Adam Jurgoński

Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland

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Publications (29)61.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Recently attention has been focused on cocoa beans that are the primary raw material used for the preparation of cocoa powder or chocolate as valuable source of bioactive substances with high antioxidant potential and well documented beneficial health properties, including prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. The ability of phenolic compounds to inhibit the activity of enzyme hydrolyzing carbohydrates is already quite well studied, however the anti-obesity and antidiabetic activity of cocoa extracts obtained from roasted beans as cytoprotective agents or insulin signaling regulators is not known. In the present study for the first time compounds of raw and roasted cocoa bean of Forastero variety phenolic extracts were separated and purificated via centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) technique. Obtained preparations were in vitro investigated in terms of the PTP1B inhibition and cytoprotective activity against oxidative stress using human hepatoma HepG2 and mouse pancreatic β-TC3 cell lines. Additionally the influence of preparations on fat tissue and antioxidant properties in vivo on rat animal model was studied. Taking into account obtained results it can be concluded that cocoa phytochemicals, including pigment's fraction of roasted beans with melanoidins, are potential modulators of insulin signaling, protect beta and hepatic cells against cellular damage induced by excessive oxidative stress. This study for the first time reports potential anti-obesity properties of roasted cocoa bean extract rich in MRP, which makes this extract as promising candidate for diabetes prevention and associated metabolic disorder.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: We investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with strawberry extracts rich in ETs and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on the intestinal microbiota and the formation of bacterial metabolites in the distal intestine, as well as the absorption of ET metabolites and antioxidant status in rats. Methods: Rats were allocated into six groups of eight animals each and fed for 4 weeks with a control diet (group C), a control diet supplemented with FOS (group C + FOS) or modifications of these diets, in which a monomeric or dimeric ET-rich extract was added (groups ME and ME + FOS or DE and DE + FOS, respectively). Results: The extract addition, the FOS addition and their interaction significantly affected the total and selected bacterial counts in the caecal digesta (all P < 0.005). The total bacterial count was the highest in group C + FOS, lower in group DE and the lowest in group ME + FOS (10.6, 10.3 and 8.52 log cells/g, respectively; P ≤ 0.05). The total caecal content of ET metabolites was higher in the ME and ME + FOS group than in the DE and DE + FOS group, respectively (67.8 and 89.5 vs. 13.0 and 18.0 µg/g, respectively; P < 0.001). The total plasma concentration of ET metabolites was higher in the ME + FOS and DE + FOS group than in the ME group (248 and 281 vs. 8.13 ng/mL, respectively; P < 0.001). Conclusions: ETs of the monomeric ET-rich extract are more prone to intestinal breakdown than those of the dimeric ET-rich extract, and absorption of their metabolites can be increased by dietary FOS; however, together, they evoke strong antibacterial activity.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · European Journal of Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: Raspberry pomace is a source of polyphenols, which nutritional and health promoting properties are not sufficiently known. The aim of this 8-weeks study was to scrutinize if raspberry extracts (REs) with different ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratios might favorably affect the caecal fermentation processes and blood lipid profile in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were fed with a standard diet or its modification with two types of REs (E1 and E2) characterized by different ratios of ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols (7.7 and 3.1 for E1 and E2, respectively) and added to a diet at two dosages of polyphenolic compounds (0.15 and 0.30% of a diet; L and H treatments, respectively). Irrespective of polyphenols dietary level, both REs reduced the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase, increased production of butyric acid in the caecum and reduced triacylglycerols in blood plasma. The E1 treatment at both dosages caused more effective reduction in the concentration of ammonia and elevated acetate level in the caecal digesta than E2. On the other hand, only the E2 treatment lowered value of the atherogenic index when compared with control group. When comparing dosages of REs, a higher one was more potent to reduce the activity of bacterial β-glucosidase, β-, α-galactosidase and lowered value of the HDL profile in plasma. To conclude, REs may favorably modulate the activity of the caecal microbiota and blood lipid profile in rats; however, the intensity of these effects may be related to the dosages of dietary polyphenols and to their profile, e.g., ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratio.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Molecules
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    ABSTRACT: Although raspberry seed oil (RO) is rich in essential fatty acids there is a lack of experiments assessing benefits of its consumption. We investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with RO on healthy rats and rats with low-grade systemic inflammation, liver disorders, and dyslipidemia induced by a high-fat/low-fiber (HF/LF) diet. Thirty-two rats were allocated into 4 groups of 8 rats each and fed for 8 wk with a control (C; 7% lard and 5% cellulose) or HF/LF (21% lard and 2% cellulose) diet or modifications of these diets in which 7% RO replaced all (C+RO group) or a proportion of (HF/LF+RO group) the lard. Effects of diet and RO and their interaction on bacterial activity and metabolite formations in the distal intestine, liver fat and glutathione concentration, plasma lipid profile, transaminase activities, and plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were tested. Dietary RO decreased plasma alanine and aspartate transaminase activities (43.4 and 157 vs. 25.6 and 115 U/L, respectively; P < 0.05 and P < 0.005) and plasma TNF-α and triglyceride concentrations (132 pg/mL and 2.07 mmol/L vs. 86.5 pg/mL and 0.99 mmol/L, respectively; P < 0.05). In C+RO group livers, the fat concentration was decreased, whereas the glutathione to glutathione disulfide ratio was increased compared with the C group (30.1% and 6.20 μmol/g vs. 23.3% and 7.25 μmol/g, respectively; P ≤ 0.05); however, those differences were not observed between the HF/LF groups (P-interaction < 0.05). In the HF/LF+RO group, the plasma CRP concentration was lower than in the HF/LF group (88.1 vs. 765 pg/mL; P ≤ 0.05) and similar to that in the C and C+RO groups (158 and 128 pg/mL, respectively). Dietary RO improves plasma lipid profile and liver functions and reduces low-grade systemic inflammation in rats; however, the extent of these beneficial effects is partly dependent on the diet type. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: Strawberry and raspberry seeds were chemically analyzed and added as dietary ingredients to investigate the physiological response of rats. In both cases the main component was dietary fiber and the main polyphenols were ellagitannins (ET). The strawberry ET were mainly constituted by monomers and a dimer- agrimoniin, whereas raspberry ET- mainly by dimer- sanguiin-H-6 and trimer-lambertianin-C. The lower content and the less polymerized structure of strawberry ET resulted in a higher cecal metabolites concentration (mainly nasutin and urolithin-A) in comparison to rats fed diet containing raspberry seeds. Dietary raspberry seeds, a source of dietary fiber, despite to be richer in polyphenol compounds, were better utilized in fermentation processes resulting in enhanced production of short-chain fatty acids. As opposed to strawberry seeds, the treatment with raspberry seeds beneficially improved atherogenic index of a diet, mainly due to reduced triacylglycerol concentration in the serum.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to verify the glycaemia-lowering activity of L-arabinose. The experiment was conducted on 3 individual days, each separated by a week. At the beginning of each week rats were subjected to an oral glucose, sucrose or starch tolerance test. Five minutes prior to each test rats were gavaged with water (a control), an aqueous solution of acarbose (a positive control) and L-arabinose. There was no effect of L-arabinose on glycaemia in the glucose tolerance test, whereas it reduced postprandial glycaemia after 15 min of the sucrose tolerance test. In the starch tolerance test, the glycaemia after L-arabinose ingestion was significantly decreased both at time intervals and in total. Inhibition of enzyme activity involved in starch digestion (amylase, maltase) may be suggested as the most probable mechanism responsible for the observed effects.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Strawberry and raspberry seeds were chemically analyzed and added as dietary ingredients to investigate the physiological response of rats. In both cases the main component was dietary fiber and the main polyphenols were ellagitannins (ET). The strawberry ET were mainly constituted by monomers and a dimer, agrimoniin, whereas raspberry ET were mainly constituted by a dimer, sanguiin-H-6, and a trimer, lambertianin-C. The lower content and the less polymerized structure of strawberry ET resulted in a higher cecal metabolites concentration (mainly nasutin and urolithin-A) in comparison to rats fed diet containing raspberry seeds. Dietary raspberry seeds, a source of dietary fiber, despite being richer in polyphenol compounds, were better utilized in fermentation processes, resulting in enhanced production of short-chain fatty acids. As opposed to strawberry seeds, the treatment with raspberry seeds beneficially improved the atherogenic index of a diet, mainly due to reduced triacylglycerol concentration in the serum.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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    Adam Jurgoński · Bartosz Fotschki · Jerzy Juśkiewicz
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    ABSTRACT: To answer the question whether dietary strawberry seed oil rich in α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid (29.3 and 47.2% of total fatty acids, respectively) can beneficially affect disorders induced by the consumption of an obesogenic diet. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and fed with a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fiber) diet that contained either strawberry seed oil or an edible rapeseed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. After 8 weeks of feeding, the obesogenic diet increased the body weight and the liver mass and fat content, whereas decreased the cecal acetate and butyrate concentration. This diet also altered the plasma lipid profile and decreased the liver sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) content. However, the lowest liver SREBP-1c content was observed in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Moreover, dietary strawberry seed oil decreased the cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) regardless of the diet type, whereas the cecal β-glucuronidase activity was considerably increased only in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Dietary strawberry seed oil also lowered the liver fat content, the plasma triglyceride level and the atherogenic index of plasma. Strawberry seed oil has a potent lipid-lowering activity but can unfavorably affect microbial metabolism in the distal intestine. The observed effects are partly due to the synergistic action of the oil and the obesogenic diet.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Food & Nutrition Research
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    ABSTRACT: S u m m a r y The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid profile of apple seed oil and its effects on the caecal functions, blood lipids, and markers of antioxidant status and inflammation in rats. A nutritional experiment was performed on Wistar rats allocated to 3 groups of 8 animals each. The animals were fed with a diet containing different sources of fat: pork lard (group LA), rapeseed oil (group RO) and apple seed oil (group AO). Apple seed oil was rich in linoleic acid and oleic acids (57 % and 32.3 % of total fatty acids, respectively). The short chain fatty acid concentration in the caecal digesta was comparable among all groups, whereas the ammonia concentration was lower in groups AO and RO than in group LA (0.32 and 0.3, respectively vs 0.42 mg/g). The plasma alanine (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities also decreased in the AO and RO groups (ALT, 19.34 and 19.81, respectively vs 30,7 U/L and AST, 115.1 and 107, respectively vs 138.3 U/L) The plasma triacylglycerols (TG) concentration and the atherogenic index (ATI) of plasma were significantly decreased in the AO group compared to the LA group (TG, 1.79 vs 2.62 mmol/L and ATI, 0.095 vs 0.313). Apple seed oil is a valuable source of unsatu-rated fatty acids and its dietary addition has slightly better metabolic effects on rat organism than does rapeseed oil.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Zywnosc: Nauka, Technologia, Jakosc
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    Adam Jurgoński · Bartosz Fotschki · Jerzy Juśkiewicz
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: It was hypothesised that blackcurrant seed oil beneficially modulates metabolic disorders related to obesity and its complications. The study also aimed to investigate the potentially adverse effects of an unbalanced diet on the distal intestine. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and were fed a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fibre) diet that contained either rapeseed oil (Canola) or blackcurrant seed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. Results: After 8 weeks, the obesogenic dietary regimen increased the body weight, altered the plasma lipid profile and increased the liver fat content and the plasma transaminase activities. In addition, the obesogenic diet decreased bacterial glycolytic activity and short-chain fatty acid formation in the distal intestine. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil improved the lipid metabolism by lowering liver fat accumulation and the plasma triglyceride concentration and atherogenicity as well by increasing the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration. However, in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing blackcurrant seed oil, the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration was comparable with both rapeseed oil-containing diets, and a significant elevation of the plasma transaminase activities was noted instead. Conclusions: The obesogenic dietary regimen causes a number of metabolic disorders, including alterations in the hindgut microbial metabolism. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil ameliorates the lipid metabolism; however, the beneficial effect is restricted when it is provided together with the obesogenic diet, and a risk of liver injury may occur.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · European Journal of Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to scrutinise if the dietary addition of a low-pectin fibre preparation obtained from apple pomace, the by-product of apple concentrate processing, is able to favourably affect the gut metabolism, antioxidant status and blood bio-markers of the organism, as it takes place when apple fibre is present in the diet as an unprocessed ingredient. The nutritional experiment was performed on rats allocated to 2 groups of 10 animals each and fed for 2 weeks with either a control cellulose-containing diet or an experimental low-pectin apple fibre-containing diet. To induce metabolic disorders a diet rich in saturated fat and fructose was used in both diet-specific groups. The dietary apple fibre preparation (AFP) significantly reduced the activity of sucrase and maltase in the mucosa of the small intestine. In the caecal digesta, the dietary AFP significantly increased bacterial α-glucosidase and α-galactosidase activity, whereas bacterial β-glucuronidase activity was significantly reduced. Also, the content of short chain fatty acids in the caecal digesta was significantly increased after the AFP supplementation. In the blood serum, the dietary AFP significantly reduced the glucose concentration, and decreased the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. In conclusion, the tested dietary AFP is still able to favourably affect the gut metabolism and can also ameliorate blood glucose concentration, which seems to be related to the inhibition of mucosal disaccharidase activities. However, the analysed preparation has no influence on the antioxidant status of the organism and may trigger adverse effects on cholesterol metabolism.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were fed diets containing low (0.051% of diet) or high (0.153% of diet) levels of an ellagitannin-rich (ET) strawberry extract with dietary fructooligosaccharides (FOS) or cellulose (CEL) for 4 weeks. The in vivo study demonstrated that some positive changes in the cecal metabolism resulting from the ingestion of a diet enriched only with FOS were completely or slightly suppressed by the dietary ET. In particular, the pH value (7.21 vs. 7.36), short-chain fatty acid production (41.2 vs 30.0 μmol/100g BW), and β-glucuronidase activity (20.2 vs. 15.7 μmol/h/g) in the cecum of rats fed with FOS were affected upon the addition of the ET extract. Dietary FOS caused higher metabolism of the tested ET strawberry extract in the gastrointestinal tract of rats. Moreover, the systemic effect of the supplements when consumed together showed undesired serum HDL-cholesterol decrease (0.78 vs. 1.02 mmol/L in the treatment with FOS only).
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The consumption of a high level of dietary extract from blackcurrant pomace rich in polyphenols was hypothesised to exert beneficial effects on the serum lipid profile, the markers of insulin resistance and the antioxidant status of the host without negative changes in the intestinal tract. This hypothesis was tested on 20 male New Zealand white rabbits randomly assigned to four groups of five individuals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were subjected to the following dietary treatments: two control groups were fed a standard or a high-fat diet (7 and 32 % energy from fat, respectively), and two experimental groups were fed a standard or a high-fat diet with the addition of 1.5 % blackcurrant polyphenolic extract. The extract obtained from blackcurrant fruit pomaces was characterised by high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols (48.9 and 17.9 %, respectively). The high-fat feeding regimen led to a series of unfavourable changes, such as increased body weight, disturbance of fermentative processes in the hindgut as well the induction of oxidative stress, hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance. Dietary supplementation with blackcurrant extract decreased the concentration of putrefactive metabolites (ammonia and putrefactive SCFA) and β-glucuronidase activity in the hindgut digesta. Additionally, the extract ameliorated hyperlipidaemia by decreasing triglyceride, total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and free fatty acid concentrations in the serum and increased the antioxidant capacity of the serum. This study suggests that a polyphenol-rich extract from blackcurrant pomace ingested at relatively high amounts may be a useful therapeutic option in the reversal of dysfunctions related to obesity and its complications.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · European Journal of Nutrition
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    Adam Jurgoński · Jerzy Juśkiewicz · Zenon Zduńczyk
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Nutrients
  • Adam Jurgoński · Jerzy Juśkiewicz · Zenon Zduńczyk
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The berries of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.), including an edible Kamchatka variety (var. kamtschatica Sevast.), are a potential but relatively unknown source of anthocyanins, which are thought to have favorable effects on diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to examine whether the dietary addition of a Kamchatka honeysuckle berry extract (KHBE, 327 mg anthocyanins/g) is able to limit the disorders related to these diseases induced by a high-fructose diet in rats. Methods: The experiment was conducted using 24 adult male Wistar rats distributed into 3 groups of 8 animals each and fed semipurified casein diets differentiated by the carbohydrate source for 4 wk, as follows: a control cornstarch diet (681 g/kg) or a high-fructose diet (633 g/kg), with or without the addition of KHBE (2 g/kg). Results: The mucosal lactase activity in the small intestine was increased in the rats fed the KHBE-containing diet compared with the rats fed the control diet. In the cecal digesta, the dietary KHBE considerably increased bacterial α- and β-glucosidase activity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose tolerance were detected in the rats fed the high-fructose diet. The dietary KHBE normalized the plasma triglyceride concentration and atherogenicity, whereas plasma non-HDL cholesterol, insulin concentration, and insulin resistance were ameliorated to levels comparable with the rats fed the control diet. Conclusion: An anthocyanin-rich Kamchatka honeysuckle berry extract supplemented to an unbalanced diet is able to ameliorate the disturbances in lipid and glucose metabolism that are the fundamental risk factors for CVD and diabetes. Moreover, the extract stimulates enzymatic activity within the gut that seems to be related to the metabolism of polyphenols.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to verify that the concomitant presence of grapefruit flavonoid extract with inulin in a Western-type diet may provide synergistic effects to the hindgut metabolism, as well as blood lipid and mineral profiles. Forty male Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups and fed for 28 days with diets rich in fat, cholesterol and protein. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was applied to assess the effects of inulin (v. sucrose, 5% of the diet), the addition of dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract (diets without or with 0.3% of an extract from hard parts of grapefruit) and the interaction between these two dietary factors. When compared to the control sucrose-containing diet, the diet enriched with inulin led to typical changes within the caecum, the main part of hindgut fermentation in rats, such as acidification of the digesta, support of bifidobacteria growth and increase of propionate and butyrate production. The dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract without inulin increased the bulk and pH value of caecal digesta, whereas short-chain fatty acid concentration and the bifidobacteria population were lowered compared to the extract-free diets. Simultaneous dietary addition of both tested components decreased slightly the pH value and increased somewhat the bifidobacteria number and the propionate concentration, however to the level observed with the control sucrose-containing diet. With regard to blood lipids, dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract decreased the triglyceride concentration regardless of the dietary carbohydrate type. Inulin does not provide any additional benefit to the blood lipid profile caused by the dietary application of grapefruit flavonoid extract and it does not counteract clearly detrimental effects of the extract in the hindgut. Adding grapefruit extract to the diet must be performed with caution due to possible adverse hindgut responses with overdoses.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Nutrition & Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Comparison of the effects of a high-fructose diet supplemented with rutin, a phenolic compound with well-recognized bioavailability and bioactivity, and a chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) seed extract rich in caffeoylquinic acids (CQA) on gut physiology and the development of disorders related to metabolic syndrome. A 28-d experiment was conducted on 32 young male Wistar rats. In comparison with control rats fed a standard corn starch diet (group C), the experimental group (group E) was fed a diet with an increased content of cholesterol and fructose (to 1% and 66% of the diet, respectively), as well as with oxidized soybean oil. Rats from the other two experimental groups were administered the same diet as group E during the first 2 wk of feeding, whereas at the beginning of the last 2 wk, the diet was enriched with rutin (group ER) or the CQA-rich ethanol extract from chicory seeds (9.6% of CQA, group EC), so the amount of added phenolics was equal in both dietary groups (0.15%). The diet administered in group E caused hyperglycemia and increased blood serum atherogenicity in rats, but did not induce other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, i.e., dyslipidemia and oxidative stress. Additionally, it affected gut physiology through increasing mucosal sucrase activity and disturbing fermentative processes in the cecum, such as the production of short-chain fatty acids and the activity of microbial enzymes. Similarly to rutin, the dietary addition of the chicory seed extract improved glycemia, which was comparable to that determined in group C. In addition, the extract was found to decrease the atherogenic index to the level observed in group C and to increase blood antioxidant status. Both dietary supplements reduced the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in kidney and heart tissue when compared with group E. The potential efficacy of the CQA-rich extract from chicory seeds in improving diet-induced metabolic disturbances proved to be better than that of rutin; thus, the extract might be considered as a dietary supplement for carrying out clinical trials.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: The present 4-week study on growing Wistar rats was aimed at assessing the potential advantages of dietary supplementation with apple pomace containing both fibre and polyphenols, which enables nutritional exploitation of the physiological traits of both compounds. A total of twenty-four rats, assigned to the control (C), group fed with a diet supplemented with 14% of processed apple pomace (A) and group fed with a diet supplemented with 15% unprocessed apple pomace (AP) groups, were fed the following iso-fibrous diets: control, ethanol-extracted and unprocessed apple pomaces (low and high level of dietary polyphenols, i.e. 0·002 and 0·018%, respectively). To measure the animal response, parameters describing the caecal fermentation, antioxidative status and lipoprotein profile of rats were assessed. Both dietary apple pomaces were found to significantly (P≤0·05) decrease caecal pH and ammonia concentration, microbial β-glucuronidase activity as well as to increase caecal SCFA concentration in comparison to the control diet. The unprocessed pomace did not suppress caecal fermentation. Unlike the extracted one, the dietary apple pomace rich in polyphenols significantly (P≤0·05 v. C group) increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and serum antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble substances and significantly (P≤0·05 v. C group) decreased amounts of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in liver tissue. Moreover, the 4-week administration of the AP diet to rats evoked a significant decrease in serum glucose concentration (P≤0·05 v. C and A groups). In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the polyphenol-rich fibre complexes from apple pomace exerted positive effects on gastrointestinal physiology and antioxidant status of rats.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · The British journal of nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: This study compared the effects of supplementation with a polyphenol-rich pomace from strawberry (US) and a strawberry pomace without most of these compounds (PS) on gastrointestinal, blood, and tissue biomarkers in rats fed diets differing in carbohydrate contents for 4 wk. The diets were: corn starch (group CS), high fructose (60% by weight; group F), starch with 7.7% of either US or PS (groups CS+US and CS+PS, respectively), and high fructose with 7.7% of either US or PS (groups F+US and F+PS, respectively). An interaction (P < 0.05) was observed between diet type and strawberry preparation, showing that upon fructose feeding, US had a greater effect than PS on lowering serum insulin, liver total cholesterol, and conjugated dienes. Additionally, the F+US group had lower serum FFA than the F+PS group (P < 0.05). The extraction of polyphenols diminished the physiological effect associated with strawberry intake, suggesting that the fiber component of the pomace was also active in reducing metabolic complications following fructose feeding to rats.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this 28 d experiment was to examine the physiological response of growing rats to a dietary combination of prebiotic chicory fructans, with polyphenols originating from different parts of the chicory plant, i.e. roots, root peels, seeds and leaves. A total of forty rats were assigned to groups fed the following diets characterised by a similar content of oligofructose and inulin: control, with 10 % of a root extract (a low level of dietary polyphenols, 0·05 %), with 6·5 % of a root peel extract (a medium level of dietary polyphenols, 0·107 %), with a combination of 8 % of a peel extract and 0·8 % of a seed extract (a high level of dietary polyphenols, 0·208 %) and with 2·5 % of a leaf extract (a medium level of dietary polyphenols, 0·106 %, with chicoric acid constituting half of them). Chicory seeds are the richest source of polyphenols, especially abundant in dicaffeoylquinic acids. When applied as a dietary supplement, the mixture of monocaffeoylquinic and dicaffeoylquinic acids, from the extracts made of roots, root peels and seeds, elicited more favourable changes in parameters of the antioxidative status of the body and in the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase in the faeces and caecal digesta. In turn, the extract from chicory leaves, containing considerable quantities of chicoric acid and polyphenolic glycosides, apart from chlorogenic acids, also triggered desirable changes in the lipid profile of the blood serum. The high concentration of polyphenols in the extracts examined enables their application as dietary supplements to be administered in low doses.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · The British journal of nutrition