[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Worldwide, some 240 million people have chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), with the highest rates of infection in Africa and Asia. Our understanding of the natural history of HBV infection and the potential for therapy of the resultant disease is continuously improving. New data have become available since the previous APASL guidelines for management of HBV infection were published in 2012. The objective of this manuscript is to update the recommendations for the optimal management of chronic HBV infection. The 2015 guidelines were developed by a panel of Asian experts chosen by the APASL. The clinical practice guidelines are based on evidence from existing publications or, if evidence was unavailable, on the experts' personal experience and opinion after deliberations. Manuscripts and abstracts of important meetings published through January 2015 have been evaluated. This guideline covers the full spectrum of care of patients infected with hepatitis B, including new terminology, natural history, screening, vaccination, counseling, diagnosis, assessment of the stage of liver disease, the indications, timing, choice and duration of single or combination of antiviral drugs, screening for HCC, management in special situations like childhood, pregnancy, coinfections, renal impairment and pre- and post-liver transplant, and policy guidelines. However, areas of uncertainty still exist, and clinicians, patients, and public health authorities must therefore continue to make choices on the basis of the evolving evidence. The final clinical practice guidelines and recommendations are presented here, along with the relevant background information.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Hepatology International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
In Hong Kong, most patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) have either genotype 6a or 1b infection.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir with ribavirin in treatment-naïve patients in Hong Kong with HCV genotype 1 or 6.
In an open-label study, patients were randomised to sofosbuvir 400 mg once daily plus ribavirin 1000-1200 divided twice daily for 12 (n = 10), 16 (n = 11) or 24 (n = 10) weeks. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients with HCV RNA < LLOQ (lower limit of quantification, 25 IU/mL) 12 weeks after cessation of therapy (SVR12).
All 31 patients (20 HCV genotype 1 and 11 genotype 6) had HCV RNA < LLOQ by Week 4 of treatment and at their last on-treatment visit. SVR12 rates were high in all treatment groups: 100% (10/10) for 12 weeks, 100% (11/11) for 16 weeks and 90% (9/10) for 24 weeks of therapy. The only patient who did not reach SVR12 had genotype 1 HCV and relapsed at post-treatment Week 4. Sofosbuvir with ribavirin was generally well tolerated. The most common adverse events were malaise (13%) and upper respiratory tract infection (13%), followed by anaemia (10%). No patients experienced serious adverse events. One patient discontinued treatment at Week 16 because of an adverse event. The event, upper respiratory tract infection, was not considered treatment related by the investigator. This subject achieved SVR12.
The all-oral regimen sofosbuvir plus ribavirin is effective in treatment-naïve patients in Hong Kong with genotype 1 or 6 HCV.
Trial registration number:
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aims:
Deletions/mutations in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) pre-S region have been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to study the evolutionary changes of pre-S mutations prior to HCC development.
We studied the HBV pre-S sequences at 1 to 10 years preceding diagnosis of HCC in 74 patients with HBV-related HCC (HCC group). 148 chronic hepatitis B patients matched for sex and age in 2:1 ratio, who had been followed up for at least 3 years without HCC (HCC-free group) were recruited as controls. 56 and 47 patients of HCC and HCC-free groups respectively had serially stored sera for longitudinally examination at 1-3 years, 4-6 years, 7-9 years and ≥10 years prior to the recruitment of the study.
Compared to the HCC-free group, higher frequencies of pre-S deletions and point mutations (at 11 codons) were observed in the HCC group (p<0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that pre-S deletions, point mutations at codon 51 and 167 were independent factors associated with HCC. Longitudinal observation showed that pre-S deletions and most of the 11 HCC-associated pre-S point mutations existed at least 10 years before HCC development, and were more prevalent preceding HCC development in patients from HCC groups than HCC-free group. The number of HCC-associated pre-S point mutations increased over time preceding HCC development, and correlated positively with the time to HCC diagnosis (r = 0.220, p = 0.005).
High prevalence and cumulative evolution of pre-S mutations preceding HCC development suggested a possible carcinogenic role of pre-S mutations and their potential application in HCC risk prediction.
Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, changes in liver stiffness measurement (LSM) over time are not known. We examined changes longitudinally in a cohort of patients. Four hundred and twenty-six patients with CHB underwent transient elastography. Patients were followed regularly, and repeat elastography was performed at 3 years. Hepatitis serology, viral load and routine liver biochemistry were monitored. Of the 426 patients, 38 (9%) were hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg)-positive, 293 (69%) were HBeAg-negative and 95 (22%) were patients with prior hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance. A total of 110 patients received oral antiviral therapy. There was a significant decline of LSMs at the follow-up measurement compared to baseline (6.1 vs 7.8 kPa respectively, P = 0.002) in treated patients who had elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at baseline and subsequent normalization after 3 years (normal ALT limit being 30 U/L for males and 19 U/L for females). In nontreated patients, only the patients with persistently normal ALT at both time points had significantly lower LSMs at the follow-up measurement compared to baseline: 4.9 vs 5.3 kPa, respectively, in patients who remained positive for HBsAg (P = 0.005) and 5.1 vs. 5.4 kPa, respectively, in patients who had HBsAg seroclearance (P = 0.026). In patients who remained positive for HBsAg, independent factors associated with a significant decline in LSM of ≥1 kPa included antiviral therapy (P = 0.011) and the ALT levels at the follow-up time point (P = 0.024). Thus, in patients with CHB, a significant decline in LSM after 3 years was observed in treated patients with ALT normalization and in untreated patients who had persistently normal ALT. Antiviral therapy and follow-up ALT levels were independent significant factors associated with a decline in LSM.
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Journal of Viral Hepatitis