Tetsuo Kubota

Anjo Kosei Hospital, Anjō, Aichi, Japan

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Publications (62)132.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This study used quantitative analysis to determine whether increased variability in fetal heart rate (FHR) is related to the risk of developing periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). We analyzed 124 FHR traces of neonates delivered preterm at 27-33weeks' gestation to 105 mothers. FHR traces 1-3h before delivery were translated into power-spectrum curves using a fast Fourier transformation. The total power (the area under the curve of 1-10 cycles per minute), segmental power of every cycle per minute, peak power, and frequency edges were calculated, and their relationship with the subsequent development of PVL was examined. Total power was significantly higher in the PVL group (n=9, median 1813, range 1064-2426) compared to the non-PVL group (n=114, median 1383, range 381-3324, p=0.029). Infants in the PVL group had greater segmental power in segments with 1-2, 2-3, and 9-10 cycles per minute, than those in the non-PVL group. Total power of ⩾1550 was significantly correlated with the subsequent development of PVL and premature rupture of membranes. Furthermore, the frequency of pregnancy-induced hypertension was significantly reduced in the fetuses with a total power of ⩾1550. Our study suggests that a fetus with increased FHR variability is at risk of developing PVL. This study provides additional evidence supporting the contribution of antenatal factors to the subsequent development of PVL. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Brain & development
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the clinical and radiological spectrum of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in children, and to identify the prognostic factors. The records of 40 children with PRES were reviewed. Acute clinical symptoms, MRI including apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in the acute and follow-up periods and neurological sequelae, including epilepsy, were noted. Age at onset ranged from 2 to 16 years. Underlying disorders were hematological or neoplastic disorders (n = 20), renal diseases (n = 14) and others (n = 6). In the acute period, 31 patients had seizures, 25 had altered consciousness, 11 had visual disturbances and 10 had headache. Of 29 patients who had ADC maps in the acute period, 13 had reduced diffusivity as shown by ADC within PRES lesions. Of 26 patients with follow-up MRI, 13 had focal gliosis or cortical atrophy. No patients had motor impairment, and four patients had focal epilepsy. No clinical variables were associated with focal gliosis or cortical atrophy on follow-up MRI, but lesional ADC reduction in the acute period was prognostic for focal gliosis or cortical atrophy on follow-up MRI (p = 0.005). To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest cohort study to date involving PRES in children. Acute symptoms in pediatric patients are similar to those reported in adults, but altered consciousness was more frequent in children. Lesional ADC reduction in the acute period was common and was a good predictor of later, irreversible MRI lesions. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · European journal of paediatric neurology: EJPN: official journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The aim of this study was to clarify characteristics of post-encephalopathic epilepsy (PEE) in children after acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD), paying particular attention to precise diagnosis of seizure types.Methods Among 262 children with acute encephalopathy/encephalitis registered in a database of the Tokai Pediatric Neurology Society between 2005 and 2012, 44 were diagnosed with AESD according to the clinical course and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and were included in this study. Medical records were reviewed to investigate clinical data, MRI findings, neurologic outcomes, and presence or absence of PEE. Seizure types of PEE were determined by both clinical observation by pediatric neurologists and ictal video–electroencephalography (EEG) recordings.ResultsOf the 44 patients after AESD, 10 (23%) had PEE. The period between the onset of encephalopathy and PEE ranged from 2 to 39 months (median 8.5 months). Cognitive impairment was more severe in patients with PEE than in those without. Biphasic seizures and status epilepticus during the acute phase of encephalopathy did not influence the risk of PEE. The most common seizure type of PEE on clinical observation was focal seizures (n = 5), followed by epileptic spasms (n = 4), myoclonic seizures (n = 3), and tonic seizures (n = 2). In six patients with PEE, seizures were induced by sudden unexpected sounds. Seizure types confirmed by ictal video-EEG recordings were epileptic spasms and focal seizures with frontal onset, and all focal seizures were startle seizures induced by sudden acoustic stimulation. Intractable daily seizures remain in six patients with PEE.SignificanceWe demonstrate seizure characteristics of PEE in children after AESD. Epileptic spasms and startle focal seizures are common seizure types. The specific seizure types may be determined by the pattern of diffuse subcortical white matter injury in AESD and age-dependent reorganization of the brain network.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Epilepsia
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    ABSTRACT: The older of two siblings began to have spasms and partial seizures at 1 month of age. Head magnetic resonance imaging showed an abnormal area in the left temporo-parieto-occipital region. Interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) showed a suppression-burst pattern. Adrenocorticotropic hormone stopped the spasms, but the seizures continued. Clonazepam, carbamazepine, zonisamide, and clobazam were ineffective. She underwent focal resection at age 8 months. Postoperatively, the seizures disappeared. Histopathologically, the lesion appeared to be focal cortical dysplasia type IIa. The younger sibling had spasms from birth. Head magnetic resonance imaging showed left hemi-megalencephaly. Interictal EEG showed a suppression-burst pattern. Phenobarbital, valproic acid, and zonisamide were ineffective. He underwent hemispherotomy at age 2 months and became seizure free. The histopathological features were consistent with those of hemi-megalencephaly. The siblings' EEG and clinical courses had some similarities. These siblings' conditions may have the same genetic background. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Pediatrics International
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleotide alterations in the gene encoding proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) have been identified in most patients with benign partial epilepsies in infancy (BPEI)/benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE). However, not all patients harbor these PRRT2 mutations, indicating the involvement of genes other than PRRT2. In this study, we performed whole exome sequencing analysis for a large family affected with PRRT2-unrelated BPEI. We identified a non-synonymous single nucleotide variation (SNV) in the voltage-sensitive chloride channel 6 gene (CLCN6). A cohort study of 48 BPEI patients without PRRT2 mutations revealed a different CLCN6 SNV in a patient, his sibling and his father who had a history of febrile seizures (FS) but not BPEI. Another study of 48 patients with FS identified an additional SNV in CLCN6. Chloride channels (CLCs) are involved in a multitude of physiologic processes and some members of the CLC family have been linked to inherited diseases. However, a phenotypic correlation has not been confirmed for CLCN6. Although we could not detect significant biological effects linked to the identified CLCN6 SNVs, further studies should investigate potential CLCN6 variants that may underlie the genetic susceptibility to convulsive disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Many children with trisomy 18 have apneas from the neonatal period. It has been reported that some children with trisomy 18 have epilepsy, including epileptic apneas. However, no previous report has described epileptic apneas in trisomy 18 neonates. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of neonates with trisomy 18 who were born at Anjo Kosei Hospital between July 2004 and October 2013 and investigated whether they had epileptic apneas during the neonatal period and whether antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were effective for treating them. We identified 16 patients with trisomy 18. Nine patients who died within 3 days of birth were excluded. Five of the remaining seven patients had apneas. All five patients underwent electroencephalograms (EEGs) to assess whether they suffered epileptic apneas. Three of the five patients had EEG-confirmed seizures. In two patients, the apneas corresponded to ictal discharges. In one patient, ictal discharges were recorded when she was under mechanical ventilation, but no ictal discharges that corresponded to apneas were recorded after she was extubated. AEDs were effective for treating the apneas and stabilizing the SpO2 in all three patients. Among neonates with trisomy 18 who lived longer than 3 days, three of seven patients had EEG-confirmed seizures. AEDs were useful for treating their epileptic apneas and stabilizing their SpO2 . Physicians should keep epileptic apneas in mind when treating apneas in neonates with trisomy 18. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
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    ABSTRACT: Background We aimed to assess the characteristics of thalamic lesions in children with acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion. Methods Using the Tokai Pediatric Neurological Society database, we identified and enrolled 18 children with acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion from 2008 to 2010. Using diffusion-weighted images, we identified patients with thalamic lesions and compared their clinical factors with those of patients without thalamic lesions. We analyzed the time sequence of thalamic and subcortical/cortical lesions. To study the topography of thalamic lesions, we divided the thalamus into 5 sections: anterior, medial, anterolateral, posterolateral, and posterior. Subsequently, we analyzed the relation between the topography of thalamic lesions and the presence of central-sparing. Results Seven children presented with symmetrical thalamic lesions associated with bilateral subcortical/cortical lesions. No statistical difference in the clinical features was noted between patients with and without thalamic lesions. These lesions were observed only when subcortical/cortical lesions were present. In 5 children, thalamic lesions were present in bilateral anterior and/or anterolateral sections and were associated with subcortical/cortical lesions in bilateral frontal lobes with central-sparing. In the other 2 children, thalamic lesions were extensive and accompanied by diffuse subcortical/cortical lesions without central-sparing. Conclusion Thalamic lesions in patients with acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion involve the anterior sections. The thalamocortical network may play a role in development of thalamic lesions in patients with acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Pediatric Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Voltage-gated sodium channels regulate neuronal excitability, as well as survival and the patterning of neuronal connectivity during development. Mutations in SCN2A, which encodes the Na+ channel Nav1.2, cause epilepsy syndromes and predispose children to acute encephalopathy. Here, we report the case of a young male with recurrent acute encephalopathy who carried a novel missense mutation in the SCN2A gene. He was born by normal delivery and developed repetitive apneic episodes at 2 days of age. Diffusion-weighted imaging revealed high-intensity areas in diffuse subcortical white matter, bilateral thalami, and basal nuclei. His symptoms improved gradually without any specific treatment, but he exhibited a motor milestone delay after the episode. At the age of 10 months, he developed acute cerebellopathy associated with a respiratory syncytial viral infection. He received high-dose intravenous gammaglobulin and methylprednisolone pulse therapy and seemed to have no obvious sequelae after the episode. He then developed severe diffuse encephalopathy associated with gastroenteritis at the age of 14 months. He received high-dose intravenous gammaglobulin and methylprednisolone pulse therapy but was left with severe neurological sequelae. PCR-based analysis revealed a novel de novo missense mutation, c.4979T>G (p.Leu1660Trp), in the SCN2A gene. This case suggests that SCN2A mutations might predispose children to repetitive encephalopathy with variable clinical and imaging findings.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Brain and Development
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To determine the early changes and evolutions of brain diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and analyze prognostic factors of the early changes among patients with neonatal herpes simplex encephalitis (NHSE). Method: We selected patients who developed encephalitis by 28 d after birth; had herpes simplex infection; and who underwent magnetic resonance imaging, including DWI, ⩽7 d of symptom onset. Thirty-two DWI scans between 0 and 28 d after onset in 13 patients and the clinical data were recruited. The distribution, evolution of the lesions, and neurological outcome were analyzed. Results: DWI frequently showed multiple cortical lesions in both hemispheres in the early period and both hemispheres on DWI (8/9 scans at ⩽48 h, 7/7 patients). As time from onset increased, the cortical lesions tended to coincide with subcortical white matter lesions beneath the initial cortical lesions (p<0.01). Lesions from the cortex extended to the subcortical white matter in 7 patients. Deep cerebral lesions, involving basal ganglia, internal capsules, thalamus, were also found in 9 patients ⩽7 d of onset. The distributions of deep cerebral lesions (none/unilateral/bilateral) ⩽7 d of onset showed significant correlations with neurological prognoses (gross motor functions: p<0.01; developmental or intellectual quotient scores: p<0.01). Interpretation: Cortical lesions were main findings of DWI in NHSE in the early period. Bilateral deep cerebral lesions ⩽7 d were highly indicative of poor motor and cognitive outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Brain and Development
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Epilepsies with an onset during the early infantile period are relatively rare and their characteristics are not well recognized. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of epilepsies with an onset during the early infantile period. Methods: Clinical information on 73 patients with the onset of epilepsy within the first four months was collected from hospitals affiliated with Nagoya University. Patients were categorized into three groups: the idiopathic (20 patients), cryptogenic (19 patients), and symptomatic groups (34 patients). Results: Fourteen (70%) of the 20 patients in the idiopathic group, nine (47%) of the 19 patients in the cryptogenic group, and 10 (29%) of the 34 patients in the symptomatic group had their first seizure within the first month of life. All patients in the idiopathic group, 12 patients (63%) in the cryptogenic group, and 18 patients (53%) in the symptomatic group had partial seizures (PS) alone throughout their clinical course. Four patients in the cryptogenic group and nine in the symptomatic group had PS at the onset, but evolved into spasms later. All patients in the idiopathic group, 13 patients (68%) in the cryptogenic group, and 13 patients (38%) in symptomatic group had experienced no seizures for at least one year at the time of the last follow-up. Conclusions: In patients with non-idiopathic epilepsy, an age-dependent evolution of seizure types was often observed. Recognition of this subgroup of patients could be important for the identification of appropriate candidates for early epilepsy surgery.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Brain & development
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To clarify the differences between infants with periventricular hemorrhagic infarction (PVHI) and those with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the clinical features, ultrasonography, and electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in 22 preterm infants with PVHI and 49 with PVL. EEG and cranial ultrasonography were serially performed in all participants starting immediately after birth. Acute and chronic stage EEG abnormalities were evaluated separately. Results: Gestational age and birth weight were significantly lower in infants with PVHI than those with PVL. EEGs were normal in the majority of infants with PVHI on days 1-2. However, EEG abnormalities appeared after ultrasonography abnormalities. The majority of infants with PVL showed acute-stage EEG abnormalities on days 1-2. The rate of infants with acute-stage EEG abnormalities decreased with age, whereas the rate of infants with chronic-stage EEG abnormalities increased with age. Normal EEG before ultrasonography abnormalities was more common in infants with PVHI than in those with PVL. However, deterioration of acute-stage EEG abnormalities was more frequent in infants with PVHI than in those with PVL. Conclusions: PVHI was presumed to cause mostly postnatal injury, whereas PVL was presumed to cause mostly pre-or perinatal injury.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Brain & development
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Conventional electroencephalogram (cEEG) is a reliable predictor of outcome in term infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Early therapeutic hypothermia initiated within 6h after birth is a beneficial treatment in these infants. However, a classification system with reduced cEEG recording time to determine early intervention has not been reported. The aim of this study is to propose a new classification of depression on cEEG with reduced recording time in infants with HIE and to examine the correlation between the classification and short-term outcome. Patients and methods: We retrospectively investigated 20 term infants with HIE in whom cEEG was performed within 12h after birth, and deaths or outcomes at 18months of age were assessed. We determined grades 0-3 EEG depression in each 10-min epoch based on the most common EEG patterns of each 20s epoch defined by our criteria. Results: Eighteen infants could be assessed by depression grade. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient Rs between the maximum depression grade in 10-min epochs and three-grade outcomes was 0.68 (P=0.002), and that between the minimum one and outcomes was 0.66 (P=0.003). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the maximum and minimum depression grades for predicting abnormal outcome were 0.885 and 0.869, respectively. Conclusions: We demonstrated a new cEEG depression classification with a recording time of at least 10min in term infants with HIE and a good correlation with short-term outcome.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Brain & development
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    ABSTRACT: We performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in children with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) to quantify the relationship between the fractional anisotropy (FA) values of DTI and the severity of PVL. In this study, we performed DTI in 16 children (seven males, nine females) with PVL. To evaluate the FA values, we used region-of-interest (ROI) measurements and tractography-based measurements. We classified the patients into two groups based on the severity of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings: the mild group had white matter injury limited to a triangular zone around the lateral ventricle (n = 9) and the severe group had it extended forward (n = 7). Then, we performed ROI measurements for these two groups to evaluate the FA values. We also divided the patients into two groups based on their motor ability :those that could (n = 10) and could not (n = 6) stand. We used tractography-based measurements to evaluate the FA values. To reduce the bias caused by age, we divided the patients into two groups: those younger than 3 years and those 3 years of age and older. All data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test, and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. In the ROI measurements, regardless of age, the severe group showed a more significant FA reduction in the white matter of the parietal and occipital lobes, including the middle/posterior part of the centrum ovale, superior longitudinal fasciculus, arcuate fascicullus, and thalamic radiation. In the tractography-based measurements, regardless of age, the measured FA values were significantly lower in the group that could not stand. This study suggested that the measured FA values could be used to evaluate the severity of PVL quantitatively, and that DTI provides much more information for understanding the pathophysiology of PVL, as compared with conventional MRI.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · No to hattatsu. Brain and development
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in PRRT2 genes have been identified as a major cause of benign infantile epilepsy and/or paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. We explored mutations in PRRT2 in Japanese patients with BIE as well as its related conditions including convulsion with mild gastroenteritis and benign early infantile epilepsy. We explored PRRT2 mutations in Japanese children who had had unprovoked infantile seizures or convulsion with mild gastroenteritis. The probands included 16 children with benign infantile epilepsy, 6 children with convulsions with mild gastroenteritis, and 2 siblings with benign early infantile epilepsy. In addition, we recruited samples from family members when PRRT2 mutation was identified in the proband. Statistical analyses were performed to identify differences in probands with benign infantile epilepsy according to the presence or absence of PRRT2 mutation. Among a total of 24 probands, PRRT2 mutations was identified only in 6 probands with benign infantile epilepsy. A common insertion mutation, c.649_650insC, was found in 5 families and a novel missense mutation, c.981C>G (I327M), in one. The family history of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia was more common in probands with PRRT2 mutations than in those without mutations. Our study revealed that PRRT2 mutations are common in Japanese patients with benign infantile epilepsy, especially in patients with a family history of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Brain & development
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    ABSTRACT: Using a standard digital EEG system, we conducted simulations to determine the optimal locations and numbers of electrodes for seizure detection in neonates with reduced-channel EEG monitoring. The results showed that C3-C4 should be selected for a one-channel recording, but two-channel seizure monitoring is recommended for increased accuracy.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the prognostic value of conventional EEG for the identification of preterm infants at risk for subsequent adverse neurodevelopment in the current perinatal care and medicine setting. We studied 780 EEG records of 333 preterm infants born <34 weeks' gestation between 2002 and 2008. Serial EEG recordings were conducted during 3 time periods; at least once each within days 6 (first period), during days 7 to 19 (second period), and days 20 to 36 (third period). The presence and the grade of EEG background abnormalities were assessed according to an established classification system. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed at a corrected age of 12 to 18 months. Of the 333 infants, 33 (10%) had developmental delay and 34 (10%) had cerebral palsy. The presence of EEG abnormalities was significantly predictive of developmental delay and cerebral palsy at all 3 time periods: the first period (n = 265; odds ratio [OR], 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-9.4), the second period (n = 278; OR, 7.6; 95% CI, 3.6-16), and the third period (n = 237; OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 2.8-13). The grade of EEG abnormalities correlated with the incidence of developmental delay or cerebral palsy in all periods (P < .001). After controlling for other clinical variables, including severe brain injury, EEG abnormality in the second period was an independent predictor of developmental delay (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.7) and cerebral palsy (OR, 6.8; 95% CI 2.0-23). EEG abnormalities within the first month of life significantly predict adverse neurodevelopment at a corrected age of 12 to 18 months in the current preterm survivor.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2012 · PEDIATRICS
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride, a highly selective 2-adrenoceptoragonist, is used in combination with local anesthetics for sedation and analgesia. It is known to be efficacious in adult patients and is enthusiastically expected to be successful for sedation in neonates. Patient: The present case report details a term infant who was sedated by dexmedetomidine during artificial ventilation. He underwent electroencephalograms that confirmed epileptic seizures and non-epileptic abnormal movements. Twelve hours after the discontinuation of dexmedetomidine, both symptoms gradually disappeared without the use of any antiepileptic medication. After then, he had achieved normal development, with no obvious neurological abnormalities. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine acts throughout the central nervous system and leads to a reduction in the anticonvulsant activity of the locus coeruleus. This case suggests potential adverse effects of dexmedetomidine in terms of inducing both epileptic seizures and non-epileptic movements in neonates.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Brain & development
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to clarify the differences of EEG activities according to the presence or absence of disorganized patterns using amplitude spectral analysis. We compared EEGs of 17 preterm infants with disorganized patterns with those of 34 matched controls. Amplitude was defined as a square root of EEG power analyzed by fast Fourier transform algorithm, and was calculated in the 9 frequency bands. Six EEG segments of 10s were collected from the part of EEG with continuous high voltage slow waves in the absence of artifacts. The results were separately evaluated according to the post-conceptional age at EEG recordings. In patients with disorganized patterns, reduced amplitude of delta waves in the central areas and increased amplitude of beta waves in the occipital areas were observed at 29-30weeks of post-conceptional age. The results were almost similar at 31-32weeks of post-conceptional age. Amplitude in theta or alpha frequency bands was not different between those with and without disorganized patterns either at 29-30 or 31-32weeks of post-conceptional age. Amplitude spectral analyses will contribute to objective evaluation of disorganized patterns.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Brain & development
  • Tatsuya Fukasawa · Hiroyuki Yamamoto · Tetsuo Kubota
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    ABSTRACT: It is important to predict the neurological prognoses of preterm infants as part of their normal follow-up. Previous reports have shown that conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography are useful in predicting neurological prognoses. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a relatively new method of evaluating the central nervous system (CNS) that can detect abnormalities quantitatively. We compared DTI at term-equivalent age in two extremely-low-birth-weight infants diagnosed with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) with conventional MRI and DTI in three control extremely-low-birth-weight infants. DTI was analyzed using the free software, "Volume-one" and "dTVII SR." We compared the fractional anisotropy (FA) values at the corpus callosum, posterior limbs of the internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, and corticospinal tract using manual region of interest (ROI) analysis, and at the commissural fibers and corticospinal tract using tract-specific analysis. The FA values were lower in patients with PVL than in control infants at all measurement points, except the commissural fibers on tract-specific analysis. These measurement points showed no abnormality using conventional MRI. This suggests that DTI can detect CNS abnormalities that cannot be detected with conventional MRI. However, our sample size was very small and we examined only cases in which PVL was detected with conventional MRI. Further study is necessary to examine the correlation of DTI findings and neurological prognoses in infants who have no abnormality on conventional MRI.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · No to hattatsu. Brain and development
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    ABSTRACT: Acute encephalopathy with reduced subcortical diffusion (AED) covers a spectrum including not only typical acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) but also atypical AESD with monophasic clinical course, or more severe subtypes. Aim of this study is to analyze prognostic factors of AED. We recruited 33 children with AED, that is, widespread diffusion restriction in cortical and subcortical structures. Their clinical courses, laboratory data, MRI, and the efficacy of treatment were analyzed retrospectively. Of the 33 children, 20 were males and the mean age at diagnosis was 22 months. Eighteen children had good outcome and 15 had poor outcome. Univariate analysis showed loss of consciousness 24 h after the onset, prolonged seizure at the onset, and mechanical ventilation to be weak predictors of poor outcome. Maximal aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and creatinine kinase levels were significantly higher in the poor outcome group. Multivariate analysis showed loss of consciousness 24 h after the onset and prolonged seizure at the onset to be poor predictors of AED. Treatment with steroids and/or immunoglobulins did not result in better outcome. Prolonged seizure at the onset and loss of consciousness 24 h after the onset were seen at early stages of severe AED. Using these features, a prospective study of early intervention in AED should be conducted to further analyze the efficacy of its treatment.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Brain & development

Publication Stats

506 Citations
132.48 Total Impact Points


  • 2001-2015
    • Anjo Kosei Hospital
      Anjō, Aichi, Japan
  • 2004-2008
    • Nagoya University
      • Division of Pediatrics
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    • The Graduate University for Advanced Studies
      • Department of Integrative Physiology
      Миура, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2006
    • Aichi Shukutoku University
      Koromo, Aichi, Japan