[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between pancreatic fibrosis and apoptosis of pancreatic acinar cells has not been fully elucidated. We reported that taurine had an anti-fibrotic effect in a dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC)-chronic pancreatitis model. However, the effect of taurine on apoptosis of pancreatic acinar cells is still unclear. Therefore, we examined apoptosis in DBTC-chronic pancreatitis and in the AR42J pancreatic acinar cell line with/without taurine. Pancreatic fibrosis was induced by a single administration of DBTC. Rats were fed a taurine-containing diet or a normal diet and were sacrificed at day 5. The AR42J pancreatic acinar cell line was incubated with/without DBTC with taurine chloramines. Apoptosis was determined by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The expression of Bad and Bcl-2 proteins in the AR42J cells lysates was detected by Western blot analysis. The apoptotic index of pancreatic acinar cells in DBTC-administered rats was significantly increased. Taurine treatment inhibited pancreatic fibrosis and apoptosis of acinar cells induced by DBTC. The number of TUNEL-positive cells in the AR42J pancreatic acinar cell lines was significantly increased by the addition of DBTC. Incubation with taurine chloramines ameliorated these changes. In conclusion, taurine inhibits apoptosis of pancreatic acinar cells and pancreatitis in experimental chronic pancreatitis.
Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Acta medica Okayama
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The measurement of empathy is important in the assessment of physician competence and patient outcomes. The prevailing view is that female physicians have higher empathy scores compared with male physicians. In Japan, the number of female physicians has increased rapidly in the past ten years. In this study, we focused on female Japanese physicians and addressed factors that were associated with their empathic engagement in patient care.
The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) was translated into Japanese by using the back-translation procedure, and was administered to 285 female Japanese physicians. We designed this study to examine the psychometrics of the JSE and group differences among female Japanese physicians.
The item-total score correlations of the JSE were all positive and statistically significant, ranging from .20 to .54, with a median of .41. The Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was .81. Female physicians who were practicing in “people-oriented” specialties obtained a significantly higher mean empathy score than their counterparts in “procedure-” or “technology-oriented” specialties. In addition, physicians who reported living with their parents in an extended family or living close to their parents, scored higher on the JSE than those who were living alone or in a nuclear family.
Our results provide support for the measurement property and reliability of the JSE in a sample of female Japanese physicians. The observed group differences associated with specialties and living arrangement may have implications for sustaining empathy. In addition, recognizing these factors that reinforce physicians’ empathy may help physicians to avoid career burnout.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · BMC Medical Education
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plain abdominal radiography is a very basic examination and plays an important role in primary care. The objectives of this study were to clarify colon distributions on plain abdominal radiographs. Forty-three healthy volunteers underwent gastric fluoroscopy, and 2 hours later, plain abdominal radiography in the supine position. A region of interest (ROI) was defined uniformly on each X-ray image to divide the image into 600 zones. The area corresponding to the large bowel within the ROI was divided into 4 segments (ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon + rectum). The percentage of barium in each segment relative to the total volume of barium used was calculated to evaluate the percent ROI occupancy. The large bowel covered 76.7% of the entire ROI, with the percent duplication being 55%. The duplicated area corresponded to the transverse colon region. When the method proposed by Arhan et al. was used, the percentage of the colon actually present in each segment relative to that determined theoretically was 99.6% for the right colon segment, 92.2& for the left colon segment, and 92.2% for the sigmoid/rectal segment. However, in cases in which the transverse colon descended partially from the fifth lumbar vertebra, the percentage occupied by the sigmoid colon + rectum decreased to 57.2%. We applied a new large bowel segmentation method especially for patients with ptosis, by devising a line joining the lateral side of the right lesser pelvis and the lower ends of both sacroiliac joints.
Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Acta medica Okayama
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of addition of the right parasternal approach to the conventional left parasternal and apical approaches using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for morphologic evaluation in cases of transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs).
In 112 consecutive patients with ASDs, the morphology of the defects was evaluated for transcatheter closure in the right parasternal view in addition to the conventional left views using 2D and 3D TTE. Measurements of the maximal ASD diameter and detection of deficient rim obtained on 2D TTE were compared with those obtained by 2D transesophageal echocardiography. The shapes and locations of ASDs visualized by 3D TTE were compared with those visualized by 3D transesophageal echocardiography.
In 88 patients (80.0%), optimal images from the right parasternal approach for morphologic evaluation of ASDs were obtained. Although there was a significant difference in maximal ASD diameter obtained only in the conventional left approach compared with transesophageal echocardiographic measurements (P < .05), when the right parasternal approach was applied, a significant difference was not found (P = .18), and the diagnostic concordance of the rim deficiency was improved from 85.2% to 90.9%. Three-dimensional TTE from the right parasternal approach improved visualization of the shape and location of ASDs from 65.5% to 74.5%.
Additional use of the right parasternal approach enables detailed morphologic evaluation for transcatheter closure of ASDs. In patients with suboptimal images on 3D TTE in the left conventional approach, additional 3D TTE in the right parasternal approach can improve the feasibility of obtaining optimal 3D images to evaluate the shapes and locations of ASDs.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 46-year-old Japanese man visited our hospital for chronic abdominal pain, persistent diarrhea and discharge of proglottids for 7 years. He had been living in Lao People's Democratic Republic. Ileography using meglumine/diatrizoate sodium (Gastrografin) revealed a long tapeworm. A Taenia saginata including the scolex was excreted through the intestinal tract by the administration of total 780 ml of Gastrografin. Taeniasis is an important disease in the differential diagnosis of imported diseases in Japan. Parasite infection should be suspected in patients with chronic abdominal pain or persistent diarrhea regardless of the findings for small bowel obstruction when there is a history of overseas travel.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 53-year-old man visited our hospital complaining of high fever. Chest computed tomography showed left pleural effusion and mediastinitis. He developed painful red subcutaneous nodules in his bilateral lower extremities. Thoracoscopy-assisted exploratory excision showed visceral pleura thickening; panniculitis in the periaortic area was histologically proven. The patient was treated with corticosteroid therapy which immediately reduced the fever. Subsequent imaging examinations after corticosteroid therapy showed improvement of mediastinitis and pleural effusion. This case reminds us that Weber-Christian disease (WCD) should be included in the differential diagnosis of mediastinitis although WCD is rarely associated with thoracic involvement.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 27-year-old woman visited our hospital because of high fever. She had been diagnosed as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) due to her cardiac history (tetralogy of Fallot), thymic hypoplasia and 22q11.2 deletion. She had a normal CD4/CD8 ratio, a slightly decreased lymphocyte count and normal serum immunoglobulin levels. Blood cultures were positive for Staphylococcus lugdunensis (S. lugdunensis). Infection route of S. lugdunensis in this case was unclear. The patient was successfully treated with several intravenous antibiotics. Infection should be considered when managing patients with 22q.11.2DS. regardless of whether their immune system is impaired.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency (FLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by corneal
opacity, hemolytic anemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and proteinuria. Two novel lecithin:cholesterol
acyltransferase (LCAT) mutations[c.278 C>T (p.Pro69Leu); c.950 T>C (p.Met293Thr)] were identified in a 27-year-old man and in a 30-year-old woman,
respectively. Both patients manifested corneal opacity, hemolytic anemia, low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and HDL-C
and proteinuria. Lipid deposits with vacuolar lucent appearance in glomerular basement membranes were observed in both cases.
APOE genotype was also investigated: the first case results ϵ4/ϵ3, the second ϵ2/ϵ2; however, they shared a similar phenotype
characterized by the presence of intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL) remnant and the absence of lipoprotein-X. In conclusion,
our findings suggest that APOE ϵ2/ϵ2 may not be the major determinant gene for the appearance of IDL in FLD patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine psychometric properties of a Japanese translation of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE), and to study differences in empathy scores between men and women, and students in different years of medical school.
The student version of the JSPE was translated into Japanese using back-translation procedures and administered to 400 Japanese students from all six years at the Okayama University Medical School. Item-total score correlations were calculated. Factor analysis was used to examine the underlying components of the Japanese version of the JSPE. Cronbach coefficient alpha was calculated to assess the internal consistency aspect of reliability of the instrument. Finally, empathy scores for men and women were compared using t test, and score differences by year of medical school were examined using analysis of variance.
Factor analysis confirmed the three components of "perspective taking," "compassionate care," and "ability to stand in patient's shoes," which had emerged in American and Mexican medical students. Item-total score correlations were all positive and statistically significant. Cronbach coefficient alpha was .80. Women outscored men, and empathy scores increased as students progressed through medical school in this cross-sectional study.
Findings provide support for the construct validity and reliability of the Japanese translated version of the JSPE for medical students. Cultural characteristics and educational differences in Japanese medical schools that influence empathic behaviors are described, and implications for cross-cultural study of empathy are discussed.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation is widely performed as a curative therapy for hematopoietic malignancies. Donors for PBSC harvest (PBSCH) are usually healthy subjects and undergo granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor treatment and apheresis procedures. A considerable proportion of donors experience poor mobilization, necessitating additional harvesting or marrow collection or remobilization. Although some characteristics have been reported to correlate with poor mobilization, they may not be taken into account in selecting PBSC donors. To protect healthy donors, it is preferable to predict the number of apheresis procedures needed for PBSCH before the procedure is initiated.
A retrospective cohort study of 83 subjects was conducted, using statistical models to predict the probability of obtaining a sufficient number of CD34+ cells (>or=2.0 x 10(6)/kg) in the first to the third apheresis procedures and the probability of failure to obtain sufficient cells within three apheresis sessions. This study explored potential candidate factors in an ordinal probit regression analysis.
Significant factors predicting successful PBSCH were donor age, donor sex, and body weight difference between donor and recipient. The predictive model showed good agreement with the observed number of apheresis sessions. Simulation tables are presented with this model.
The statistical model developed to predict the number of apheresis procedures for PBSCH may be useful for planning PBSCH in clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been reported that the rs1862214 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the programmed cell death 5 gene (PDCD5) is associated with smoking-related lung cancer risk and prognosis in a European population with a history of smoking. The aim of this study was to investigate the status and impact of SNPs in the PDCD5 locus of a Japanese population. We developed an assay based on real-time PCR with melting curve analysis for determining the rs1862214 SNP, and examined this SNP in 165 lung cancer patients and 180 healthy volunteers. Of the 165 lung cancer patients (107 smokers), 25 (17), 72 (47) and 68 (43) had the CC, CG and GG genotypes of rs1862214, respectively. Of the 180 volunteers (117 smokers), 31 (24), 81 (52) and 68 (41) had the CC, CG and GG genotypes of rs1862214, respectively. No significant difference in allelic distribution was found between Japanese patients and healthy controls, even among smokers. Based on the published data, the distribution of this SNP appears to be significantly different in Japanese and European populations. No significant difference in prognosis according to the SNP was observed, either in patients with a history of smoking or in the total number of patients. This too differs from the results from a European population. In conclusion, we developed a convenient real-time PCR-based assay for the genotyping of rs1862214 in the PDCD5 locus. The distribution of the rs1862214 SNP in our Japanese population differs from its distribution in a European population, and is not related to the risk of cancer or to poor prognosis in lung cancer. This suggests the presence of an ethnicity-related difference in the role of PDCD5 in the pathogenesis of lung cancer.
Preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Molecular Medicine Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism of pancreatic fibrosis is unclear. Taurine is used in the clinical treatment of a wide variety of diseases, but its effect on improving pancreatic fibrosis is unknown. We examined whether a diet with added taurine improves pancreatic fibrosis induced by dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) in an experimental chronic pancreatitis rat model. In addition, we examined the influence of taurine on pancreatic stellate cells.
Pancreatic fibrosis was induced by DBTC. Rats were fed a taurine-containing diet or a normal diet and were killed at 4 weeks. Pancreatic stellate cells were isolated from male Wistar rats. Cultured pancreatic stellate cells were incubated with or without taurine chloramine. Type I collagen and transforming growth factor-beta1 secretion was evaluated by ELISA, and matrix metalloproteinase activity was assessed by gelatin zymography. Interleukin-6, interleukin-2, and transforming growth factor-beta1 levels in the supernatants of pancreatic tissue homogenates were measured.
Pancreatic fibrosis induced by DBTC was improved remarkably by the oral administration of the taurine-containing diet. Taurine chloramine decreased type I collagen, transforming growth factor-beta1, and matrix metalloproteinases 2 of the pancreatic stellate cell culture supernatant. Increased interleukin-6 and decreased interleukin-2 were found in the supernatants of the pancreatic tissue homogenates of DBTC-induced pancreatitis rats compared with other groups.
The oral administration of taurine improves pancreatic fibrosis. Taurine chloramine inhibits transforming growth factor-beta1 produced from activated pancreatic stellate cells and improves pancreatic fibrosis.
No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To prospectively study whether occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can promote the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related chronic liver disease. In addition, to evaluate the difference among HBV DNA-negative patients and patients with high and low HBV copy numbers.
A total of 167 patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease without HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) were studied. HBV DNA in liver tissue was determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
HBV DNA was detected in 9 of 167 patients (5.4%) by single PCR and in 25 patients (15.0%) by nested PCR. HCC developed in 12 of 167 patients (7.2%). Ten of 142 HBV DNA-negative patients (7.0%) and 2 of 9 patients with a high HBV copy number (22.2%) developed HCC, whereas none of 16 patients with a low HBV copy number developed HCC. The incidence rate of HCC in patients with a high HBV copy number was significantly higher than in HBV DNA-negative patients and patients with low HBV copy number.
A high amount of HBV DNA in liver tissue of HBsAg-negative patients with HCV-related liver disease might be associated with HCC development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcoholic intake has increased in society in recent years. gamma-GTP is used as a marker of liver damage by alcohol intake, but there is no reliable marker of pancreatic fibrosis. We used animal experiments and clinical data to identify a new reliable marker of early-stage pancreatic fibrosis. Pancreatic fibrosis is induced by intra-peritoneal injection of diethyldithiocarbamate. Pancreas tissue was extracted and measured. Human pure pancreatic juice was collected by endoscopic procedures. Prolyl hydroxylase in pancreas tissue is increased in the early stage of pancreatic fibrosis. Secretion of matrix metalloproteinase from pancreatic stellate cells is increased by diethyldithiocarbamate stimulation. Pancreatic stellate cells, prolyl hydroxylase and a tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase in human pure pancreatic juice is increased in heavy alcohol drinkers and normalized in former alcohol drinkers. Active matrix metalloproteinase 2 is detected in pure pancreatic juice of chronic pancreatitis patients. Treatment with oral camostat increases pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in chronic pancreatitis patients. Experimental and clinical data indicated that matrix metalloproteinase 2 and prolyl hydroxylase are candidates as markers of early-stage pancreatic fibrosis. Clinical data showed that tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase and pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in pure pancreatic juice had potential as markers of early-stage pancreatic fibrosis.
No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology