[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lifelong exposure to stressors promotes physiological dysregulation and produces an allostatic load (AL). In European-derived samples, AL associates significantly with sex, age and health.
To assess associations of AL with age, sex, socio-demographic differences and self-reports of diet and ability to complete activities of daily living in older Japanese residing in rural Nagasaki Prefecture.
In 2011, 96 older residents of Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, were assessed for components of AL. They also self-reported their age, principal life-long occupational activity, educational attainments, marital status, dietary choices and abilities to complete daily living activities.
Average age was 67.9 years (range = 55-89; SD = 8.65). Among these 48 men and 48 women, AL was not related significantly to age, although women showed lower AL than men. AL did not differ significantly between respondents by occupation, marital status, education or abilities to complete daily activities. Women who reported eating more green/yellow vegetables or consuming more meat had lower AL than their counterparts. Men who reported drinking more alcohol spirits had higher AL.
Among older Japanese residing outside a major urban area, AL varies significantly by sex, but not age, while being associated with dietary choices. Although lack of association with life ways was not expected, AL apparently assesses physiological dysregulation cross-culturally.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Annals of Human Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Recent studies have reported an association between both higher and lower levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and higher mortality of diabetes patients. Like diabetes, carotid atherosclerosis is a well known lifestyle-related disease. However, no studies have yet reported an association between HbA1c levels and carotid atherosclerosis.
We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,150 Japanese elderly men aged ≥60 years who were undergoing general health checkups. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as a carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) ≥1.1 mm. Since body mass index (BMI) is regarded as a cardiovascular risk factor that exerts a strong influence on both HbA1c levels and carotid atherosclerosis, we performed a stratified analysis of this risk based on BMI.
Using the intermediate HbA1c quintile as a reference group, the groups in the lowest HbA1c quintiles showed a significantly higher risk of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with low BMI (≤23 kg/m2) vs. no increased risk in those with high BMI (>23 kg/m2). The association of HbA1c with carotid atherosclerosis became slightly stronger when these analyses were limited to subjects who were not taking glucose-lowering medications or medications for hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease. After adjusting for classical cardiovascular risk factors, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for carotid atherosclerosis were 1.36 (0.84 to 2.20) for total subjects, 2.29 (1.12 to 4.66) for low-BMI groups, and 0.68 (0.33 to 1.41) for high-BMI groups.
Lower HbA1c level is a significant risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis in rural community-dwelling elderly Japanese men with low, but not high BMI, particularly in those not taking glucose-lowering medication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal impairment is known to be associated with atherosclerosis, which in turn is reported to be positively associated with hemoglobin levels. In addition, renal impairment is known to be associated with a form of anemia known as renal anemia.
To clarify the associations between renal impairment and anemia, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,105 60 to 89-year-old men, who were not taking medication for anemia and were undergoing general health check-ups.
Compared with non-chronic kidney disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD) with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was found to constitute a significant risk of anemia. However, we noted that this risk was lower for mild renal impairment (60 mL/min/1.73 m2 <= GFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2). Compared with the non-CKD reference group, the classical cardiovascular adjusted odds ratio (OR) for anemia was 1.81 (1.23 to 2.68) and compared with the normal renal function (GFR >=90 mL/min/1.73 m2) reference group, the ORs for mild renal impairment and CKD were 0.26 (0.15 to 0.47) and 0.60 (0.33 to 1.09).
Independent from classical cardiovascular risk factors, CKD, which was identified during general health check-ups, appeared to constitute a significant risk of anemia for older Japanese men. For mild renal impairment, however, this association was a reduced risk of anemia and thus possibly a higher risk of atherosclerosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although bone metabolism is reportedly associated with production and maturation of blood corpuscles, and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels have been associated with bone metabolism, no published study has investigated the association between ALP and anemia. Furthermore, although ALP is known as an enzyme affected by alcohol consumption, there are no reports in the literature on associations between ALP and the risk of anemia in relation to drinking status. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 907 men aged 30-89 years undergoing a general health check-up to investigate the associations between ALP and anemia in relation to drinking status. Of the 907 participants, 120 men were diagnosed with anemia. The association between ALP and anemia was J-shaped. With the second quartile of ALP (194-228 IU/L) (Q2) as the reference group, the multivariable adjusted OR and 95%CI for anemia were 1.91 (95%CI: 0.96-3.82) for <194 IU/L (Q1), 1.84 (95%CI: 0.93-3.62) for 229-277 IU/L (Q3) and 2.83 (95%CI:1.49-5.37) for >277 IU/L (Q4). When the analysis was limited to non-drinkers, the associations became stronger with corresponding values of 3.34 (95%CI: 1.28-8.74), 3.18 (95%CI: 1.28-7.88) and 3.22 (95%CI:1.37-7.59). Not only lower but also higher levels of serum ALP are associated with anemia for men, especially non-drinkers. For analyses of associations between ALP and anemia, alcohol consumption should thus be considered a potential confounder.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Acta medica Nagasakiensia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Falls are a major public health problem and the second leading cause of death due to unintentional accidental injury after road traffic accidents. Inactive, older individuals with several chronic illnesses fall more frequently than older individuals who are active and healthy. No population-based study has addressed the association of stroke, arthritis, hypnotic and other prescription medications with falls among the elderly simultaneously in a single population in Japan. We examined the prevalence of falls among community-dwelling elderly Japanese individuals, whom we randomly selected from a list of inhabitants aged ≥ 65 years compiled from the resident registration, and the associations between falls and each of stroke, arthritis, and hypnotic and other prescription medications. We interviewed 295 men and 307 women, and collected information about the number of falls during the latest one year, hemiplegia due to stroke, arthritis in the legs, and the number of hypnotic and other medications. We found that 46 men (16%) and 67 women (22%) had fallen at least once during the latest one year. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age showed that hemiplegia due to stroke (p < 0.001), arthritis in the legs (p < 0.001), and taking at least four daily prescription medications (p < 0.05) were significantly associated with falls in men. Arthritis in the legs (p = 0.05) and taking at least four daily prescription medications (p < 0.05) were associated with falls in women. Treatment of fall-related diseases and medication management are important strategies for reducing falls among elderly persons.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimSpinal inclination assesses spinal posture as a whole. However, the association between spinal inclination and physical performance has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the association of spinal inclination with physical performance measures. Methods
The participants were 107 Japanese women aged 40-84years. Spinal posture was assessed as inclination to a perpendicular line by using a computer-assisted device. Increased inclination value means forward inclination of the spine. Physical performance was measured by using the following methods: 6-m walking time, chair stand time, functional reach, Timed Up & Go Test, and grip strength. Information on participants' comorbidities, osteoporosis, knee joint pain, back pain, falls in the previous year, regular exercise and usage of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), was also collected. ResultsPearson's correlation analysis showed significant associations between spinal inclination and all of the physical performance measures. Pearson's partial correlation analysis adjusted for age showed significant associations of increased inclination with poor physical functioning in 6-m walking time, chair stand time, functional reach, and Timed Up & Go Test, but not in grip strength. Linear regression analysis adjusted for age, grip strength, number of comorbidities, osteoporosis, knee joint pain, back pain, falls in previous year, regular activity and taking NSAIDs showed that spinal inclination was associated with poor function in 6-m walking time, chair stand time, functional reach and Timed Up & Go Test. Conclusion
Forward spinal inclination was associated with impairment in various physical performance measures. Proper prevention and treatment of underlying disorders should be prompted. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2012; 13: 881-886.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Geriatrics & Gerontology International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Between July and September 2005, a preliminary sampling of the elderly population of Hizen-Oshima Island, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan was conducted by the local hospital’s nursing staff.
Reported here are preliminary results from this sample of 27 individuals with an average age of 71 years. Their ages ranged from 51 to 82 years, with a standard deviation (sd) of 7.4 years. In total, 33 aspects of physical and physiological variation were assessed on these 15 women and 12 men. As expected from previous studies of Japanese elders, our sample shows slightly elevated average blood pressure (142/81 mmHg, sd 16/10), but they are relatively lean (waist/hip = .9: sd 0.06) when compared to European or American standards. However, their average total cholesterol (TC = 210 mg/dl, sd = 42.8) is high compared to standards, as is their high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc = 55.4 mg/dl, sd = 15.1). Means, standard deviations (sd), ranges and upper bounds for quartile cut-points for all 10 variables used in the calculation of allostatic load (AL) were assessed. The overall average estimate for AL in this sample is 3.1 (sd = 1.58) and ranges from 1 to 7.
AL shows variability across men and women, has little correlation with age, and is associated with physiological variation in blood glucose, dopamine and uric acid.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Knee osteoarthritis is the most common chronic joint disorder in elderly people. However, a population-based, longitudinal study on health-related quality of life in knee osteoarthritis has not been conducted in Japan. We studied 333 women aged 50 years and older at baseline, with 8 to 9 years of follow-up. Anteroposterior weight-bearing knee radiographs were obtained at baseline and graded according to the Kellgren-Lawrence criteria. Definite osteoarthritis was defined as Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 or higher in at least 1 joint. At baseline, all participants were asked if they had knee pain and comorbidities (heart disease, lung disease, stroke, or diabetes mellitus). Height (m), weight (kg), and chair stand time were measured. At follow-up, quality of life in knee osteoarthritis was evaluated using the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure score. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age, knee osteoarthritis, knee pain, comorbidity, and increasing chair stand time were independently related to subsequent health-related quality of life. These findings suggest that treating knee osteoarthritis and comorbidities, managing pain, and optimizing lower extremity muscle strength may be effective targets for intervention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although hyperhomocysteinemia is an important and independent risk factor for vascular disease, the relationship between plasma homocysteine concentration (Hcy) and subclinical atherosclerosis in the general population remains controversial. We screened 1,845 participants who resided on Japanese remote islands and in mainland. Hcy and clinical values were measured, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T polymorphism (C677T/MTHFR), which is an important genetic factor for regulating Hcy, was analyzed. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and the cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI) were measured to clinically evaluate subclinical atherosclerosis. CAVI had statistically significant association with Hcy (regression coefficient 0.3159, p=0.025), but CIMT was not. Hcy had statistically significant association with age, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatinine, C677T/MTHFR, smoking status and alcohol intake. Although C677T/MTHFR was not different among residing areas, Hcy was significantly higher on small islands than in other areas even after adjustment for confounding factors. We found the statistically significant association between Hcy and CAVI in the general population residing on Japanese remote islands, and significant differences in Hcy among residing areas, suggesting strong influence by acquired factors as well as genetic factors
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Acta medica Nagasakiensia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently suggested that due to insufficient intake of vegetables, low folate status and mild homocysteinemia might exist in the Kazakh population. To clarify the determinants of homocysteine concentrations among this population, we determined concentrations of serum folate, albumin, creatinine, vitamin B12, and the C677T/ MTHFR genotype in 110 Kazakh individuals and compared these with plasma total homocysteine. In Kazakh, after adjustment for age and sex, folate was correlated with plasma total homocysteine, whereas concentrations in those with the TT genotype was almost twice as high as in those with the CC and CT genotypes (19.7+/-1.8 micromol/L vs. 10.7+/-0.5 micromol/L, p<0.001). Our results suggest that the C677T/MTHFR genotype is associated with homocysteine concentrations in this population and this association might be affected by other factors, such as folate status.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study examined the relationship of work duration or physical symptoms to the mental health of visual display terminal (VDT) workers in Japan. The mental health status of 2,327 VDT users at an administrative office was investigated using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Subjects were asked about their age, sex, hours of daily VDT use, rest and breaks during VDT work, eyestrain, and musculoskeletal pain. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations with mental health status (GHQ-12 scores). The mean age of subjects was 39.5 yr (SD=10.3). Among all subjects, 36.7% could rest during VDT work and 66.9% received breaks during VDT work. The proportion of subjects who reported eyestrain and musculoskeletal pain were 19.6% and 25.7%, respectively. Eighteen percent of subjects were classified into a GHQ-12 high score group. Logistic regression analysis showed that age less than 40 yr, not receiving breaks during VDT work, and the presence of eyestrain and musculoskeletal pain were significantly associated with poor mental health status (high GHQ-12 scores). Using a VDT for more than 5 h/d and being female were also marginally associated with high GHQ scores (p<0.1). In conclusion, the management of physical health as well as work duration is important for good mental health status among VDT users.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Industrial Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visual display terminals (VDT) are standard equipment for many office workers. Their use, however, may increase the risk of developing adverse conditions related to vision, the musculoskeletal system, and mental health. We carried out a survey among 3070 workers aged 18 to 67 years (mean, 39.9 years) at a prefectural administrative office, in which 76% of subjects were visual display terminal (VDT) users. We examined the relationship between duration of daily VDT use and eyestrain, neck or upper extremity pain, back pain, and mental health, and estimated the effect of breaks and rest during VDT work on these symptoms. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12: total scores ranged from 0 to 12) was used to identify potential poor mental health status, and subjects with 4 or more were considered to have symptoms of psychological distress. Seventeen percent of subjects reported eyestrain, 19.1% reported upper extremity pain, 11.6% reported back pain, and 17% of subjects had GHQ-12 scores of 4 or higher. Logistic regression analysis showed that duration of daily VDT use and lack of breaks and rest during VDT work were significantly associated with eyestrain, neck or upper extremity pain, back pain, and psychological distress. In order to protect users from the adverse effects associated with VDT work, reducing daily VDT exposure, taking breaks, and rest during VDT work are important.
No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since atherosclerosis is a slowly progressive process at a young age, effective preventive measures should be taken early in life to prevent future events associated with cardiovascular disease.
The study population comprised 132 young Japanese adults (mean age 21.4 years, range 18-31 years). We screened plasma total homocysteine and serum folate levels and evaluated mean carotid intima-media thickness and cardio-ankle vascular index.
Multiple regression analysis after adjustment for age and sex revealed that only folate levels were significantly correlated with plasma total homocysteine levels (beta=-0.37, p=0.028). Carotid intima-media thickness adjusted for age and sex and compared between quintiles of total homocysteine levels was significantly increased in the highest quintile compared with other quintiles. Cardio-ankle vascular index increased with age in both women and men, but no additional determinants were identified in young adults.
Serum folate is an independent determinant of plasma total homocysteine levels, and mild hyperhomocysteinemia may represent a risk factor for increased carotid intima-media thickness, even in young adults. Comprehensive health education from the early period of life, including the suggestion of appropriate dietary measures, is important for effective prevention of future atherosclerosis.
No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although hyperhomocysteinemia is considered to be a key risk factor for atherosclerosis, especially in Western countries, its role in the Asian population is still controversial. In this study, we evaluated the determinants of homocysteine and carotid intima-media thickness, a clinical marker for the detection of atherosclerosis, in Japanese. In 289 Japanese adults (age 37-86 yrs), we screened plasma total homocysteine by high performance liquid chromatography and evaluated maximum carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound. Other blood chemistry values were also measured. Total homocysteine levels were higher in men than in women and increased with age. In multiple regression analysis, adjusted for age and sex, serum creatinine was a powerful determinant of homocysteine (beta = 3.3, p < 0.01). Maximum carotid intima-media thickness was higher in men than in women and increased with age. When adjusted for age and sex, systolic blood pressure was independently correlated with maximum carotid intima-media thickness (beta = 0.001, p < 0.01). Our current results support previous findings that in addition to age and sex, serum creatinine and systolic blood pressure are independent determinants of homocysteine and carotid intima-media thickness, respectively.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although fear of falling is a common and serious problem among elderly people, little is known about the risk factors associated with fear of falling among frail elderly persons in Japan. To assess the fear of falling and investigate related factors, we conducted a study among 167 Japanese women aged 59 or older, who were receiving visiting nursing services. Fear of falling was measured by asking subjects about being afraid of falling (yes/no) and completing the Japanese version of Falls Efficacy Scale (FES). Fear of falling (being afraid of falling) was reported by 135 (80.8%) of the subjects. The overall FES score was significantly (p<0.01) lower in subjects who reported fear of falling (mean± standard deviation=19.8±5.5) than in those who did not (26.1±7.2). The Japanese version of FES effectively identified persons having a fear of falling. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that palsy, incontinence, and falls during the past year were significantly associated with an increase in fear of falling (measured by FES). The present study suggests that fear of falling is common among elderly women receiving visiting nursing services. Preventive strategies to reduce fear of falling and falls are needed, and would contribute to prevention of being bedridden and institutionalized for the frail elderly
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is one of the most common health problems, and is recognized worldwide as an "escalating epidemic." For the establishment of an obesity-prevention strategy in Japan, it is important to assess the association between obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, we conducted anthropometric measures of obesity and investigated the association of obesity with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia among community-dwelling men (N=85) and women (N=173) aged 40 years and older. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Subjects with a BMI> or =25 kg/m(2) were considered obese (BMI obesity), while men with a WC> or =85 cm and women with a WC> or =90 cm were classified as obese (WC obesity). In the present study, we defined 'obesity' as a BMI> or =25 kg/m(2) or a WC> or =85 cm for men, and a BMI> or =25 kg/m(2) or a WC> or =90 cm for women. The results of an age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression analysis indicated that BMI obesity was associated with dyslipidemia (p=0.04), WC obesity was associated with dyslipidemia (p=0.07), and 'obesity' was associated with diabetes (p=0.06) and dyslipidemia (p=0.01). These results emphasize the importance of preventing obesity in Japan. Therefore, healthcare professionals should measure BMI and WC in order to enhance their assessment of cardiovascular risk.
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In developed countries, the elderly population is growing rapidly. Self-rated health is an important indicator of health and has been the focus of a number of aging studies. However, little is known about the possible differences in determinants of self-rated health according to age. Self-rated health and its possible determinants were examined in 542 community-dwelling Japanese women aged 40 to 91 years. The proportion of women with poor self-rated health increased with age. Approximately half of the women had poor self-rated health among women aged 80 years and over. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to examine the association with poor self-rated health in women aged 40 to 64 years (n = 248) and 65 years and over (n = 294). Lower physical activity and a greater number of comorbidities were associated with poor self-rated health for ages 40 to 64 and 65 years and over. Furthermore, the risk of poor self-rated health increased by 1.5-fold with every increase in the number of painful joints in the lower extremities for the 40- to 64-year-old age group, and increased by 2-fold with back pain for those 65 years and over. The determinants of self-rated health were similar in both middle-aged and elderly Japanese women. Our results could contribute to effective interventions to improve quality of life among Japanese women.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2006 · The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the physical and physiological ability of selected soccer players of Kunimi High School in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. The Kunimi team is famous for its intensive training, and had won the championship of the All Japan High School Soccer Tournament six times by 2003. We measured physique, body composition, and maximal oxygen uptake of 72 members aged between 16 and 18 years old between 1986 and 1994. They consisted of 66 outfield players (12 forward players, 23 midfielders, 31 defenders) and 6 goalkeepers. Body density was measured by the under-water weighing method, and Brozek's equation was applied to calculate percentage body fat (%Fat, %), fat-free mass (FFM, kg), FFM/height (FFM/Ht, kg.m(-1)), and FFM index (FFM/Ht(3), kg.m(-3)). The following results were obtained: 1. The average of 66 outfield players was 172.7 cm of height, 64.6 kg of weight, 54.0 cm of girth of thigh, and 90.0 cm of girth of hip, 9.3% of %Fat, 58.6 kg of FFM, 33.9 kg.m(-1) of FFM/Ht and 113.8 kg.m(-3) of FFM index. The mean vital capacity was 4.25 L and total lung capacity was 5.58 L. The mean maximal ventilation was 138.7 L.min(-1), VO(2)max was 3.95 L.min(-1), and VO(2)max/Wt was 61.4 ml.kg(-1).min(-1). 2. Goalkeepers were taller and heavier than outfielders, and had a smaller mean value of VO(2)max/Wt than outfielders (p<0.01). 3. For 23 out of the 72 players measured twice with an interval of about one year, FFM increased and %Fat reduced significantly, while V(E)max, VO(2)max and VO(2)max/Wt did not change. Kunimi players of the present study had as large a VO(2)max/Wt as local players, and a similar or slightly smaller VO(2)max/Wt than national-level players. They had similar %Fat and a similar VO(2)max/Wt with professional soccer players in England (Davis et al., 1992) while they had much smaller physiques.
No preview · Article · Aug 2006 · Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to be able to take preventative measures early in life against the development of atherosclerosis, it is important to evaluate profiles of subclinical atherosclerosis, especially among young adults.
We screened plasma homocysteine levels, highly sensitive C-reactive protein levels and carotid intima-media thickness in young and elderly adults.
Among both young and elderly adults, plasma homocysteine and highly sensitive C-reactive protein were significantly lower in females than in males. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein was significantly lower in young adults than in elderly adults, and homocysteine was lower (but not significantly) in young adults than in elderly adults. Among young adults, mean carotid intima-media thickness was lower (but not significantly) in females than in males. Among elderly adults, mean carotid intima-media thickness was significantly lower in females than in males. Among both males and females, mean carotid intima-media thickness was significantly higher in elderly adults than in young adults.
These results demonstrate basic profiles of atherosclerosis markers in young and elderly Japanese adults. Further study is needed to evaluate measures developed for application in early adulthood to prevent atherosclerosis.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine