[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating complication with substantial mortality. The aims of this study were to identify the incidence, preoperative and intraoperative risk factors, and impact of ARDS on outcomes in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).
Materials and methods:
Adult OLT patients between January 2004 and October 2013 at our center were included. Postoperative ARDS was determined using the criteria proposed by the Berlin Definition. Multivariate logistic models were used to identify preoperative and intraoperative risk factors for ARDS.
Of 1726 patients during the study period, 71 (4.1%) developed ARDS. In the preoperative model, encephalopathy (odds ratio [OR], 2.22; P = .022), preoperative requirement of intubation (OR, 2.06; P = .020), and total bilirubin (OR, 1.02; P = .003) were independent risk factors. In the intraoperative model, large pressor bolus was the sole risk factor for ARDS (OR, 2.69; P = .001). Postoperatively, patients with ARDS had a 2-fold increase in 1-year mortality, mechanical ventilation time, and length of hospital stay.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome occurred at a rate of 4.1% following OLT in adult patients and was associated with preoperative encephalopathy, requirement of intubation, and total bilirubin and intraoperative large boluses of pressors. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was associated with increased mortality, longer ventilation time, and hospital stay.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of critical care
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study describes anesthesiologists' practice improvements undertaken during the first 3 yr of simulation activities for the Maintenance of Certification in Anesthesiology Program.
A stratified sampling of 3 yr (2010-2012) of participants' practice improvement plans was coded, categorized, and analyzed.
Using the sampling scheme, 634 of 1,275 participants in Maintenance of Certification in Anesthesiology Program simulation courses were evaluated from the following practice settings: 41% (262) academic, 54% (339) community, and 5% (33) military/other. A total of 1,982 plans were analyzed for completion, target audience, and topic. On follow-up, 79% (1,558) were fully completed, 16% (310) were partially completed, and 6% (114) were not completed within the 90-day reporting period. Plans targeted the reporting individual (89% of plans) and others (78% of plans): anesthesia providers (50%), non-anesthesia physicians (16%), and non-anesthesia non-physician providers (26%). From the plans, 2,453 improvements were categorized as work environment or systems changes (33% of improvements), teamwork skills (30%), personal knowledge (29%), handoff (4%), procedural skills (3%), or patient communication (1%). The median word count was 63 (interquartile range, 30 to 126) for each participant's combined plans and 147 (interquartile range, 52 to 257) for improvement follow-up reports.
After making a commitment to change, 94% of anesthesiologists participating in a Maintenance of Certification in Anesthesiology Program simulation course successfully implemented some or all of their planned practice improvements. This compares favorably to rates in other studies. Simulation experiences stimulate active learning and motivate personal and collaborative practice improvement changes. Further evaluation will assess the impact of the improvements and further refine the program.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate major gastroesophageal and hemorrhagic complications that may be related to intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in liver transplant (LT) patients with high model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score 25 or higher. Design Retrospective. Setting Single institution university setting. Participants Of 906 transplant recipients, 656 who had MELD score 25 or higher were included for analysis. Interventions Patient demographics, pre- and intraoperative characteristics, and major gastroesophageal and hemorrhagic complications were compared between patients with and without TEE. Measurements and Main Results Sixty-six percent (433 patients) had intraoperative TEE and 34% (223 patients) did not. One patient in the TEE group had a major gastroesophageal complication (Mallory-Weiss tear). Eleven patients required postoperative gastrointestinal consultation. These patients were distributed evenly between the TEE and non-TEE groups. Eighteen (2.8%) had major hemorrhagic complication (defined as bloody nasogastric output>500 mL in 24 hours postoperatively). Multivariate analysis showed alcoholic cirrhosis had 5.3 higher odds of post-transplant gastroesophageal hemorrhage compared with other indications for transplant (95% confidence interval 1.8-15.8, p<0.001). TEE was not associated with an increased likelihood of major hemorrhagic complication after LT. Conclusions The authors demonstrated that the incidence of major gastroesophageal and hemorrhagic complications following intraoperative TEE in LT patients with MELD score 25 or higher was low.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) who also have underlying coronary artery disease (CAD) may be at increased risk for undergoing hemodynamically challenging orthotopic liver transplantation. Noninvasive single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging is often used to determine whether a patient with ESLD has unsuspected CAD. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of SPECT imaging for detection of CAD in patients with ESLD. Patients with ESLD who underwent coronary angiography and SPECT imaging before orthotopic liver transplantation were analyzed retrospectively. The predictive accuracy of clinical risk factors was calculated and compared to the results of SPECT imaging. There were 473 SPECT imaging studies. Adenosine SPECT imaging had a sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 82%, positive predictive value of 30%, and negative predictive value of 95% for diagnosing severe CAD. Regadenoson SPECT imaging had a sensitivity of 35%, specificity of 88%, positive predictive value of 23%, and negative predictive value of 93% for diagnosing severe CAD. The accuracy of a standard risk factor analysis showed no statistical difference in predicting CAD compared with adenosine (sensitivity McNemar's p = 0.48, specificity McNemar's p = 1.00) or regadenoson (sensitivity McNemar's p = 0.77, specificity McNemar's p = 1.00) SPECT studies. In conclusion, the 2 pharmaceutical agents had low sensitivity but high specificity for diagnosing CAD. However, because the sensitivity of the test is low, the chances of missing patients with ESLD with CAD is high, making SPECT imaging an inaccurate screening test. A standard risk factor analysis as a predictor for CAD in patients with ESLD is less expensive, has no radiation exposure, and is as accurate as SPECT imaging.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · The American journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the last decade the age of liver transplant (LT) recipients and the likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD) in this population have increased. There are no multicenter studies that have examined the impact of CAD on LT outcomes. In this historical cohort study, we identified adult LT recipients who underwent angiography prior to transplantation at seven institutions over a 12-year period. For each patient we recorded demographic data, recipient and donor risk factors, duration of follow-up, the presence of angiographically proven obstructive CAD (≥50% stenosis) and post-LT survival. Obstructive CAD was present in 151 of 630 patients, the CAD(+) group. Nonobstructive CAD was found in 479 patients, the CAD(-) group. Patient survival was similar for the CAD(+) group (adjusted HR 1.13, CI =[0.79, 1.62], p = 0.493) compared to the CAD(-) group. The CAD(+) patients were further stratified into severe (CADsev, >70% stenosis, n = 96), and moderate CAD (CADmod, 50-70% stenosis, n = 55) groups. Survival for the CADsev (adjusted HR = 1.26, CI =[0.83, 1.91], p = 0.277) and CADmod (adjusted HR = 0.93, CI =[0.52, 1.66], p = 0.797) groups were similar to the CAD(-) group. We conclude that when current CAD treatment strategies are employed prior to transplant, post-LT survival is not significantly different between patients with and without obstructive CAD.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · American Journal of Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ultimate goal of physician education is the application of knowledge and skills to patient care. The Maintenance of Certification (MOC) for Anesthesiologists program incorporates mannequin-based simulation to help realize this goal. Results from the first 2 years of experience suggest that 583 physician participants transferred knowledge and skills from their simulated experiences into real-world practice. Participants consistently found the experience educationally valuable and clinically relevant, and reported that it led to changes in practice. This first experience with mannequin-based simulation for MOC indicates that physicians accept this teaching modality, many with enthusiasm. Simulation education addresses many of the identified intentions of current continuing medical education (CME) and can help educators realize goals for educating physician-learners.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Alterations in the central nervous system in patients with acute liver failure (ALF) present unique challenges in the perioperative period. In this retrospective study, we examined pretransplant neurological presentation and the incidence, clinical presentation, and risk factors associated with severe posttransplant brain injury (BI) in ALF patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).
After institutional review board approval, ALF patients who underwent OLT between 2004 and 2010 at our center were reviewed. Pretransplant neurological presentation and severe posttransplant BI were examined. Risk factors for the latter were identified.
During the study period, 90 (67 adults and 23 children) ALF patients underwent primary OLT. Preoperatively, all patients developed encephalopathy, 6 had seizure activity, 32 had radiological evidence of cerebral edema, and 11 had severe cerebral edema. After OLT, 7 patients developed severe posttransplant BI. Of these 7 patients, 4 had brain death, and 3 had irreversible injury that precluded them from living independently. Severe pretransplant cerebral edema and a higher posttransplant international normalized ratio (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals: 50.2, 5.8-433.5 [P<0.001] and 3.1, 1.1-8.8 [P=0.031], respectively) were risk factors associated with severe posttransplant BI.
Pretransplant neurological complications were prevalent, and severe posttransplant BI occurred at a rate of 7.8% and was significantly associated with severe pretransplant cerebral edema and postoperative international normalized ratio. Our findings support the use of pretransplant computed tomography. If severe pretransplant cerebral edema is confirmed, efforts should be made to aggressively control intracranial pressure and select a proper donor to minimize the risk of severe posttransplant BI and futile transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that the storage age of red blood cells (RBCs) may be associated with morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. We studied perioperative effects of RBC storage age in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplant (OLT).
Adult patients who received ≥5 U of RBCs during OLT between January 2004 and June 2009 were studied. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the mean storage age of RBCs they received: new or old RBCs (stored ≤14 or >14 days, respectively). Effects of storage age of transfused RBCs during OLT on intraoperative potassium (K(+)) concentrations, incidence of hyperkalemia (K(+) ≥5.5 mmol/L), postoperative morbidity, and patient and graft survival were studied.
The mean serum K(+) concentrations and the incidence of hyperkalemia during OLT were significantly associated with storage age of the RBCs. Logistic analysis showed that storage age of RBCs was an independent risk factor for intraoperative hyperkalemia (odds ratios 1.067-1.085, p < 0.001) in addition to baseline K(+) concentration and units of RBCs transfused. Patient and graft survival and postoperative morbidity including postoperative ventilation, reoperation, acute renal dysfunction defined by the RIFLE criteria was not associated with old RBCs.
Transfusion of RBCs stored for a longer time was associated with intraoperative hyperkalemia but not with postoperative adverse outcomes in adult OLT. Prevention and treatment of potentially harmful hyperkalemia should be considered when old RBCs are administered.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · World Journal of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simulation has become ubiquitous in medical education over the last decade. However, while many health-care professions and disciplines have embraced the use of simulation for training, its use for high-stakes testing and credentialing is less well established. This chapter explores the incorporation of simulation into training requirements and board certification, and its role for quality assurance of educational programmes and professional competence. Educational theories that underlie the use of simulation are described. The driving forces that support the simulation movement are outlined. Accreditation bodies have mandated simulation in training and maintenance of certification. It may be only a matter of time before simulation becomes one of the standards for performance assessment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) is a system for scoring the severity of liver disease. The model was developed in 2000 to predict survival in patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement. However, in 2002, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network adopted the MELD score as the standard for prioritization of graft allocation for liver transplantation [1–3]. With few exceptions (hepatocellular carcinoma and acute liver failure), those patients with highest MELD scores have the highest priority for organ allocation for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in many countries including the United States. Since the implementation of the MELD system, wait-list mortality has significantly decreased, waiting time to liver transplantation has been reduced by over 100 days, and the MELD score has proven to be a good marker for 1-year posttransplantation survival [4–7]. The MELD score is a composite of three laboratory values: the international normalized ratio (INR) , serum creatinine, and serum bilirubin .