[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
. To evaluate longitudinal functional and anatomical results after combined pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) using a wide-field Landers intraoperative temporary keratoprosthesis (TKP) in patients with vitreoretinal pathology and corneal opacity due to severe ocular trauma.
Material and Methods
. Medical records of 12 patients who had undergone PPV/PKP/KP due to severe eye trauma were analyzed. Functional (best-corrected visual acuity) and anatomic outcomes (clarity of the corneal graft, retinal attachment, and intraocular pressure) were assessed during the follow-up (mean 16 months).
. Final visual acuities varied from NLP to CF to 2 m. Visual acuity improved in 7 cases, was unchanged in 4 eyes, and worsened in 1 eye. The corneal graft was transparent during the follow-up in 3 cases and graft failure was observed in 9 eyes. Silicone oil was used as a tamponade in all cases and retina was reattached in 92% of cases.
. Combined PPV and PKP with the use of wide-field Landers TKP allowed for surgical intervention in patients with vitreoretinal pathology coexisting with corneal wound. Although retina was attached in most of the cases, corneal graft survived only in one-fourth of patients and final visual acuities were poor.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Ophthalmology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To assess quantitatively the natural course of the visual field (VF) loss in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) during 2-year period of observation.
VFs were obtained by semi-automated kinetic perimetry (SKP) during four examinations of 16 patients suffering from RP. Three stimulus conditions (V4e, III4e and I4e) with a constant stimulus angular velocity of 3°/s were used to assess the hill of vision in both eyes of each patient. The area of each isopter was measured in square degrees and corrected for the individual reaction time (RT).
There were four patients with mild restriction of VF, six with ring scotomas and six with advanced concentric constrictions of VF. Only I4e isopter area decreased significantly from the first to the last session (p = 0.006), the difference was 154 deg(2) being 13% of initial isopter area. The difference was not significant for V4e and III4e isopters. RT values did not differ significantly between four sessions.
Only I4e isopter's area was decreased significantly during two years of observation. SKP provides a method of assessment of progression of the VF loss in patients suffering from RP by measurement of the isopters' area over time.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Current eye research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the potential of flicker-defined form (FDF) perimetry to detect functional loss in patient groups with beginning glaucoma, and to evaluate the dynamic range of the FDF stimulus in individual patients and at individual test positions.
FDF perimetry and standard automated perimetry (SAP) were performed at identical test locations (adapted G1 protocol) in 60 healthy subjects and 111 glaucoma patients. All patients showed glaucomatous optic disc appearance. Grouping within the glaucoma cohort was based on SAP-performance: 33 "preperimetric" open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients, 28 "borderline" OAG (focal defects and SAP-mean defect (MD) <2 dB), 33 "early" OAG (SAP-MD < 5 dB), 17 "advanced" OAG. All participants were experienced in psychophysical and perimetric tests. Defect values and the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) in patient groups were statistically compared.
The values of FDF-MD in the preperimetric, borderline, and early OAG group were 2.7 ± 3.4 dB, 5.5 ± 2.6 dB, and 8.5 ± 3.4 dB respectively (all significantly above normal). The percentage of patients exceeding normal FDF-MD was 27.3 %, 60.7 %, and 87.9 % respectively. The age-adjusted FDF-mean defect (MD) of the G1X-protocol was not significantly correlated with refractive error, lens opacity, pupil size, or gender. Occurrence of ceiling effects (inability to detect targets at highest contrast) showed a high correlation with visual field losses (R = 0.72, p < 0.001). Local analysis indicates that SAP losses exceeding 5 dB could not be distinguished with the FDF technique.
The FDF stimulus was able to detect beginning glaucoma damage. Patients with SAP-MD values exceeding 5 dB should be monitored with conventional perimetry because of its larger dynamic range.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PurposeTo test the hypothesis whether semi-automated kinetic perimetry (SKP) provides additional information to static automated perimetry (SAP) in the assessment of the remaining visual field in end-stage glaucoma, as defined by disc appearance (cup-to-disc ratio worse than 0.9) and SAP criteria (MD worse than 20 dB).Methods
Fifty eyes of 44 patients presenting with end-stage glaucoma were examined first with SAP within the central 30° using stimulus size III, followed by SKP within 90° using test targets III4e and V4e.ResultsOverall, SKP provided additional information over SAP in more than half (54%) of the cases. In 16 instances (32%), SKP revealed visual field island beyond 30° that was undetected by SAP. In eight cases (16%), SKP showed both a central island and peripheral island of visual field. In three cases (6%) altitudinal scotomatous loss was found using SKP, but not in SAP. In 23 cases (46%) the central visual field island was defined both with SAP and SKP. The mean examination duration was 4 min for SAP and 9 min for SKP.Conclusions
In clinical practice, SKP with III4e and V4e test targets provides more information than 30° SAP regarding the remaining peripheral VF in patients with end-stage glaucoma; however, a longer test time is required for SKP.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The diurnal fluctuation of intraocular pressure may be relevant in glaucoma. The aim of this study was to find out whether the timing of diurnal fluctuation is stable over the years.
Long-term IOP data from the Erlangen Glaucoma Registry, consisting of several annual extended diurnal IOP profiles for each patient, was retrospectively analyzed. Normal subjects, patients with ocular hypertension and with pigment dispersion syndrome were included because these subjects had not been treated with antiglaucomatous medications at the time of data acquisition. A cosine curve was fitted to the IOP data and the stability of individual rhythms over the years was tested using the Rayleigh test. To compare the peak times among groups, means were calculated only from subjects with a significant Rayleigh test.
Of the fifty-two eligible subjects, a total of 364 extended diurnal IOP profiles measured in a sitting position had been collected over a period of 114 ± 39 months. The Rayleigh test indicated intraindividual stability of phase timing only in 19 subjects (36%). In subjects with pigment dispersions syndrome, peak IOP occurred on average two hours and seven minutes later during the day compared with subjects without this condition (p = 0.05).
Fitting of cosine curves to the clinical IOP profiles was generally feasible, although careful interpretation is warranted due to lack of measurements in supine position and between midnight and 7 am. The interesting observation of a phase lag in eyes with pigment dispersion syndrome warrants confirmation and exploration in future prospective studies. The analysis of the IOP data showed no stable individual rhythm in the long term in a majority of patients.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · BMC Ophthalmology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction and vascular dysregulation play a role in the multifactorial pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy. Dyslipidaemia as a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction is associated with glaucoma and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In additional to a genetic disposition, a potential mechanism for the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction could be an additive effect of several risk factors, like dyslipidaemia, smoking, arterial hypertension, diabetes and hyperhomocysteinaemia. This paper reviews the literature concerning the association between dyslipidaemia and glaucomatous disease and explains the possible role of dyslipidaemia for the pathogenesis and progression of glaucoma. The role of exogeneous modifiable risk factors for prevention and therapy of glaucoma and their neutralisation by changing life style like weight reduction, modifications of nutrition and physical activity, are discussed.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the area of isopters obtained using semi-automated kinetic perimetry (SKP) and Vigabatrin dosage in epilepsy patients with pretreatment baseline examination during 2-years of the follow-up.
29 epilepsy patients were included into the study, but 15 individuals were excluded due to cognitive impairment, intracranial pathologies or eye diseases. Finally, 14 patients were examined with SKP before VGB treatment and after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Reaction time (RT)-corrected areas of three isopters (III4e, I4e and I2e) were measured for each of five examinations and compared intra-individually during 2-years period. Additionally, six epilepsy patients on other antiepileptic drugs were examined five times with SKP as a control.
There was a significant decrease of I2e, I4e and III4e isopters’ area during the follow-up of two years. Correlation was found between the I2e isopter’s area and both cumulative dose and mean daily dose of VGB. With increasing RT, there was decreasing of all isopters’ area in patients receiving VGB. In epilepsy patients who were not receiving VGB, there were no significance differences in isopters’ area during follow-up.
There was attenuation of area of III4e, I4e and I2e isopters obtained with SKP during a period of 2 years. RT, the cumulative dose and the mean daily dose of VGB influenced isopters' area obtained with SKP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the influence of the cold pressor test (CPT) on steady-state-pattern electroretinograms (PERG) in normal subjects and glaucoma patients.
Steady state PERGs to 7.8 Hz pattern reversal stimuli were recorded in 63 subjects. Fifteen healthy control subjects, 14 patients with ocular hypertension (OHT) and 34 patients with open-angle glaucoma (20 normotensive (NTG) and 14 high tension glaucoma (HTG)) were examined. Steady State PERG amplitudes and latencies were analysed at baseline, during cold stimulus using a modified cold pressure test and during the subsequent recovery phase. Blood pressure and heart rate were simultaneously recorded in 10 normals and 11 glaucoma patients.
During the three test conditions (baseline, ice-water, warm-water) glaucoma patients (NTG and HTG) showed significantly reduced PERG amplitudes in comparison to control subjects (p<0.001) and to OHT patients (p<0.004). Patients with OHT displayed lower PERG amplitudes than control subjects (n.s., with consideration of Bonferroni). Only NTG patients showed a significant effect of the CPT on PERG amplitude (significant decrease during warm-water p=0.02). Latencies shortened significantly during warm-water period after cold stimulus in control subjects (p=0.05) and in NTG patients (p=0.02) with a non-significant trend of shortened latencies in the OHT (p=0.06) and HTG groups (p=0.3). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased during cold water (p < 0.001) and a decreased during warming up conditions (p < 0.001).
This study shows that a cold pressure test influences the PERG responses particularly in NTG.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This case report depicts the clinical course of a female patient with unilateral retinitis pigmentosa (RP), who presented first in 1984 at the age of 43 years. At the beginning, there were cells in the vitreous leading to the diagnosis of uveitis with vasculitis. Within 30 years, the complete clinical manifestation of RP developed with bone spicule-shaped pigment deposits, pale optic disc, narrowed arterioles, cystoid macular oedema, posterior subcapsular cataract, concentric narrowing of the visual field and undetectable electroretinogram signal. At the age of 72 years, there are still no signs of retinal dystrophy in the other eye.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the benefits of the internal limiting membrane removal in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who underwent pars plana vitrectomy.
The first study group (B) consisted of 26 patients who underwent vitrectomy with the internal limiting membrane peeling. The second control group (K) consisted of 15 patients, in whom vitrectomy was performed without he internal limiting membrane peeling. Macular detachment was confirmed preoperatively in all patients. Ophthalmic examination was performed 6 months after surgery. This included the best corrected visual acuity for distance and near, M-Charts, fundus examination and spectral domain--optical coherent tomography.
The results were statistically analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk test and the Ch2 test of homogeneity. In the study group (B), the mean postoperative best corrected visual acuity for distance was 0.46, while in the control group (K) it was 0.35 (p = 0.35). The best corrected visual acuity for near in group B was 0.83 and 1.01 (p = 0.63) in group K. Central retinal thickness in group B was 268.64 μm, while in group K it was 335.07 μm (p = 0.20). The statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the two groups regarding the prevalence of defects in the ellipsoidal layer (p = 0.004). They were found to occur more frequently in group K (64.29%) than in group B (20.00%). The prevalence of epiretinal membrane was higher in group K (28.57%) than in group B (3.85%) (p = 0.02).
The internal limiting membrane peeling reduces the risk of secondary epiretinal membrane, restores the ellipsoidal layer integrity and does not affect the visual acuity for distance and near.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
We compared the results of flicker-defined form (FDF) perimetry with standard automated perimetry (SAP) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT).
A total of 64 healthy subjects, 45 ocular hypertensive patients, and 97 "early" open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients participated in this study. Definition of glaucoma was based exclusively on glaucomatous optic disc appearance. All subjects underwent FDF perimetry, SAP, and peripapillary measurements of the RNFL thickness. The FDF perimetry and SAP were performed at identical test locations (G1 protocol). Exclusion criteria were subjects younger than 34 years, SAP mean defect (SAP MD) > 5 dB, eye diseases other than glaucoma, or nonreliable FDF measurements. The correlations between the perimetric data on one hand and RNFL thicknesses on the other hand were analyzed statistically.
The age-corrected sensitivity values and the local results from the controls were used to determine FDF mean defect (FDF MD). The FDF perimetry and SAP showed high concordance in this cohort of experienced patients (MD values, R = -0.69, P < 0.001). Of a total of 42 OAG patients with abnormal SAP MD, 38 also displayed abnormal FDF MD. However, FDF MD was abnormal in 28 of 55 OAG patients with normal SAP MD. The FDF MD was significantly (R = -0.61, P < 0.001) correlated with RNFL thickness with a (nonsignificantly) larger correlation coefficient than conventional SAP MD (R = -0.48, P < 0.001).
The FDF perimetry is able to uncover functional changes concurrent with the changes in RNFL thickness. The FDF perimetry may be an efficient functional test to detect early glaucomatous nerve atrophy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00494923.).
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyze if anterior chamber parameters are risk factors for the development of pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) and/or for the conversion to pigmentary glaucoma (PG).
This study included a total of 63 eyes from 35 patients with PDS and PG and 65 eyes from 49 unaffected volunteers as the control group. The following parameters were measured by slit lamp optical coherence tomography (SL-OCT): anterior chamber volume (ACV) and depth (ACD), angle opening distance (AOD) and the trabecular iris space area (TISA) at 500 µm and 750 μm from the scleral spur. Comparisons between the following groups were performed: between the PDS/PG and the control group, between PDS and PG and between male and female patients.
The results of ACV, ACD, AOD and TISA were significantly higher in PDS/PG patients when compared to the control group. There were no significant differences between PDS and PG. The gender-specific comparison also showed no significant differences.
Significantly higher anterior chamber parameters are a possible risk factor for development of PDS; however, a higher risk of conversion to PG does not seem to correlate with increased anterior chamber parameters. The parameters of the anterior chamber are apparently not associated with the male predominance of PDS and PG.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Der Ophthalmologe
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To compare the longitudinal loss of RNFL thickness measurements by SD-OCT in healthy individuals and glaucoma patients with or without progression concerning optic disc morphology.
A total of 62 eyes, comprising 38 glaucomatous eyes with open angle glaucoma and 24 healthy controls, were included in the study (Erlangen Glaucoma Registry, NTC00494923). All patients were investigated annually over a period of 3 years by Spectralis SD-OCT measuring peripapillary RNFL thickness. By masked comparative analysis of photographs, the eyes were classified into nonprogressive and progressive glaucoma cases. Longitudinal loss of RNFL thickness was compared with morphological changes of optic disc morphology.
Mixed model analysis of annual OCT scans revealed an estimated annual decrease of the RNFL thickness by 2.12 μm in glaucoma eyes with progression, whereas glaucoma eyes without progression in optic disc morphology lost 1.18 μm per year in RNFL thickness (P = 0.002). The rate of change in healthy eyes was 0.60 μm and thereby also significantly lower than in glaucoma eyes with progression (P < 0.001). The intrasession variability of three successive measurements without head repositioning was 1.5 ± 0.7 μm. The loss of mean RNFL thickness exceeded the intrasession variability in 60% of nonprogressive eyes, and in 85% of progressive eyes after 3 years.
LONGITUDINAL MEASUREMENTS OF RNFL THICKNESS USING SD-OCT SHOW A MORE PRONOUNCED REDUCTION OF RNFL THICKNESS IN PATIENTS WITH PROGRESSION COMPARED WITH PATIENTS WITHOUT PROGRESSION IN GLAUCOMATOUS OPTIC DISC CHANGES. (www.clinicaltrials.gov number, NTC00494923.).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Due to the slow progression of the Glaucoma disease, a large study population and long-time observations are needed to gain insights into its long-term effects and progression rates. Since modalities can export data in machine-readable formats, statistical analyses of the large number of examinations is feasible. These data have been integrated in a central patient registry, the Erlangen Glaucoma Registry (EGR). Objectives: The primary focus of the EGR system design has been its fitness for analyses. It holds almost all the available research data for registered glaucoma patients. This allows for cross-sectional and longitudinal observations and for evaluation of prognostic validity of diagnostic procedures. Methods: An adequate technology for integration of data and flexibility in data analysis is a database management system (DBMS). Here, a careful schema design is mandatory. Adding new modalities leads to schema modifications which are supported by defining a core database schema and attaching all data to this core. On that basis, a large number of modalities have been connected to the EGR. Results: The registry contains data of 1,400 patients in the main longitudinal study. It has successfully helped in scientific research, as can be seen in a large number of published papers. For example, validation of new sensory physiological methods requires patients with reliable diagnoses. The existence of a well-documented patient collective facilitated finding such patients. Conclusions: The EGR holds a unique amount of available data gathered in large longitudinal studies. It was successful in terms of medical results obtained. Developed as an evolutionary system, it can easily be extended.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is evidence that multifocal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) can be used as an objective tool to detect visual field loss. The aim of this study was to correlate multifocal VEP amplitudes with standard perimetry data and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness.
Multifocal VEP recordings were performed with a four-channel electrode array using 58 stimulus fields (pattern reversal dartboard). For each field, the recording from the channel with maximal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was retained, resulting in an SNR optimised virtual recording. Correlation with RNFL thickness, measured with spectral domain optical coherence tomography and with standard perimetry, was performed for nerve fibre bundle related areas.
The mean amplitudes in nerve fibre related areas were smaller in glaucoma patients than in normal subjects. The differences between both groups were most significant in mid-peripheral areas. Amplitudes in these areas were significantly correlated with corresponding RNFL thickness (Spearman R=0.76) and with standard perimetry (R=0.71).
The multifocal VEP amplitude was correlated with perimetric visual field data and the RNFL thickness of the corresponding regions. This method of SNR optimisation is useful for extracting data from recordings and may be appropriate for objective assessment of visual function at different locations.
This study has been registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00494923).
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · The British journal of ophthalmology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome/glaucoma is a complex, late-onset disorder of the elastic fiber system. Strong genetic risk is conferred by the lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene, but additional comodulating factors are necessary for the manifestation of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of various PEX-associated pathogenic factors on the genotype-correlated expression of LOXL1 and elastin-related genes.
Cultured human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts with high- and low-risk LOXL1 haplotypes were exposed to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interleukin (IL)-6, homocysteine, oxidative stress, hypoxia, or ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Changes in the expression of LOXL1 and elastic constituents of PEX material and TGF-β1 were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy.
Treatment of fibroblasts with TGF-β1, oxidative stress, UV light, and hypoxia induced a significant increase in expression levels of LOXL1 and elastic proteins, whereas the effect of IL-6 was limited to induction of elastic constituents. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy confirmed an upregulation of LOXL1 and elastic fiber proteins and their assembly into extracellular microfibrillar networks with focal aggregation of microfibrils into PEX-like fibrils on stimulation with TGF-β1 and oxidative stress. Basal and stimulated expression of LOXL1 mRNA and protein was slightly decreased in cells carrying the high-risk compared with the low-risk haplotype of LOXL1, but the differences between groups were statistically not significant.
The findings support the notion that both genetic and nongenetic fibrogenic factors, particularly TGF-β1 and oxidative stress, may cooperate in the stable accumulation of PEX aggregates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the case of a 59-year-old male patient with progressive vision impairment and consecutive visual field narrowing ("tunnel view") for 7 years and a known retinitis pigmentosa for 5 years. The remaining Goldmann perimetric visual field at time reported was less than 5°. A request for blindness-related social benefits was rejected because an ophthalmologic expert assessment suggested malingering. This prompted us to assess an objective determination of the visual field using multifocal VEPs. Objective visual field recordings were performed with a four-channel multifocal VEP-perimeter using 58 stimulus fields (pattern reversal dartboard stimulus configuration). The correlated signal data were processed using an off-line method. At each field, the recording from the channel with the maximal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was retained, thus resulting in an SNR optimized virtual recording. Analysis of VEP signals was performed for each single field and concentric rings and compared to an average response measured in five healthy subjects. Substantial VEP responses could be identified in three fields within the innermost ring (eccentricity, 1.7°) for both eyes, although SNR was generally low. More eccentric stimuli did not elicit reliable VEP responses. The mfVEP recording was correlated with perimetric visual field data. The current SNR optimization by using the channel with the largest SNR provides a good method to extract useful data from recordings and may be appropriate for the use in forensic ophthalmology.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Documenta Ophthalmologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of chloroquine intake on the retinal function in a Brazilian population of patients were assessed by multifocal electroretinography. Twenty-four randomly chosen eyes of patients treated with chloroquine for rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus were examined using multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Control measurements were acquired from 21 randomly chosen eyes of age-matched healthy subjects. None of the study participants had an inherited retinal disease or a Snellen visual acuity reduced to less than 20/40. In patients and control subjects, cumulative chloroquine dose, total daily dose, duration of treatment, retinal examination, visual field defects, visual acuity, and the mfERG were assessed. The average amplitudes and implicit times of the N1, P1, and P2 components of the mfERGs were measured in the central hexagon (R1) and in five rings (R2-R6). The values measured in patients and normal subjects were compared. The P1 amplitudes in R2 were significantly decreased in the patients. In addition, the amplitudes of N1 and N2 in R1 were significantly smaller in the patients. The implicit times of none of the components were significantly different between patients and controls. The response amplitude was not significantly correlated with cumulative dose and duration of intake. There was no correlation with retinal appearance, visual field, and visual acuity. In agreement with earlier data, the central mfERG amplitudes were decreased in chloroquine patients indicating functional alterations in the retina. These changes are also present in a Brazilian population suggesting that the effects of chloroquine are general and that genetic background and life circumstances probably have, if at all, only little effect.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Documenta Ophthalmologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest a diagnostic value of the photopic negative response (PhNR) with a long-duration stimulus. The aim of this study was to record the on and off responses of the photopic fullfield electroretinogram (ERG) in normal subjects and glaucoma patients. We focused on different waves of the responses after onset and offset of the long-duration stimulus ERG. Photopic fullfield ERGs were recorded in response to a white bright LED flash on a white 20 cd/m(2) background. Stimulus luminances were 40, 60 and 80 cd/m(2). Responses were averaged using a flash duration of 240 ms and an offset period of 500 ms. We examined 19 healthy subjects, 27 patients with glaucomatous optic disc atrophy and 7 ocular hypertensive patients. The amplitudes and implicit times of the on and off responses of the human ERG depended on flash luminance. Comparing patients with glaucoma and healthy subjects for the 60 cd/m² flash, there was a significant change in the PhNRs (at onset: P < 0.01, at offset: P < 0.001) of the d-wave and of the i-wave at offset (P < 0.01). No significant difference was found for peak times of the fullfield ERG and for a- and b-wave amplitudes. PhNR amplitudes were significantly correlated with mean thickness of retinal nerve fibre layer as measured with OCT. In comparison with the normal photopic long-flash ERG, glaucoma patients showed changes in the PhNR amplitude following stimulus onset and in waves following stimulus offset.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Documenta Ophthalmologica