olli T Raitakari

University of Turku, Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland

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Publications (744)4910.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid which supplies energy to body cells and enhances physical performance. Using the Young Finns Study combined with the Finnish Linked employer-employee data we show that quantities of creatine measured in 1980 prior to labour market entry affect entrepreneurial success as measured by capital income accumulation over the period 1993–2010 (in particular for females). However, we do not find evidence that creatine affects the propensity to become an entrepreneur. Our study contributes to the emerging literature on biomarkers and entrepreneurship.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of Bioeconomics
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex behavioural phenotypes such as cigarette smoking typically employ self-report phenotypes. However, precise biomarker phenotypes may afford greater statistical power and identify novel variants. Here we report the results of a GWAS meta-analysis of levels of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in 4,548 daily smokers of European ancestry. We identified a locus close to UGT2B10 at 4q13.2 (minimum p = 5.89 × 10−10 for rs114612145), which was consequently replicated. This variant is in high linkage disequilibrium with a known functional variant in the UGT2B10 gene which is associated with reduced nicotine and cotinine glucuronidation activity, but intriguingly is not associated with nicotine intake. Additionally, we observed association between multiple variants within the 15q25.1 region and cotinine levels, all located within the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster or adjacent genes, consistent with previous much larger GWAS using self-report measures of smoking quantity. These results clearly illustrate the increase in power afforded by using precise biomarker measures in GWAS. Perhaps more importantly however, they also highlight that biomarkers do not always mark the phenotype of interest. The use of metabolite data as a proxy for environmental exposures should be carefully considered in the context of individual differences in metabolic pathways.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Coronary heart disease mortality has been internationally high in eastern Finland. The excessive mortality risk in Eastern compared with western Finns is explained by differences in cardiometabolic risk profile. Current risk profile differences and association with migration have not been reported. We examined the association of place of residence (east-west) and specifically migration with cardiometabolic risk markers and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Methods: The study population included 2204 participants with data available from childhood/youth in 1980 and follow-up examination in 2007. Results: Participants residing in eastern Finland in adulthood had 0.022±0.004mm higher IMT than Western participants. Those who migrated east-to-west had lower IMT than those staying in the east (0.027±0.006mm, p<0.0001) while no difference to those continuously living in the west was found. Those who moved east-to-west had a lower body mass index (25.3±4.3 kg/m(2) vs. 26.2±4.5kg/m(2), p=0.01), waist circumference (85.7±12.8cm vs. 88.6±12.8cm, p=0.001), prevalence of metabolic syndrome (13% vs. 21%, p=0.01), and higher socioeconomic status (16.6±3.3 vs. 15.0±3.3 school years, p<0.0001) than those who stayed in the east. Conclusions: Higher IMT was found in eastern Finns than in western Finns. Participants who migrated east-to-west had a lower IMT and a better cardiometabolic risk profile than those who stayed in the east.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) are modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Several genetic loci for predisposition to abnormal LDL-C, HDL-C and TG have been identified. However, it remains unclear whether these loci are consistently associated with serum lipid levels at each age or with unique developmental trajectories. Therefore, we assessed the association between genome wide association studies (GWAS) derived polygenic genetic risk scores and LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglyceride trajectories from childhood to adulthood using data available from the 27-year European 'Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns' Study. For 2,442 participants, three weighted genetic risk scores (wGRSs) for HDL-C (38 SNPs), LDL-C (14 SNPs) and triglycerides (24 SNPs) were computed and tested for association with serum lipoprotein levels measured up to 8 times between 1980 and 2011. The categorical analyses revealed no clear divergence of blood lipid trajectories over time between wGRSs categories, with participants in the lower wGRS quartiles tending to have average lipoprotein concentrations 30 to 45% lower than those in the upper-quartile wGRS beginning at age 3 years and continuing through to age 49 years (where the upper-quartile wGRS have 4-7 more risk alleles than the lower wGRS group). Continuous analyses, however, revealed a significant but moderate time-dependent genetic interaction for HDL-C levels, with the association between HDL-C and the continuous HDL-C risk score weakening slightly with age. Conversely, in males, the association between the continuous TG genetic risk score and triglycerides levels tended to be lower in childhood and become more pronounced after the age of 25 years. Although the influence of genetic factors on age-specific lipoprotein values and developmental trajectories is complex, our data show that wGRSs are highly predictive of HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglyceride levels at all ages.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Micronutrients are potentially important determinants of adult outcomes such as educational attainment. Copper and zinc have known effects on several medical conditions and cognitive development. Elevated copper and depressed zinc is a common trace metal imbalance. Methods: We estimate the correlation between the copper/zinc ratio (Cu/Zn) in childhood (year 1980) and educational attainment in adulthood (year 2010). We use the Young Finns Study (YFS) combined with the Finnish Linked Employer-Employee Data (FLEED). The regression models account for confounders such as other biomarkers and parental observables. Results: We report a sizeable, negative correlation between Cu/Zn and educational attainment as measured by education in years, grades as well as the likelihood of completing university education. For example, a one standard deviation increase in Cu/Zn decreases the probability of university education by ∼4%. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with a Cu/Zn effect influencing cognitive functioning early in life. Future research should explore more deeply the precise mechanisms by which Cu/Zn affects educational attainment.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative reactions are thought to play a role in the inflammatory condition called fatty liver. It is unclear whether oxidized lipoprotein lipids or proteins are associated with future fatty liver. In the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, we determined the circulating levels of LDL and HDL oxidized lipids and studied their associations with fatty liver assessed by ultrasonography. There were 1286 middle-aged subjects with normal liver and 288 subjects with fatty liver. Analysis of oxidized lipids consisted of conjugated dienes in isolated HDL (oxHDLlipids) and LDL (oxLDLlipids). Oxidized LDL was also measured with a method based on antibodies against oxidized apolipoprotein B (oxLDLprot). After adjustment for age, sex, leisure-time physical activity, body mass index, alcohol intake, smoking, serum LDL and HDL cholesterol as well as particle concentrations, participants with elevated oxLDLlipids (odds ratio for 1-SD change in oxLDLlipids=1.27, P=0.011) had an increased risk for fatty liver. Similarly, a high oxidation score (oxLDLlipids+oxLDLprot) was directly associated with fatty liver (odds ratio=1.34, P=0.012). The strongest direct association was seen with a high oxLDLlipids/oxHDLlipids ratio (odds ratio=1.49, P=0.001). These data suggest that oxidized lipoprotein lipids are linked with the risk of fatty liver in middle-aged adults. (194/200 words).
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Free Radical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There are major health inequalities between residential areas. However, it remains unclear whether these inequalities are due to social causation or selective residential mobility, because little is known about the associations between health-related factors and selective residential mobility. This study examined how depressive symptoms, social support, and health behaviors are associated with subsequent residential mobility, as measured by frequency, distance, and direction of moves. Methods: Participants were selected from the Young Finns prospective cohort study (N = 3017) with four study waves in 1992, 1997, 2001, and 2007. Complete residential mobility history was gathered for each participant from registry data. Residential mobility was assessed over three-year periods following each study wave. The direction of mobility was measured as changes in residential location's population density, health index, mortality index, and unemployment. Area characteristics were used as covariates together with the participants' age, sex, and education. Results: Individuals reporting higher social support from friends were more likely to move (b = 0.20; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08, 0.37) and move more frequently (b = 0.08; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.14), whereas individuals reporting higher social support from their family members were less likely to move (b = -0.08; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.02). Better health behaviors were associated with longer moving distances (b = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.06, -0.23). None of the individual characteristics were associated with the direction of moves as measured by changes in municipality characteristics. Conclusions: Some of the health-related characteristics are associated with residential mobility in Finland. However, these individual characteristics do not seem to predict systematic selective residential mobility across municipalities with different regional health profiles.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Lung function measures are used in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In 38,199 European ancestry individuals, we studied genome-wide association of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC with 1000 Genomes Project (phase 1)-imputed genotypes and followed up top associations in 54,550 Europeans. We identify 14 novel loci (P<5 × 10-8) in or near ENSA, RNU5F-1, KCNS3, AK097794, ASTN2, LHX3, CCDC91, TBX3, TRIP11, RIN3, TEKT5, LTBP4, MN1 and AP1S2, and two novel signals at known loci NPNT and GPR126, providing a basis for new understanding of the genetic determinants of these traits and pulmonary diseases in which they are altered.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of risk factors for, in particular, cardiovascular diseases and increased mortality, and it constitutes a major clinical challenge affecting millions of lives. Alexithymia is a condition that has been linked with several mental diseases and symptoms, as well as somatic illnesses, including essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus. However, there is limited research on the association of alexithymia and MetS. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively explore this association in a large (n=1648) non-clinical sample of adults. Logistic regression analyses were applied to the five separate MetS components as well as the MetS diagnosis, and the analyses included a number of sociodemographic variables and depressive symptoms as covariates. The results confirmed the previous finding of alexithymic features being independently and significantly associated with hypertension. As a new finding, this association appears to be related to two particular dimensions of alexithymia, namely difficulty describing feelings and externally oriented thinking. Interestingly, alexithymic features were also separately significantly associated with waist circumference and triglycerides as well as the MetS diagnosis. Depressive symptoms did not have any significant effect on the relations of alexithymia and MetS.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To examine the utility of continuous metabolic syndrome (cMetS) scores vs a dichotomous metabolic syndrome (MetS) definition in youth to predict adult type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Study design: Participants (n = 1453) from the population-based, prospective, observational Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who were examined in youth (when aged 9-18 years) and re-examined 15-25 years later. Four cMetS scores were constructed according to procedures most often used in the literature that comprised the youth risk factor inputs of body mass index, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Adult outcomes included T2DM and high carotid IMT (≥90th percentile). Results: For a 1 SD increase in cMetS scores in youth, participants had a 30%-78% increased risk of T2DM and 12%-61% increased risk of high carotid IMT. Prediction of adult T2DM and high carotid IMT using cMetS scores in youth was essentially no different to a dichotomous MetS definition with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve ranging from 0.54-0.60 (continuous definitions) and 0.55-0.59 (dichotomous) with 95% CIs often including 0.5, and integrated discrimination improvement from -0.2% to -0.6%. Conclusions: cMetS scores in youth are predictive of cardiometabolic outcomes in adulthood. However, they do not have increased predictive utility over a dichotomous definition of MetS.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · The Journal of pediatrics
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    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We included 35 668 children from 20 studies in the discovery phase and 11 873 children from 13 studies in the replication phase. In total, 15 loci reached genome-wide significance (P-value < 5 × 10−8) in the joint discovery and replication analysis, of which 12 are previously identified loci in or close to ADCY3, GNPDA2, TMEM18, SEC16B, FAIM2, FTO, TFAP2B, TNNI3K, MC4R, GPR61, LMX1B and OLFM4 associated with adult body mass index or childhood obesity. We identified three novel loci: rs13253111 near ELP3, rs8092503 near RAB27B and rs13387838 near ADAM23. Per additional risk allele, body mass index increased 0.04 Standard Deviation Score (SDS) [Standard Error (SE) 0.007], 0.05 SDS (SE 0.008) and 0.14 SDS (SE 0.025), for rs13253111, rs8092503 and rs13387838, respectively. A genetic risk score combining all 15 SNPs showed that each additional average risk allele was associated with a 0.073 SDS (SE 0.011, P-value = 3.12 × 10−10) increase in childhood body mass index in a population of 1955 children. This risk score explained 2% of the variance in childhood body mass index. This study highlights the shared genetic background between childhood and adult body mass index and adds three novel loci. These loci likely represent age-related differences in strength of the associations with body mass index.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Human Molecular Genetics
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    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Neighbourhood characteristics have been associated with health behaviours of residents. We used longitudinal data to examine whether neighbourhood characteristics (level of urbanization and socioeconomic status) are related to within-individual variations in health behaviours (alcohol consumption, smoking, exercise and self-interest in health) as people live in different neighbourhoods over time. METHODS: Participants were from the Young Finns prospective cohort study (N = 3145) with four repeated measurement times (1992, 2001, 2007 and 2011/2012). Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and level of urbanization were measured on the level of municipality and zip code area. Within-individual (i.e. fixed-effect) regression was used to examine whether these associations were observed within individuals who lived in different neighbourhood in different measurement times. RESULTS: People living in more urban zip code areas were more likely to smoke (b = 0.06; CI = 0.03-0.09) and drink alcohol (b = 0.11; CI = 0.08-0.14), and these associations were replicated in within-individual analysis-supporting social causation. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and urbanization were associated with higher interest in maintaining personal health (b = 0.05; CI = 0.03-0.08 and b = 0.05; CI = 0.02-0.07, respectively), and these associations were also similar in within-individual analysis. Physical exercise was not associated with neighbourhood characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: These data lend partial support for the hypothesis that neighbourhood differences influence people's health behaviours.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The European Journal of Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with exceptional longevity and their offspring have significantly larger high-density lipoprotein concentrations (HDL-C) particle sizes due to the increased homozygosity for the I405V variant in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene. In this study, we investigate the association of CETP and HDL-C further to identify novel, independent CETP variants associated with HDL-C in humans.Methods:We performed a meta-analysis of HDL-C within the CETP region using 59,432 individuals imputed with 1000 Genomes data. We performed replication in an independent sample of 47,866 individuals and validation was done by Sanger sequencing.Results:The meta-analysis of HDL-C within the CETP region identified five independent variants, including an exonic variant and a common intronic insertion. We replicated these 5 variants significantly in an independent sample of 47,866 individuals. Sanger sequencing of the insertion within a single family confirmed segregation of this variant. The strongest reported association between HDL-C and CETP variants, was rs3764261; however, after conditioning on the five novel variants we identified the support for rs3764261 was highly reduced (βunadjusted=3.179 mg/dl (P value=5.25×10−509), βadjusted=0.859 mg/dl (P value=9.51×10−25)), and this finding suggests that these five novel variants may partly explain the association of CETP with HDL-C. Indeed, three of the five novel variants (rs34065661, rs5817082, rs7499892) are independent of rs3764261.Conclusions:The causal variants in CETP that account for the association with HDL-C remain unknown. We used studies imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel for fine mapping of the CETP region. We identified and validated five variants within this region that may partly account for the association of the known variant (rs3764261), as well as other sources of genetic contribution to HDL-C.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension may be predicted from childhood risk factors. Repeated observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood may enhance prediction of hypertension and subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood compared with a single observation. Participants (1927, 54% women) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study had systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements performed when aged 3 to 24 years. Childhood/youth abnormal blood pressure was defined as above 90th or 95th percentile. After a 21- to 31-year follow-up, at the age of 30 to 45 years, hypertension (>140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication) prevalence was found to be 19%. Carotid intima-media thickness was examined, and high-risk intima-media was defined as intima-media thickness >90th percentile or carotid plaques. Prediction of adulthood hypertension and high-risk intima-media was compared between one observation of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth and multiple observations by improved Pearson correlation coefficients and area under the receiver operating curve. When compared with a single measurement, 2 childhood/youth observations improved the correlation for adult systolic (r=0.44 versus 0.35, P<0.001) and diastolic (r=0.35 versus 0.17, P<0.001) blood pressure. In addition, 2 abnormal childhood/youth blood pressure observations increased the prediction of hypertension in adulthood (0.63 for 2 versus 0.60 for 1 observation, P=0.003). When compared with 2 measurements, third observation did not provide any significant improvement for correlation or prediction (P always >0.05). A higher number of childhood/youth observations of abnormal blood pressure did not enhance prediction of adult high-risk intima-media thickness. Compared with a single measurement, the prediction of adult hypertension was enhanced by 2 observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Hypertension
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Age, education, and sex associate with cognitive performance. We investigated associations between age, sex, education, and cognitive performance in young or middle-aged adults and evaluated data reduction methods to optimally capture cognitive performance in our population-based data. Method: This study is part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The 3,596 randomly selected subjects (aged 3-18 years in 1980) have been followed up for 30 years. In 2011, a computer-based cognitive testing battery (the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery [CANTAB]) was used to assess several cognitive domains. Principal component analysis, categorical and standardized classifications were applied to the cognitive data. Results: Among 34- to 49-year-old participants, cognitive performance declined with age, while education associated with better cognitive functions in several cognitive domains. Men had higher performance on all cognitive domains except visual or episodic memory, in which women outperformed men. The results were similar regardless of the data reduction method used. Conclusions: The associations between sex, age, education, and cognitive performance are already apparent in young adulthood or middle age. Principal component analyses, categorical and standardized classifications are useful tools to analyze CANTAB cognitive data. (PsycINFO Database Record
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Neuropsychology
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    ABSTRACT: We used genome wide expression (GWE) data of circulating blood cells and pathway analysis to investigate the inflammatory and other molecular pathways that may be associated with long-standing depressive symptoms. Participants were 607 women and 316 men (mean age 42 years) from the Young Finns Study who participated in three consecutive study phases in 2001, 2007 and 2012. Using Gene-set enrichment analyses (GSEA) we focused our analyses to pathways (available in MSigDB database) that are likely to affect immunological and inflammatory processes. GSEA were performed for blood cell GWE data in 2012. Depressive symptoms were assessed using a modified 21-item Beck Depression Inventory in each of the three study phases. Participants who scored in the top quartile of depressive symptoms in each of the three measurement points (n = 191) differed from other participants (n = 732) in several gene-set pathways related to inflammatory processes or immune-inflammatory signaling including interleukin (IL-1) pathway, and pathways related to various immuno-inflammatory processes, such as toll-like, the NEF protein, the nuclear factor kB, the kinase AKT and the mature B cell antigen receptor pathway (false discovery rates, FDRs<0.12). The results provide novel genome wide molecular evidence that support the association between chronic depressive symptoms and altered immune-inflammatory regulation.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Psychiatric Research
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    DESCRIPTION: A dominant approach to genetic association studies is to perform univariate tests between genotype- phenotype pairs. However, analysing related traits to- gether increases statistical power, and certain complex associations become detectable only when several variants are tested jointly. Currently, modest sample sizes of in- dividual cohorts and restricted availability of individual- level genotype-phenotype data across the cohorts limit conducting multivariate tests. We introduce metaCCA, a computational frame- work for summary statistics-based analysis of a single or multiple studies that allows multivariate represen- tation of both genotype and phenotype. It extends the statistical technique of canonical correlation analysis to the setting where original individual-level records are not available, and employs a covariance shrinkage algo- rithm to achieve robustness. Multivariate meta-analysis of two Finnish studies of nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics by metaCCA, using standard univariate output from the program SNPTEST, shows an excellent agreement with the pooled individual-level analysis of original data. Motivated by strong multivariate signals in the lipid genes tested, we envision that multivariate association testing using metaCCA has a great potential to provide novel insights from already published summary statistics from high-throughput phenotyping technologies. Code is available at https://github.com/aalto-ics- kepaco. bioRxiv preprint first posted online July 16, 2015;
    Full-text · Research · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Adverse experiences in childhood may influence cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We examined the prospective associations between types of psychosocial adversity and having multiple adversities (e.g., cumulative risk) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and its progression among young adults. Higher cumulative risk score in childhood was expected to be associated with higher IMT and its progression. Methods: Participants were 2265 men and women (age range, 24-39 years in 2001) from the ongoing Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study whose carotid IMTs were measured in 2001 and 2007. A cumulative psychosocial risk score, assessed at the study baseline in 1980, was derived from four separate aspects of the childhood environment that may impose risk (childhood stressful life events, parental health behavior family, socioeconomic status, and childhood emotional environment). Results: The cumulative risk score was associated with higher IMT in 2007 (b = 0.004, standard error [SE] = 0.001, p < .001) and increased IMT progression from 2001 to 2007 (b = 0.003, SE = 0.001, p = .001). The associations were robust to adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adulthood, including adulthood health behavior, adulthood socioeconomic status, and depressive symptoms. Among the individual childhood psychosocial risk categories, having more stressful life events was associated with higher IMT in 2001 (b = 0.007, SE = 0.003, p = .016) and poorer parental health behavior predicted higher IMT in 2007 (b = 0.004, SE = 0.002, p = .031) after adjustment for age, sex, and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions: Early life psychosocial environment influences cardiovascular risk later in life, and considering cumulative childhood risk factors may be more informative than individual factors in predicting progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Psychosomatic Medicine

Publication Stats

25k Citations
4,910.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994-2015
    • University of Turku
      • • Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine
      • • Department of Clinical Neurophysiology
      • • Turku PET Centre
      Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 1997-2014
    • Turku University Hospital
      • • Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Turku PET Centre
      Turku, Southwest Finland, Finland
  • 2012
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1994-2011
    • University of Helsinki
      • • Institute of Behavioural Sciences
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Oral Medicine
      Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland
  • 2008
    • Turku centre for biotechnology, finland
      Turku, Varsinais-Suomi, Finland
    • Kuopio University Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Kuopio, Northern Savo, Finland
  • 2007
    • University of Tampere
      • Medical School
      Tampere, Western Finland, Finland
    • University College London
      • Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • University of Kuopio
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Kuopio, Eastern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2002-2003
    • Turku PET Centre
      Turku, Varsinais-Suomi, Finland
  • 1999-2003
    • Royal Prince Alfred Hospital
      • Department of Medical Oncology
      Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2001
    • University of Jyväskylä
      Jyväskylä, Province of Western Finland, Finland