Publications (40)113.72 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This chapter will provide a current synthesis of the literature on psychosocial and cultural factors relevant to treatment for perinatal depression among Latina women living in the United States. “Treatment” will be broadly defined to address the scope of treatment possibilities. The chapter will cover three main areas. First, we will provide an overview of the cultural understanding of and care for perinatal depression. Current data regarding prevalence, risk factors, and issues surrounding acculturation of Latina women in the United States will be reviewed. Second, we will present and discuss issues surrounding access and barriers to standard mental health care systems and treatments in the United States. We will include the development and use of screening tools for Spanish-speaking women, and the use of nonmental health care settings as potential sites for the identification and treatment of maternal depression. Third, we shall present and discuss the current state of treatment interventions for perinatal depression among Latina women, using a very broad definition, including both traditional and American mental health systems and treatments.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Scant literature exists on whether prior pregnancy loss (miscarriage, stillbirth, and/or induced abortion) increases the risk of postpartum psychiatric disorders-specifically depression and anxiety-after subsequent births. This study compares: (1) risk factors for depression and/or anxiety disorders in the postpartum year among women with and without prior pregnancy loss; and (2) rates of these disorders in women with one versus multiple pregnancy losses. Methods: One-hundred-ninety-two women recruited at first-year pediatric well-child care visits from an urban pediatric clinic provided demographic information, reproductive and health histories. They also completed depression screening tools and a standard semi-structured psychiatric diagnostic interview. Results: Almost half of the participants (49%) reported a previous pregnancy loss (miscarriage, stillbirth, or induced abortion). More than half of those with a history of pregnancy loss reported more than one loss (52%). Women with prior pregnancy loss were more likely to be diagnosed with major depression (p=0.002) than women without a history of loss. Women with multiple losses were more likely to be diagnosed with major depression (p=0.047) and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (Fisher's exact [FET]=0.028) than women with a history of one pregnancy loss. Loss type was not related to depression, although number of losses was related to the presence of depression and anxiety. Conclusions: Low-income urban mothers have high rates of pregnancy loss and often have experienced more than one loss and/or more than one type of loss. Women with a history of pregnancy loss are at increased risk for depression and anxiety, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), after the birth of a child. Future research is needed to understand the reasons that previous pregnancy loss is associated with subsequent postpartum depression and anxiety among this population of women.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment of depression during pregnancy can be challenging for patients and providers alike. An increasing attention to perinatal mood disorders has led to an expanding literature that is often difficult for providers to navigate. It can be a challenge for providers to feel comfortable reviewing the broad scope of the risks and benefits of treatments in the context of the limitations of the literature. Women who are depressed during pregnancy have been found to have an elevated risk of poor obstetrical outcomes, although studies of the relationship between depression and outcomes are limited. Women who are treated with antidepressants during pregnancy are also at risk for a host of poor obstetrical and fetal outcomes. The risks for these outcomes are often confused by confounding factors and study design limitations. Understanding the current data and their limitations will allow providers to guide their patients in choosing treatment options. Consistent and simple strategies should be used when discussing the risk-benefit analysis with the patient.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A notable portion (21%) of female patients receiving treatment for depression in community mental health centers (CMHC) has childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. Treatment outcomes in this population are heterogeneous; identifying factors associated with differential outcomes could inform treatment development. This exploratory study begins to address the gap in what is known about predictors of treatment outcomes among depressed women with sexual abuse histories. Seventy women with major depressive disorder and CSA histories in a CMHC were randomly assigned to interpersonal psychotherapy (n = 37) or usual care (n = 33). Using generalized estimating equations, we examined four pretreatment predictor domains (i.e. sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features, social and physical functioning, and trauma features) potentially related to depression treatment outcomes. Among sociodemographic characteristics, Black race/ethnicity, public assistance income, and unemployment were associated with less depressive symptom reduction over the course of treatment. Two clinical features, chronic depression and borderline personality disorder, were also related to less reduction in depressive symptoms across the treatment period. Our results demonstrate the clinical relevance of attending to predictors of depressed women with CSA histories being treated in public sector mental health centers. Particular sociodemographic characteristics and clinical features among these women may be significant indicators of risk for relatively poorer treatment outcomes.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to examine the role of maternal self-efficacy as a potential mediator between maternal depression and child hospitalizations in low-income families. We analyzed data from 432 mother-child pairs who were part of the control-group for the Nurse-Family Partnership trial in Memphis, TN. Low-income urban, mostly minority women were interviewed 12 and 24 months after their first child's birth and their child's medical records were collected from birth to 24 months. We fit linear and ordered logistic regression models to test for mediation. We also tested non-linear relationships between the dependent variable (child hospitalization) and covariates (depressive symptoms and self-efficacy). Elevated depressive symptoms (OR: 1.70; 90% CI: 1.05, 2.74) and lower maternal self-efficacy (OR: 0.674; 90% CI: 0.469, 0.970) were each associated with increased child hospitalizations. When both maternal self-efficacy and depressive symptoms were included in a single model, the depressive symptoms coefficient decreased significantly (OR decreased by 0.13, P = 0.069), supporting the hypothesis that self-efficacy serves as a mediator. A non-linear, inverse-U shaped relationship between maternal self-efficacy and child hospitalizations was supported: lower compared to higher self-efficacy was associated with more child hospitalizations (P = 0.039), but very low self-efficacy was associated with fewer hospitalizations than low self-efficacy (P = 0.028). In this study, maternal self-efficacy appears to be a mediator between maternal depression and child hospitalizations. Further research is needed to determine if interventions specifically targeting self-efficacy in depressed mothers might decrease child hospitalizations.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health burden among perinatal mothers attending well-baby visits with their infants in the first year of life. We compare rates of depression, anxiety disorder, and substance abuse diagnoses between mothers who reported IPV within the past year to those who did not. This cross-sectional study of 188 mothers of infants (under 14 months) was conducted in an urban hospital pediatric clinic. Participants reported demographics and IPV and completed a semistructured psychiatric diagnostic interview. Mothers reporting IPV were more likely to be diagnosed with mood and/or anxiety diagnoses (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test), specifically current depressive diagnoses (p<0.01, Fisher's exact test) and panic disorder (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test). There was a trend for more posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (p<0.06) among abused mothers. Substance abuse and dependence, age, race, insurance status, employment, education, and family arrangements did not differ between groups. Prior major or minor depression increases the odds for perinatal depression threefold (OD 3.18). These findings have implications for practitioners who encounter perinatal women. Findings suggest providers should explore signs and symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders among women reporting IPV. Similarly, when perinatal mothers report symptoms of depression, PTSD, or panic disorder, practitioners should be alert to the possible contributory role of IPV.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many depressed women seen in community mental health centers (CMHCs) have histories of childhood sexual abuse and are economically disadvantaged. Randomized trials are needed to test the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions in this population and setting. This study compared interpersonal psychotherapy with usual care psychotherapy among women in a CMHC. Among 1,100 women seeking treatment in a CMHC, 230 (21%) had major depression and histories of childhood sexual abuse. Seventy women with major depression and sexual abuse before age 18 were randomly assigned to interpersonal psychotherapy (N=37) or usual care psychotherapy (N=33). Staff clinicians provided all treatments. Participants were assessed at study entry and at ten, 24, and 36 weeks after random assignment. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine change over time. Compared with women assigned to usual care, women who received interpersonal psychotherapy had greater reductions in depressive symptoms (Hamilton Rating Scale, p=.05, d=.34; Beck Depression Inventory-II, p=.01, d=.29), posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (p=.04, d=.76), and shame (p=.002, d=.38). Interpersonal psychotherapy and usual care yielded comparable improvements in social and mental health-related functioning. Interpersonal psychotherapy compared favorably to usual care psychotherapy in a CMHC in improving psychiatric symptoms and reducing shame among sexually abused women. However, there is a critical need for continued research to develop more effective treatments for the social and psychiatric sequelae of interpersonal trauma and socioeconomic disadvantage.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have demonstrated that low-income families often have disproportionately high utilization of emergency department (ED) and hospital services, and low utilization of preventive visits. A possible contributing factor is that some mothers may not respond optimally to their infants' health needs, either due to their own responsiveness or due to the child's ability to send cues. These mother-child interactions are measurable and amenable to change. We examined the associations between mother-child interactions and child healthcare utilization among low-income families. We analyzed data from the Nurse-Family Partnership trial in Memphis, TN control group (n = 432). Data were collected from child medical records (birth to 24 months), mother interviews (12 and 24 months postpartum), and observations of mother-child interactions (12 months postpartum). We used logistic and ordered logistic regression to assess independent associations between mother-child interactions and child healthcare utilization measures: hospitalizations, ED visits, sick-child visits to primary care, and well-child visits. Better mother-child interactions, as measured by mother's responsiveness to her child, were associated with decreased hospitalizations (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.81), decreased ambulatory-care-sensitive ED visits (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.96), and increased well-child visits (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.28). Mother's responsiveness to her child was associated with child healthcare utilization. Interventions to improve mother-child interactions may be appropriate for mother-child dyads in which child healthcare utilization appears unbalanced with inadequate primary care and excess urgent care. Recognition of these interactions may also improve the care clinicians provide for families.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resident physicians have an important role in medical student teaching. There has been limited curriculum development in this area for general psychiatric residents. A 4-hour workshop for PGY-2 psychiatric residents was designed and implemented to improve residents' self-assessment of their knowledge of the medical student curriculum and core teaching skills. Residents completed pre- and postcourse self-assessments of their knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values about teaching. Descriptive statistics were obtained on pre- and postcourse data and were analyzed using t tests assuming unequal variance. Following course participation, there was statistically significant improvement in residents' self-assessment of their knowledge of the medical student curriculum (p ≤ 0.001), their self-assessment regarding perception of peers' view of their teaching ability (p ≤ 0.02), and their perceived knowledge of various teaching methods (p ≤ 0.02). Our findings suggest that a brief workshop may enhance psychiatric residents' self-assessment of teaching knowledge and skills.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aims to describe the phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and disorders (OCD) in perinatal women and to explore the relationship of OCS/OCD to postpartum depression. A prospective longitudinal study of 44 women screened with the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) between 30 and 37 weeks of pregnancy. Twenty-four women completed a diagnostic interview and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) before delivery and were contacted postpartum to repeat the EPDS and Y-BOCS. In the third trimester, 32% reported high levels of anxiety and/or depressive symptoms (EPDS ≥ 10 and/or OCI-R ≥ 15) and 29% of those who completed the diagnostic interview met criteria for OCD. At 1 month postpartum, 12.5% had new OCS (Y-BOCS ≥ 8) and 25% had new high levels of depressive symptoms (EPDS ≥ 10). OCS increased in intensity postpartum but did not change in character. OCD and OCS may be of greater prevalence during the perinatal period than previously recognized. The high rates provide new information and require replication in larger, more diverse populations. Research in the perinatal period must expand beyond the exploration of depression to include anxiety disorders and specifically OCD.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal was to describe the accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), and Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) in identifying major depressive disorder (MDD) or minor depressive disorder (MnDD) among low-income, urban mothers attending well-child care (WCC) visits during the postpartum year. Mothers (N = 198) attending WCC visits with their infants 0 to 14 months of age completed a psychiatric diagnostic interview (standard method) and 3 screening tools. The sensitivities and specificities of each screening tool were calculated in comparison with diagnoses of MDD or MDD/MnDD. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated and the areas under the curves for each tool were compared to assess accuracy for the entire sample (representing the postpartum year) and subsamples (representing early, middle, and late postpartum time frames). Optimal cutoff scores were calculated. At some point between 2 weeks and 14 months after delivery, 56% of mothers met criteria for either MDD (37%) or MnDD (19%). When used as continuous measures, all scales performed equally well (areas under the curves of > or =0.8). With traditional cutoff scores, the measures did not perform at the expected levels of sensitivity and specificity. Optimal cutoff scores for the BDI-II (> or =14 for MDD and > or =11 for MDD/MnDD) and EPDS (> or =9 for MDD and > or =7 for MDD/MnDD) were lower than currently recommended. For the PDSS, the optimal cutoff score was consistent with current guidelines for MDD (> or =80) but higher than recommended for MDD/MnDD (> or =77). Large proportions of low-income, urban mothers attending WCC visits experience MDD or MnDD during the postpartum year. The EPDS, BDI-II, and PDSS have high accuracy in identifying depression, but cutoff scores may need to be altered to identify depression more accurately among urban, low-income mothers.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies noted a positive association between maternal depression and child hospitalizations. However, the mechanisms for this association are not clear. We tested the hypothesis that depressed mothers with low self-efficacy will be more likely to delay seeking care for their children, thus bringing about more hospitalizations. Data from the Nurse-Family Partnership trial in Memphis, TN were used (n=432; control group only). Women were recruited at an obstetrical clinic and interviewed 12 months after their first child's birth. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Mental Health Inventory-5. A 10-item Likert scale, developed and validated for this study, measured self-efficacy. Child hospitalization data from birth to 24 months were available from medical records. All models controlled for children's chronic conditions, birth weight, and demographic factors. Twenty-two percent of children were hospitalized once and 9% were hospitalized two or more times, 14% of mothers had consistently high depressive symptoms, and 48% had lower maternal self-efficacy than the sample mean. Using linear regression, increased maternal depressive symptoms were found to predict lower self-efficacy (-0.188, 95% CI: -0.280, -0.097). Using ordered logistic regression, lower maternal self-efficacy was found to predict more child hospitalizations (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 2.37, 0.995). When these two paths were combined by multiplying the coefficients, maternal self-efficacy was shown to be a mediator (p<0.001) between maternal depression and child hospitalizations in this urban, mostly minority, population. Interventions targeting maternal self-efficacy and adequate maternal depression treatment should be considered to decrease child hospitalizations.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To address the maternal and neonatal risks of both depression and antidepressant exposure and develop algorithms for periconceptional and antenatal management. Representatives from the American Psychiatric Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and a consulting developmental pediatrician collaborated to review English language articles on fetal and neonatal outcomes associated with depression and antidepressant treatment during childbearing. Articles were obtained from Medline searches and bibliographies. Search keywords included pregnancy, pregnancy complications, pregnancy outcomes, depressive disorder, depressive disorder/dt, abnormalities/drug-induced/epidemiology, abnormalities/drug-induced/et. Iterative draft manuscripts were reviewed until consensus was achieved. Both depressive symptoms and antidepressant exposure are associated with fetal growth changes and shorter gestations, but the majority of studies that evaluated antidepressant risks were unable to control for the possible effects of a depressive disorder. Short-term neonatal irritability and neurobehavioral changes are also linked with maternal depression and antidepressant treatment. Several studies report fetal malformations in association with first trimester antidepressant exposure but there is no specific pattern of defects for individual medications or class of agents. The association between paroxetine and cardiac defects is more often found in studies that included all malformations rather than clinically significant malformations. Late gestational use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants is associated with transitory neonatal signs and a low risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn. Psychotherapy alone is an appropriate treatment for some pregnant women; however, others prefer pharmacotherapy or may require pharmacological treatment. Antidepressant use in pregnancy is well studied, but available research has not yet adequately controlled for other factors that may influence birth outcomes including maternal illness or problematic health behaviors that can adversely affect pregnancy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To address the maternal and neonatal risks of both depression and antidepressant exposure and develop algorithms for periconceptional and antenatal management. Method: Representatives from the American Psychiatric Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and a consulting developmental pediatrician collaborated to review English language articles on fetal and neonatal outcomes associated with depression and antidepressant treatment during childbearing. Articles were obtained from Medline searches and bibliographies. Search keywords included pregnancy, pregnancy complications, pregnancy outcomes, depressive disorder, depressive disorder/dt, abnormalities/drug-induced/epidemiology, abnormalities/drug-induced/et. Iterative draft manuscripts were reviewed until consensus was achieved. Results: Both depressive symptoms and antidepressant exposure are associated with fetal growth changes and shorter gestations, but the majority of studies that evaluated antidepressant risks were unable to control for the possible effects of a depressive disorder. Short-term neonatal irritability and neurobehavioral changes are also linked with maternal depression and antidepressant treatment. Several studies report fetal malformations in association with first trimester antidepressant exposure but there is no specific pattern of defects for individual medications or class of agents. The association between paroxetine and cardiac defects is more often found in studies that included all malformations rather than clinically significant malformations. Late gestational use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants is associated with transitory neonatal signs and a low risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn. Psychotherapy alone is an appropriate treatment for some pregnant women; however, others prefer pharmacotherapy or may require pharmacological treatment. Conclusions: Antidepressant use in pregnancy is well studied, but available research has not yet adequately controlled for other factors that may influence birth outcomes including maternal illness or problematic health behaviors that can adversely affect pregnancy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) increases risk for both depression and pain in women. Pain is associated with worse depression treatment response. The contribution of pain to depression treatment outcomes in women with histories of CSA is unknown. This study examined whether clinically significant pain would be associated with worse depression and functioning outcomes among women with CSA histories treated with interpersonal psychotherapy. Participants were 66 women with major depression and CSA who presented to a community mental health center. An interpersonal psychotherapy protocol planned for 14 weekly sessions followed by 2 biweekly sessions. Patients were classified as experiencing high pain or low pain based on reported pain severity and interference with functioning. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess change over time in intent-to-treat analyses. High pain patients entered treatment with greater depression symptom severity than low pain patients. Although both high and low pain patients demonstrated improvement in mood, high-pain patients continued to report more depressive symptoms posttreatment. Furthermore, high pain patients demonstrated less change in their emotion-related role functioning over the course of treatment than low pain patients. Small sample size, secondary analyses, lack of a control group, and limited assessment of pain all limit confidence in the findings of this study. Findings support the evidence that depression is particularly severe and difficult to treat in patients with CSA and pain. Clinicians should evaluate pain in depressed patients with CSA histories. Role functioning may prove to be a particularly important target in the treatment of patients with pain.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pediatric residency reforms have increased emphasis on psychosocial issues, but we do not know whether this has changed pediatricians' perceptions of barriers to addressing maternal depression. A survey of 1600 members of the American Academy of Pediatrics investigated whether training in adult mental health issues and perceived barriers to addressing maternal depression differed for current pediatric residents, pediatricians in practice <5 years, and those in practice >or=5 years. Training did not differ for respondents who were currently in training, in practice <5 years, or in practice >or=5 years. Those in practice >or=5 years reported more barriers to addressing maternal depression compared with current residents. Current residents with training in adult mental techniques reported fewer barriers to the care of maternal depression. However, in spite of residency reforms, 81% of current residents reported no training in adult mental health issues.
New York, New York, United States
- Department of Psychiatry
University of Rochester
Rochester, New York, United States
- • Department of Pediatrics
- • Department of Psychiatry