[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Axillary arch is the most common muscle variation of axillary fossa that gains importance for regional interventional procedures, screening methods and physical examination. In order to avoid malpractice the variations must be borne in mind. This study has been planned to research the frequency and the features of the axillary arch in human fetus, to mention the potential clinical and functional significance of axillary arch while applying axillary brachial plexus block and reflect on possible complications. Axillary fossa was examined with a stereomicroscope in 20 upper extremities of ten human fetuses. The gestation ages ranged from 16 to 36 weeks. Axillary arch was determined in 2/20 specimen unilaterally. In both specimen, muscular slip detached from latissimus dorsi, passed anterior neurovascular bundle and ended posterior pectoralis major tendon and lateral border of intertubercular groove. In one specimen axillary arch was innervated with medial pectoral nerve whereas the other one did not have a particular innervating nerve branch. The possible effects of axillary arch in the axillary brachial plexus block applications are discussed. Arcus axillaris may have a potential clinical and functional significance with regard the axillary brachial plexus block applications and may have possible effects on failure rate and acute complications. Also, we think that this fetus study which the pure structure of the muscles without any usage effect can be observed will be beneficial regarding this topic.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · International Journal of Morphology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of the novel cauterization procedure of the inferior turbinate artery, which may be performed with any kind of inferior turbinate procedures in reducing the intra and the post-operative bleeding in partial inferior turbinectomy. A prospective controlled study was conducted in a referral center. Sixty patients (38M, 22F) who underwent partial turbinectomy were included. In 20 patients, partial turbinectomy was performed with the cauterization in one nasal cavity and the other one without it. The remaining 40 patients were divided into two groups which comprised cauterization positive and negative patients and are assessed in terms of post-operative bleeding. The area of the cauterization was 1 cm(2) field which is 1 cm anterior to the posterior attachment of the inferior turbinate on the lateral nasal wall, very close to the inferior turbinate, where the pulsating vessel is most commonly seen. Mean operation time, mean intra-operative blood loss and post-operative bleeding incidence are the main outcome measures. Post-operative bleeding was seen in three patients (15%) in the cauterization negative group. No patient had post-operative bleeding in the cauterization positive group. Mean operation time and mean intra-operative bleeding amount were significantly lower in the cauterization positive side. Cauterization of the inferior turbinate artery on the lateral nasal wall is a safe and effective method which may also be performed with any kind of inferior turbinate procedures to reduce both the operation time and intra and post-operative bleeding.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biceps brachii (BB) is as one of the most variable muscles in the human body in terms of number and morphology of its heads. The most frequent variation is the presence of a third head, which has been reported by several authors in different populations. Our aim was to find the occurrence of the supernumerary head of BB in Turkish foetuses. Out of the 24 upper limbs of the foetuses, two (8.33%) arms were found to have a three-headed BB. The variations were present unilaterally in the right arm of one male foetus and one female foetus. In one of the cases, the third head of BB originated from the anteromedial aspect of the humerus just distal to the insertion of the coracobrachilais, medial to the brachialis, and in the other the third head was a thin muscle bundle, which arose on the lateral side of the insertion of coracobrachialis and over the origin of the brachialis. Both of them were extended distally and joined the common tendon. The occasional presence of the three-headed BB in the foetuses observed in the present study was similar to those of adults reported in previous studies. In conclusion, these variations are not rare and are interesting not only to anatomists but also to orthopaedic surgeons, plastic surgeons, traumatologists, physiotherapists, doctors dealing with sports medicine, and radiologists.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Folia morphologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this morphologic study is to investigate the course and the branching pattern of motor branches of musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) in human fetuses. Twenty upper limbs (10 right, 10 left) of spontaneously aborted formalin-fixed fetuses were dissected under a stereomicroscope to determine motor branches for the biceps brachii and brachialis and the communicating branches between the MCN and median nerve (MN). The MCN entered the proximal and middle part of coracobrachialis in 13/20 and 5/20 of arms, respectively, and the remaining 2/20 did not pierce coracobrachialis. The communication between MCN and MN was observed in 5/20 of the arms and detected only in the distal part of the coracobrachialis. The most frequently observed innervation is the type wherein a single branch to biceps brachii, which bifurcated for supplying the short and long heads (12/20). For the innervation of brachialis, the most frequent type was a single branch from the main trunk of the MCN (15/20). During the dissections, the distance between the acromion and the emerging point of the motor branches was measured. The mean distance between the acromion and the emerging point of the all motor branches for biceps brachii in all types of specimens was 33.8 ± 6.1% of acromion-lateral epicondyle length and for brachialis was 50.6 ± 11.5% of acromion-lateral epicondyle length. The data of the MCN variations in the human fetus may be useful for the clinicians and pediatric surgery.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Clinical Anatomy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the most effective treatments of inferior turbinate (IT) hypertrophy is surgical reduction. Bleeding from the IT branch of the posterior lateral nasal artery (ITB) may interfere with the outcome of IT surgery. The aim of this study is to define the anatomic localization of the ITB and its variations and to investigate its clinical importance. Anatomic relations of the ITB were determined by microdissecting 20 adult, sagittally cross-sectioned head specimens. Branching characteristics of the ITB and its anatomical relations were evaluated. The most consistent two markers to define the ITB on the lateral nasal wall were the posterior attachment of the IT (PAIT) and the posterior attachment of the middle turbinate (PAMT). Mean horizontal distances of the ITB from the PAIT and the PAMT were 7.2 mm +/- 2.8 mm (2.5-11.8 mm) and 8.2 mm +/- 2.8 mm (4-14.6 mm), respectively. ITB was the only major artery that supplied the IT in 85% of the specimens, and, in 15%, there was more than one artery. ITB was located lateral to the IT in 95% and medial to the IT in 5%. The ITB coursed on the lateral nasal wall, vertically between the middle and ITs and always anterior to the PAIT. All the variations of blood supply to the IT were within a one square centimeter area, approximately 1-cm anterior to the PAIT. Successful cauterization of this particular area may be an alternative cauterization site in IT surgery. Clin. Anat., 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Clinical Anatomy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The absence of sphenoidal sinuses (SS) in an adult is an extremely rare condition. We investigated in agenesis of the sphenoid, maxillary, ethmoid, and frontal sinuses in 20 male adult cadavers. In a 50-year-old man, bilateral absence of the SS was observed. On the macroscopic examination, opening of the SS was not found on the lateral wall of the nasal cavity. There were multiple small mucosal grooves between the sphenoidal rostrum and the superior nasal turbinates. The bulging of the sphenoidal rostrum at the choanal level was flat. The body of the sphenoid bone was normal and consisted of a symmetrical bony structure with a total lack of pneumatization. Other paranasal sinuses agenesis was not observed. Surgeons should also consider the possibility of sphenoidal agenesis before transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. As a supplement to the traditional classification, agenesis of the SS can be described as the fourth type of pneumatization.
No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Anatomia Clinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differences of the superior nasal turbinate (SNT), presence of the supreme nasal turbinate (SpNT) and measurements of opening sphenoid sinus (OSS) are consistent anatomical landmarks that allow for safe entrances, such as posterior ethmoidectomy and sphenoid sinusotomy. The purpose of study was to investigate the anatomical details of the SNT for approaching the OSS on 20 specimens of adult cadavers under an operating microscope. The SNT and SpNT were localized more perpendicular than parallel to their axes. The SpNT structure was observed in 12 specimens (60%) and it was classified into three types. Type A SpNT was shortest of all turbinates (58.3%). In types B and C, SpNT was equal or larger than the SNT. These types were seen in 41.7% of specimens. In 11 specimens, posterior ethmoidal cells opened to supreme nasal meatus. In 7 specimens, there was one opening to supreme nasal meatus, while 2 openings were detected in 12 specimens, and 3 openings were seen in 1 specimen. All these openings belonged to posterior ethmoidal cells. To determine the position of the OSS, distances between some anatomical points were measured. In cases where the SpNT is present or the SpNT is bigger than the SNT, it is certain that a different method will be applied during the procedure in the nasal cavity. The SNT and the SpNT may easily be injured by unrecognized dissection in types B and C, leading to the disruption of its olfactory neuroepithelium and possibly to postoperative hyposmia.
No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The location and size of the opening of the nasolacrimal duct and the lacrimal fold (Hasner's valve) are variable. These features have clinical importance in nasal surgery because of the difficulty in determining their location. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the anatomical features of the opening of the nasolacrimal duct and the lacrimal fold and to discuss the importance of such knowledge in minimizing the risk of injury at surgery. Twenty sagittal head sections from formalin-fixed cadavers were examined. The sections showed no evidence of pathology or trauma. The type of opening of the nasolacrimal duct was a vertical sulcus in 14 of 20 (70%), an oblique sulcus in 2 of 20 (10%), an oblique fissure in 2 of 20 (10%), a vertical fissure in 1 of 20 (5%), and an anteroposterior fissure in 1 of 20 specimens (5%). The lacrimal fold was present in 16 of 20 specimens (80%). Five different forms of this fold were observed. Some morphological features were evaluated quantitatively. We believe that detailed anatomical knowledge of the opening of nasolacrimal duct will be useful in surgical approaches to this area.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Clinical Anatomy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sphenopalatine artery (SPA) ligation or cauterization stands to be one of the most common management options of refractory epistaxis. Ramification pattern of SPA as it passes through sphenopalatine foramen (SPF) has not been clearly established. The aim of this study is to investigate situations in which middle meatal approach may fail due to anatomic variations of SPA and to define a minimally invasive surgical cauterization procedure. Anatomic variations of SPA were determined by microdissection of 20 adult sagittally cross-sectioned head specimens.
Branching characteristics of SPA and its anatomic relations were evaluated and anatomic variations were noted.
SPA was generally (80%) forming branches within SPF before entering into the nasal cavity. In 20% of the specimens, SPF was located superior to the horizontal lamella of the middle turbinate, and accessory foramen was present in 10%. In 10% of the cases, the posterior lateral nasal branch was situated as two branches in a deep sulcus in the middle meatus.
The ramification pattern of SPA can not be fully exposed without resection of the posterior part of the middle turbinate via the middle meatal approach. Two-step procedures are advocated in reducing failure rates. Previously defined two-step procedures are relatively invasive. A less invasive procedure is defined based on the variations of SPA and SPF.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To optimize the approach to the lacrimal sac during intranasal dacryocystorhinostomy.
Microscopic measurement of anatomical landmarks in cadaver sagittal head sections.
The anatomy department of a large university hospital.
Twenty adult cadaver sagittal head sections (12 right and 8 left) fixed with 10% formaldehyde solution were evaluated.
During endoscopic dissections, the maxillary line, lacrimomaxillary suture, nasolacrimal duct, and lacrimal sac were exposed.
Greater knowledge of the relationship among anatomical structures.
The entire lacrimal sac was in 2 of 20 sides anterior and in 3 of 20 sides posterior to the axilla of the middle nasal concha. The fornix of the lacrimal sac was situated above the axilla in all sides. We evaluated the localization of the lacrimal sac to the maxillary line, which is of clinical importance in intranasal osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. In 17 of 20 sides it is possible to reveal the axilla of the middle nasal concha during osteotomy.
Underexposure or lack of true localization of the sac are the most frequently encountered reasons for dacryocystorhinostomy failure. The maxillary line and adhesion point of the middle nasal concha are the 2 most important landmarks in localization of the sac. A mucosal incision anterior to the maxillary line and dissection up to the point where the middle concha adheres, followed by osteotomy on the lacrimomaxillary suture, nearly always ensure the exposure of the sac.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the proximal part of the lacrimal tract.
The dissection was performed on 20 specimens of adult cadavers under an operating microscope.
The upper lacrimal canaliculus (ULC) and the lower lacrimal canaliculus (LLC) were opened to the lacrimal sac (LS) in three types. In Type A, the ULC and the LLC unite before opening to the LS and form the a common canaliculus (CC). In Type B, the ULC and the LLC unite at the wall of the LS and open to the LS via common hole. In Type C, however, the ULC and the LLC open to the LS separately. Type A, Type B and Type C were observed in 85%, 5% and 10% cases, respectively. Type A and Type B opened to the LS from back to front at an acute angle in 72% of the specimens, and at a right angle in 22%. The opening angles of the CC with lacrimal canaliculus; the ULC with the LS, and the LLC with the LS were realized at an acute angle.
Crucial parameters, which have not been previously mentioned such as the opening angles of the ULC and the LLC, were investigated as they might be used during the procedure.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Anatomia Clinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To reduce the risk of iatrogenic injury to sympathetic chain during anterior and anterolateral approaches to the cervical spine, its location has to be well defined and known by surgeons. We analyzed the course of sympathetic chain and its ganglia from C7 up to its entry into the cranial base and its relationship mainly with the longus colli (LC). Formalin fixed 20 human cadavers were dissected under operating microscope. Measurement of the dimensions of the ganglia, distance of the trunk to the LC, and the angles identifying the course of the chain were performed. Superior and inferior cervical/cervicothoracic ganglion were observed in all specimens, the middle cervical ganglion was observed in 48% of the specimens. The middle ganglion consisted of two ganglia in 10% of the dissected sides. Forty percent of the inferior cervical/cervicothoracic ganglion was at the C7 level, 25% was at C7-Th1 disc level, and 35% was at Th1 level. Vertebral ganglion was detected in only 8% of the specimens. The course of the sympathetic trunk converges medially descending from upper cervical levels to the lower levels. Anterior surgical approach to the cervical spine is a commonly used procedure. Although Horner syndrome due to sympathetic injury is not a common sequence of cervical operations, our findings support the current few reports on the subject and should be useful to any surgeon who operates in the cervical region to avoid this uncommon complication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the connection types and frequency between the accessory nerve and the posterior roots of the C2-C6 cervical nerves.
The cranial cervical regions of 49 specimens from 27 human cadavers were used for the present study under an operating microscope.
Five different connection types between the accessory nerve and the posterior roots of the cervical nerves were recorded and photographed (types A-F). One of these types was not described previously in literature (type F). All connections between the posterior roots of the C2-C6 spinal nerves and the accessory nerve were at the level of the C2 segment. Type B was the most frequently seen type in our series. One of the rootlets of the cervical posterior root joined the accessory nerve without a connection to the spinal cord in type B.
The clinical importance of these connections is especially noticed during the radical neck dissection as it may lead to the development of the shoulder-arm syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to give information about the anatomy of agger nasi cell for the surgery of the nasal cavity lateral wall.
Twenty mid-sagittal head sections were obtained at random from formalin fixed male Turkish cadavers (12 left sides, 8 right sides). The presence and anatomical structure of agger nasi cell were investigated under operating microscope.
Agger nasi cell, which lies between nasal cavity and lacrimal sac, was observed in eight of 20 specimens (40%). Whereas three of them showed a remarkable swelling along the lateral nasal wall, in five specimens of agger nasi cells there was superficially no swelling observed.
This anatomic study presents microsurgical information on the convoluted anatomy of agger nasi cell.
No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Kulak burun bogaz ihtisas dergisi: KBB = Journal of ear, nose, and throat
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the morphological characteristics of the connections between the spinal accessory nerve and the anterior root of the first cervical nerve (C1) which is also called the McKenzie branch. MATERIAL and
The cranial cervical regions of 49 specimens from 27 human cadavers were used for this study under an operating microscope. The topographical relationship of the accessory nerve to the anterior roots of C1 were studied.
One cadaver had a connection branch (McKenzie branch) on both sides.
The knowledge of the anatomy of these connections may help the clinician in determining treatments and surgical approaches in this anatomical area.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Turkish neurosurgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the incidence of absence of the posterior root of the first cervical nerve, and the relation between the accessory nerve and the posterior root of the first cervical nerve in Turkish population. Dissections of the accessory nerve and the posterior root of the first cervical nerve were performed in 49 specimens from 27 formalin fixed cadavers (25 male and 2 female). The type of the connections between the accessory nerve and the posterior root of the first cervical nerve was classified into four types. Type III was the most common type in present study (30.6%). There was a connection between the accessory nerve and the posterior root of the first cervical nerve in this type. The connections demonstrated in this study are important in the etiology and surgical treatment of the spasmodic torticollis.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The conventional approach to the fourth ventricle is by splitting the vermis on the suboccipital surface of the cerebellum. By a unilateral transcerebellomedullary fissure approach, it is possible to provide sufficient operative space from cerebral aqueduct to obex without splitting the vermis. This approach needs meticulous dissection of the cerebellomedullary fissure and preservation of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and its branches. The tonsillomedullary and telovelotonsillar segments of the PICA are the most important vessels encountered in the transcerebellomedullary fissure approach. The PICA was examined under a surgical microscope in a total of 40 specimens by perfusing with a mixture of 10% Indian ink and gelatin. The passing of the tonsillomedullary segment of the PICA through the cerebellomedullary fissure was observed superior to the tonsil in 5%, at the level of the upper pole of the tonsil in 17.5%, at the middle of the tonsil in 37.5% and at the level of the lower pole of the tonsil in 37.5% specimens. When the PICA arose from the lateral medullary (LM) segment of the vertebral artery (VA), a caudal loop was present in 90%, when the PICA originated from the premedullary segment of the VA, the loop was present in 87.5% specimens. When the PICA arose from the basilar artery (BA), the loop was absent, and the tonsillomedullary segment of the PICA showed a straight course (100%). A thorough understanding of the relationship of the branches of the PICA to the cerebellar tonsils are prerequisites for surgery in and around the fourth ventricle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is the largest branch of the vertebral artery. It usually arises at the anterolateral margin of the medulla oblongata close to the lower cranial nerves. The PICA had the most complex relationship to the cranial nerves of any artery and it is frequently exposed in approaches directed to the fourth ventricle. The aim of this article is to describe the anatomical relationship of the PICA to the lower cranial nerves. In this study, 12.5% of PICAs passed between the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, 20% between the vagus and accessory nerves, and 65% through the rootlets of the accessory nerve. The lateral medullary segment of the PICA showed a lateral loop which in 20% specimens pressed against the inferior surfaces of the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves. The lateral medullary segment of the PICA in 20% specimens passed superior to the hypoglossal nerve, in 47.5% through the rootlets of the hypoglossal nerve, and in 30% inferior to the hypoglossal nerve. The findings on the relationship of the PICA to the lower cranial nerves could be helpful in microsurgery of this region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to observe the course of the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve (MMBFN) in relation to the inferior border of the mandible and parotid gland and its relevance to surgical procedures such as rhytidectomy and parotid gland surgery. In this study, 50 specimens were dissected. The relationships between the MMBFN and the inferior border of the mandible were recorded and analyzed. We found that posterior to the facial artery, the MMBFN ran above the inferior border of the mandible in 37 (74%) of the specimens. In 11 (22%) specimens, below the inferior border of the mandible it was divided into two branches at the crossing point with the facial artery. In 2 (4%) specimens the MMBFN divided into two branches at the point of emergence from the parotid gland. There were no statistical differences between the left and right sides, and both sexes. The MMBFN is one of the most vulnerable branches to surgical injury because of its location. For this reason, the surgeons who are willing to operate on this area, especially for the rhytidectomies, should have a true knowledge about the anatomy of this branch.
No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Journal of Craniofacial Surgery