Susan M Frayne

Stanford Medicine, Stanford, California, United States

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Publications (74)273.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Pharmacotherapy - methadone, buprenorphine, or naltrexone - is an evidence-based treatment for opioid use disorder, but little is known about receipt of these medications among veterans involved in the justice system. The current study examines receipt of pharmacotherapy for opioid use disorder among veterans with a history of justice involvement at U.S. Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities compared to veterans with no justice involvement. Methods: Using national VHA clinical and pharmacy records, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of veterans with an opioid use disorder diagnosis in fiscal year 2012. Using a mixed-effects logistic regression model, we examined receipt of pharmacotherapy in the 1-year period following diagnosis as a function of justice involvement, adjusting for patient and facility characteristics. Results: The 1-year rate of receipt for pharmacotherapy for opioid use disorder was 27% for prison-involved veterans, 34% for jail/court-involved veterans, and 33% for veterans not justice-involved. Compared to veterans not justice-involved, those prison-involved had 0.75 lower adjusted odds (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-0.87) of receiving pharmacotherapy whereas jail/court-involved veterans did not have significantly different adjusted odds. Conclusions: Targeted efforts to improve receipt of pharmacotherapy for opioid use disorder among veterans exiting prison is needed as they have lower odds of receiving these medications.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Drug and alcohol dependence
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To characterize warfarin eligibility and receipt among Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients with and without mental health conditions (MHCs). Study design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: This observational study identified VHA atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with and without MHCs in 2004. We examined unadjusted MHC-related differences in warfarin eligibility and warfarin receipt among warfarin-eligible patients, using logistic regression for any MHC and for specific MHCs (adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics). Results: Of 125,670 patients with AF, most (96.8%) were warfarin-eligible based on a CHADS2 stroke risk score. High stroke risk and contraindications to anticoagulation were both more common in patients with MHC. Warfarin-eligible patients with MHC were less likely to receive warfarin than those without MHC (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.90; 95% CI, 0.87-0.94). The association between MHC and warfarin receipt among warfarin-eligible patients varied by specific MHC. Patients with anxiety disorders (AOR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80-0.93), psychotic disorders (AOR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90), and alcohol use disorders (AOR 0.62, 95% CI 0.54-0.72) were less likely to receive warfarin than patients without these conditions, whereas patients with depressive disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder were no less likely to receive warfarin than patients without these conditions. Conclusions: Compared with patients with AF without MHCs, those with MHCs are less likely to be eligible for warfarin receipt and, among those eligible, are less likely to receive such treatment. Although patients with AF with MHC need careful assessment of bleeding risk, this finding suggests potential missed opportunities for more intensive therapy among some individuals with MHCs.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The American journal of managed care
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    ABSTRACT: The Veterans Health Administration (VA) Health Care for Reentry Veterans (HCRV) program links veterans exiting prison with treatment. Among veterans served by HCRV, national VA clinical data were used to describe contact with VA health care, and mental health and substance use disorder diagnoses and treatment use. Of veterans seen for an HCRV outreach visit, 56 % had contact with VA health care. Prevalence of mental health disorders was 57 %; of whom 77 % entered mental health treatment within a month of diagnosis. Prevalence of substance use disorders was 49 %; of whom 37 % entered substance use disorder treatment within a month of diagnosis. For veterans exiting prison, increasing access to VA health care, especially for rural veterans, and for substance use disorder treatment, are important quality improvement targets.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research
  • Quyen Q Tiet · Rudolf H Moos · Susan M Frayne

    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · JAMA Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of race on quality of anticoagulation control is not well described. We examined the association between race, international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring intensity, and INR control in warfarin-treated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Using data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), we performed a retrospective cohort study of 184,161 patients with a new diagnosis of AF/flutter from 2004 to 2012 who received any VHA prescription within 90 days of diagnosis. The primary predictor was race, ascertained from multiple VHA and linked Medicare demographic files. The primary outcome was first-year and long-term time in therapeutic range (TTR) of INR 2.0 to 3.0. Secondary outcomes were INR monitoring intensity and warfarin persistence. Of the 116,021 patients who received warfarin in the cohort, INR monitoring intensity was similar across racial groups. However, TTR was lowest in blacks and highest in whites (first year 0.49 ± 0.23 vs 0.57 ± 0.21, p <0.001; long term 0.52 ± 0.20 vs 0.59 ± 0.18, p <0.001); 64% of whites and 49% of blacks had long-term TTR >55% (p <0.001). After adjusting for site and patient-level covariates, black race was associated with lower first-year and long-term TTRs (4.2% and 4.1% below the conditional mean, relative to whites; p <0.0001 for both). One-year warfarin persistence was slightly lower in blacks compared to whites (58% vs 60%, p <0.0001). In conclusion, in patients with AF anticoagulated with warfarin, differences in INR control are most evident among blacks, underscoring the need to determine if other types of intensive management or warfarin alternatives may be necessary to improve anticoagulation among vulnerable AF populations.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The American journal of cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Importance Many Vietnam-era women veterans served in or near war zones and may have experienced stressful or traumatic events during their service. Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well studied among men who served in Vietnam, no major epidemiologic investigation of PTSD among women has been performed.Objectives To assess (1) the onset and prevalence of lifetime and current PTSD for women who served during the Vietnam era, stratified by wartime location (Vietnam, near Vietnam, or the United States), and (2) the extent to which wartime location was associated with PTSD, with adjustment for demographics, service characteristics, and wartime exposures.Design, Setting, and Participants Survey of 8742 women who were active-duty military personnel in the US Armed Forces at any time from July 4, 1965, through March 28, 1973, and alive as of survey receipt as part of Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study 579, HealthVIEWS. Data were obtained from mailed and telephone surveys from May 16, 2011, through August 5, 2012, and analyzed from June 26, 2013, through July 30, 2015.Main Outcomes and Measures Lifetime and current PTSD as measured by the PTSD module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0; onset of PTSD; and wartime experiences as measured by the Women’s Wartime Exposure Scale–Revised.Results Among the 4219 women (48.3%) who completed the survey and a telephone interview, the weighted prevalence (95% CI) of lifetime PTSD was 20.1% (18.3%-21.8%), 11.5% (9.1%-13.9%), and 14.1% (12.4%-15.8%) for the Vietnam, near-Vietnam, and US cohorts, respectively. The weighted prevalence (95% CI) of current PTSD was 15.9% (14.3%-17.5%), 8.1% (6.0%-10.2%), and 9.1% (7.7%-10.5%) for the 3 cohorts, respectively. Few cases of PTSD among the Vietnam or near-Vietnam cohorts were attributable to premilitary onset (weighted prevalence, 2.9% [95% CI, 2.2%-3.7%] and 2.9% [95% CI, 1.7%-4.2%], respectively). Unadjusted models for lifetime and current PTSD indicated that women who served in Vietnam were more likely to meet PTSD criteria than women who mainly served in the United States (odds ratio [OR] for lifetime PTSD, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.28-1.83]; OR for current PTSD, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.53-2.33]). When we adjusted for wartime exposures, serving in Vietnam or near Vietnam did not increase the odds of having current PTSD (adjusted ORs, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.75-1.46] and 0.77 [95% CI, 0.52-1.14], respectively).Conclusions and Relevance The prevalence of PTSD for the Vietnam cohort was higher than previously documented. Vietnam service significantly increased the odds of PTSD relative to US service; this effect appears to be associated with wartime exposures, especially sexual discrimination or harassment and job performance pressures. Results suggest long-lasting mental health effects of Vietnam-era service among women veterans.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · JAMA Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The Veterans Health Administration (VA) Women's Health Practice-Based Research Network (WH-PBRN) was created to foster innovations for the health care of women veterans. The inaugural study by the WH-PBRN was designed to identify women veterans' own priorities and preferences for mental health services and to inform refinements to WH-PBRN operational procedures. Addressing the latter, this article reports lessons learned from the inaugural study. Methods: WH-PBRN site coordinators at the 4 participating sites convened weekly with the study coordinator and the WH-PBRN program manager to address logistical issues and identify lessons learned. Findings were categorized into a matrix of challenges and facilitators related to key study elements. Results: Challenges to the conduct of PBRN-based research included tracking of regulatory documents; cross-site variability in some regulatory processes; and troubleshooting logistics of clinic-based recruitment. Facilitators included a central institutional review board, strong relationships between WH-PBRN research teams and women's health clinic teams, and the perception that women want to help other women veterans. Conclusion: Our experience with the inaugural WH-PBRN study demonstrated the feasibility of establishing productive relationships between local clinicians and researchers, and of recruiting a special population (women veterans) in diverse sites within an integrated health care system. This identified strengths of a PBRN approach.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: One in five women veterans screens positive for alcohol misuse. Women may be less likely than men to disclose alcohol use to a primary care provider (PCP), resulting in women being less likely to receive effective interventions. We sought to qualitatively examine factors that may affect women veterans' willingness to disclose alcohol use to a PCP. Between October 2012 and May 2013, in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 women veterans at two Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical facilities. Qualitative data analyses identified common themes representing factors that influence women's decision to disclose alcohol use to a PCP. Nine themes were endorsed by women veterans as influencing their willingness to disclose alcohol use to their PCP. Themes included provider behaviors perceived as encouraging or discouraging disclosure of alcohol misuse, perceived positive relationship with provider, negative emotions such as concerns about being judged or labeled an "alcoholic," health concerns about drinking, non-health-related concerns about drinking, self-appraisal of drinking behavior, social support, and clinic factors. Our findings demonstrate the importance of social relationships, comfort with one's provider, and education on the potential harms (especially health related) associated with alcohol in encouraging disclosure of alcohol use in women veterans. Our results also support VA national health care efforts, including the provision of brief alcohol counseling and the use of primary care clinics specializing in the care of women veterans. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Women s Health Issues
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    ABSTRACT: There are limited data on mortality outcomes associated with use of amiodarone in atrial fibrillation and flutter (AF). Methods: We evaluated the association of amiodarone use with mortality in patients with newly diagnosed AF using complete data from the Department of Veterans Affairs national health care system. We included patients seen in an outpatient setting within 90 days of a new diagnosis for nonvalvular AF between Veterans Affairs fiscal years 2004 and 2008. Multivariate analysis and propensity-matched Cox proportional hazards regression were used to evaluate the association of amiodarone use to death. Results: Of 122,465 patients (353,168 person-years of follow-up, age 72.1 ± 10.3 years, 98.4% males), amiodarone was prescribed in 11,655 (9.5%). Cumulative, unadjusted mortality rates were higher for amiodarone recipients than for nonrecipients (87 vs 73 per 1,000 person-years, P < .001). However, in multivariate and propensity-matched survival analyses, there was no significant difference in mortality (multivariate hazard ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.97-1.05, P = .51, and propensity-matched hazard ratio 1.02, 95% CI 0.97-1.07, P = .45). The hazard of death was not modified by age, sex, heart failure, kidney function, β-blocker use, or warfarin use, but there was evidence of effect modification among patients diagnosed with AF as an inpatient versus outpatient. Conclusion: In a national health care system population of newly diagnosed AF, overall use of amiodarone as an early treatment strategy was not associated with mortality.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Illicit drug use is prevalent, and primary care provides an ideal setting in which to screen for drug use disorders (DUDs) and negative consequences of drug use (NCDU). Comprehensive reviews have concluded that existing drug use screening instruments are not appropriate for routine use in primary care. To develop and validate a screening instrument for drug use. We revised items drawn from existing screening instruments and conducted signal detection analyses to develop the new instrument. We approached 3173 patients at 2 primary care clinics in a US Department of Veterans Affairs health care system from February 1, 2012, through April 30, 2014. A total of 1300 (41.0%) patients consented to the study, of whom 1283 adults were eligible (mean [SD] age, 62.2 [12.6] years). In the last 12 months, 241 (18.8%) participants reported using illicit drugs or prescription medication for a nonmedical purpose, and 189 (14.7%) reported 1 or more NCDU. A total of 133 (10.4%) patients met DSM-IV criteria for a DUD. The sample was randomly divided first to develop the measure and then to validate it. The Mini-International Diagnostic Interview was used as the criterion for DUDs, and the Inventory of Drug Use Consequences was used as the criterion for NCDU. The screening instrument has 2 questions. The first is, "How many days in the past 12 months have you used drugs other than alcohol?" Patients meet that criterion with a response of 7 or more days. The second question asks, "How many days in the past 12 months have you used drugs more than you meant to?" A response of 2 or more days meets that criterion. The screening instrument was 100% sensitive and 93.73% specific for DUDs (643 patients); when replicated in the second half of the sample (640 patients), it was 92.31% sensitive and 92.87% specific. The screening instrument was 93.18% sensitive and 96.03% specific for NCDU (643 patients); when replicated in the second half of the sample (640 patients), it was 83.17% sensitive and 96.85% specific. The 2-item screen of drug use has excellent statistical properties and is a brief screening instrument for DUDs and problems suitable for busy US Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinics.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · JAMA Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known regarding the reproductive health needs of women Veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care. To describe the reproductive health diagnoses of women Veterans using VA health care, how these diagnoses differ across age groups, and variations in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics by presence of reproductive health diagnoses. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of VA administrative and clinical data. The study included women Veterans using VA health care in FY10. Reproductive health diagnoses were identified through presence of International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision (ICD-9) codes in VA clinical and administrative records. The prevalence of specific diagnosis categories were examined by age group (18-44, 45-64, ≥65 y) and the most frequent diagnoses for each age group were identified. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were compared by presence of at least 1 reproductive health diagnosis. The most frequent reproductive health diagnoses were menstrual disorders and endometriosis among those aged 18-44 years (n=16,658, 13%), menopausal disorders among those aged 45-64 years (n=20,707, 15%), and osteoporosis among those aged ≥65 years (n=8365, 22%). Compared with women without reproductive health diagnoses, those with such diagnoses were more likely to have concomitant mental health (46% vs. 37%, P<0.001) and medical conditions (75% vs. 63%, P<0.001). Women Veterans using VA health care have diverse reproductive health diagnoses. The high prevalence of comorbid medical and mental health conditions among women Veterans with reproductive health diagnoses highlights the importance of integrating reproductive health expertise into all areas of VA health care, including primary, mental health, and specialty care.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Medical Care
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    ABSTRACT: Over half of veterans in the criminal justice system have mental health or substance use disorders. However, there is a critical lack of information about female veterans in the criminal justice system and how diagnosis prevalence and treatment entry differ by sex. To document prevalence of mental health and substance use disorder diagnoses and treatment entry rates among female veterans compared with male veterans in the justice system. Retrospective cohort study using national Veterans Health Administration clinical/administrative data from veterans seen by Veterans Justice Outreach Specialists in fiscal years 2010-2012. A total of 1535 females and 30,478 male veterans were included. Demographic characteristics (eg, sex, age, residence, homeless status), mental health disorders (eg, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), substance use disorders (eg, alcohol and opioid use disorders), and treatment entry (eg, outpatient, residential, pharmacotherapy). Among female veterans, prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders was 88% and 58%, respectively, compared with 76% and 72% among male veterans. Women had higher odds of being diagnosed with a mental health disorder [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.98; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.68-2.34] and lower odds of being diagnosed with a substance use disorder (AOR=0.50; 95% CI, 0.45-0.56) compared with men. Women had lower odds of entering mental health residential treatment (AOR=0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.83). Female veterans involved in the justice system have a high burden of mental health disorders (88%) and more than half have substance use disorders (58%). Entry to mental health residential treatment for women is an important quality improvement target.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Medical Care
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    ABSTRACT: Travel time, an access barrier, may contribute to attrition of women veterans from Veterans Health Administration (VHA) care. We examined whether travel time influences attrition: (a) among women veterans overall, (b) among new versus established patients, and (c) among rural versus urban patients. This retrospective cohort study used logistic regression to estimate the association between drive time and attrition, overall and for new/established and rural/urban patients. In total, 266,301 women veteran VHA outpatients in the Fiscal year 2009. An "attriter" did not return for VHA care during the second through third years after her first 2009 visit (T0). Drive time (log minutes) was between the patient's residence and her regular source of VHA care. "New" patients had no VHA visits within 3 years before T0. Models included age, service-connected disability, health status, and utilization as covariates. Overall, longer drive times were associated with higher odds of attrition: drive time adjusted odds ratio=1.11 (99% confidence interval, 1.09-1.14). The relationship between drive time and attrition was stronger among new patients but was not modified by rurality. Attrition among women veterans is sensitive to longer drive time. Linking new patients to VHA services designed to reduce distance barriers (telemedicine, community-based clinics, mobile clinics) may reduce attrition among women new to VHA.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Medical Care
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    ABSTRACT: Veterans Health Administration (VHA) primary care providers (PCPs) often see few women, making it challenging to maintain proficiency in women's health (WH). Therefore, VHA in 2010 established Designated WH Providers, who would maintain proficiency in comprehensive WH care and be preferentially assigned women patients. To evaluate early implementation of this national policy. At each VHA health care system (N=140), the Women Veterans Program Manager completed a Fiscal Year 2012 workforce capacity assessment (response rate, 100%), representing the first time the national Designated WH Provider workforce had been identified. Assessment data were linked to administrative data. Of all VHA PCPs, 23% were Designated WH Providers; 100% of health care systems and 83% of community clinics had at least 1 Designated WH Provider. On average, women veterans comprised 19% (SD=27%) of the patients Designated WH Providers saw in primary care, versus 5% (SD=7%) for Other PCPs (P<0.001). For women veterans using primary care (N=313,033), new patients were less likely to see a Designated WH Provider than established women veteran patients (52% vs. 64%; P<0.001). VHA has achieved its goal of a Designated WH Provider in every health care system, and is approaching its goal of a Designated WH Provider at every hospital/community clinic. Designated WH Providers see more women than do Other PCPs. However, as the volume of women patients remains low for many providers, attention to alternative approaches to maintaining proficiency may prove necessary, and barriers to assigning new women patients to Designated WH Providers merit attention.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Medical Care
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    ABSTRACT: Mental health services for women vary widely across the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system, without consensus on the need for, or organization of, specialized services for women. Understanding women's needs and priorities is essential to guide the implementation of patient-centered behavioral health services. In a cross-sectional, multisite survey of female veterans using primary care, potential stakeholders were identified for VHA mental health services by assessing perceived or observed need for mental health services. These stakeholders (N=484) ranked priorities for mental health care among a wide range of possible services. The investigators then quantified the importance of having designated women's mental health services for each of the mental health services that emerged as key priorities. Treatment for depression, pain management, coping with chronic general medical conditions, sleep problems, weight management, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) emerged as women's key priorities. Having mental health services specialized for women was rated as extremely important to substantial proportions of women for each of the six prioritized services. Preference for primary care colocation was strongly associated with higher importance ratings for designated women's mental health services. For specific types of services, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, PTSD symptoms, and psychiatric comorbidity were also associated with higher importance ratings for designated women's services. Female veterans are a diverse population whose needs and preferences for mental health services vary along demographic and clinical factors. These stakeholder perspectives can help prioritize structural and clinical aspects of designated women's mental health care in the VHA.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.)
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    ABSTRACT: The Veterans Justice Outreach (VJO) program of the U.S. Veterans Health Administration has a primary mission of linking military veterans in jails, courts, or in contact with law enforcement to mental health and substance use disorder treatment. National data of veterans with VJO contact were used to describe demographic characteristics, and mental health and substance use disorder diagnoses and treatment use and test correlates of treatment entry and engagement using multi-level logistic regression models. Of the 37,542 VJO veterans, treatment entry was associated with being homeless and having a mental health disorder or both a mental health and a substance use disorder versus a substance use disorder only. Being American Indian/Alaskan Native was associated with lower odds of treatment entry. Engagement was associated with female gender, older age, Asian race, urban residence, and homeless status. Increased utilization of substance use disorder treatment, especially pharmacotherapy, is an important quality improvement target.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Criminal Justice Policy Review
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between antenatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and spontaneous preterm delivery. We identified antenatal PTSD status and spontaneous preterm delivery in a retrospective cohort of 16,334 deliveries covered by the Veterans Health Administration from 2000 to 2012. We divided mothers with PTSD into those with diagnoses present the year before delivery (active PTSD) and those only with earlier diagnoses (historical PTSD). We identified spontaneous preterm birth and potential confounders including age, race, military deployment, twins, hypertension, substance use, depression, and results of military sexual trauma screening and then performed multivariate regression to estimate adjusted odds ratio (OR) of spontaneous preterm delivery as a function of PTSD status. Of 16,334 births, 3,049 (19%) were to mothers with PTSD diagnoses, of whom 1,921 (12%) had active PTSD. Spontaneous preterm delivery was higher in those with active PTSD (9.2%, n=176) than those with historical (8.0%, n=90) or no PTSD (7.4%, n=982) before adjustment (P=.02). The association between PTSD and preterm birth persisted, when adjusting for covariates, only in those with active PTSD (adjusted OR 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.61). Analyses adjusting for comorbid psychiatric and medical diagnoses revealed the association with active PTSD to be robust. In this cohort, containing an unprecedented number of PTSD-affected pregnancies, mothers with active PTSD were significantly more likely to suffer spontaneous preterm birth with an attributable two excess preterm births per 100 deliveries (95% CI 1-4). Posttraumatic stress disorder's health effects may extend, through birth outcomes, into the next generation. : II.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    ABSTRACT: Mental health condition (MHC) comorbidity is associated with lower intensity care in multiple clinical scenarios. However, little is known about the effect of MHC upon clinicians’ decisions about intensifying antiglycemic medications in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control. We examined whether delay in intensification of antiglycemic medications in response to an elevated Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) value is longer for patients with MHC than for those without MHC, and whether any such effect varies by specific MHC type. In this observational study of diabetic Veterans Health Administration (VA) patients on oral antiglycemics with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥8) (N =52,526) identified from national VA databases, we applied Cox regression analysis to examine time to intensification of antiglycemics after an elevated HbA1c value in 2003–2004, by MHC status. Those with MHC were no less likely to receive intensification: adjusted Hazard Ratio [95% CI] 0.99 [0.96-1.03], 1.13 [1.04-1.23], and 1.12 [1.07-1.18] at 0–14, 15–30 and 31–180 days, respectively. However, patients with substance use disorders were less likely than those without substance use disorders to receive intensification in the first two weeks following a high HbA1c, adjusted Hazard Ratio 0.89 [0.81-0.97], controlling for sex, age, medical comorbidity, other specific MHCs, and index HbA1c value. For most MHCs, diabetic patients with MHC in the VA health care system do not appear to receive less aggressive antiglycemic management. However, the subgroup with substance use disorders does appear to have excess likelihood of non-intensification; interventions targeting this high risk subgroup merit attention.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · BMC Health Services Research
  • Ac Del Re · Susan M Frayne · Alex Hs Harris
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Pharmacotherapy is an effective adjunct to behavioral interventions to treat obesity; although it is unclear how often medications are integrated into obesity treatment plans and for which patients in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted that examined variation in and predictors of antiobesity medication receipt (orlistat) among > 2 million obese Veterans within 140 facilities nationwide. Results: One-percent of all obese patients using VHA services filled a prescription for orlistat. Veterans were more likely to be treated with orlistat if they had a higher BMI, were female, unmarried, younger, a minority, had home instability, prescribed obesogenic psychiatric medications, had a psychiatric or obesity-related comorbidity, and used MOVE! weight management services. Among those who likely met the criteria for use, 2.5% had at least one orlistat prescription. Facility-level prescription rates varied from 0 to 1% of all obese patients in a VA facility receiving a prescription and 0 to 21% among those who met the criteria for use. Conclusions: Consistent with guidelines recommending that obesity pharmacotherapy be prescribed in conjunction with behavioral therapy, the strongest predictor of receiving orlistat was being enrolled in the MOVE! weight-loss management program.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Obesity
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    ABSTRACT: Background Despite endorsement of digoxin in clinical practice guidelines, there exist limited data on its safety in atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF). Objectives The goal of this study was to evaluate the association of digoxin with mortality in AF. Methods Using complete data of the TREAT-AF (The Retrospective Evaluation and Assessment of Therapies in AF) study from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system, we identified patients with newly diagnosed, nonvalvular AF seen within 90 days in an outpatient setting between VA fiscal years 2004 and 2008. We used multivariate and propensity-matched Cox proportional hazards to evaluate the association of digoxin use with death. Residual confounding was assessed by sensitivity analysis. Results Of 122,465 patients with 353,168 person-years of follow-up (age 72.1 ± 10.3 years, 98.4% male), 28,679 (23.4%) patients received digoxin. Cumulative mortality rates were higher for digoxin-treated patients than for untreated patients (95 vs. 67 per 1,000 person-years; p < 0.001). Digoxin use was independently associated with mortality after multivariate adjustment (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23 to 1.29, p < 0.001) and propensity matching (HR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.25, p < 0.001), even after adjustment for drug adherence. The risk of death was not modified by age, sex, heart failure, kidney function, or concomitant use of beta-blockers, amiodarone, or warfarin. Conclusions Digoxin was associated with increased risk of death in patients with newly diagnosed AF, independent of drug adherence, kidney function, cardiovascular comorbidities, and concomitant therapies. These findings challenge current cardiovascular society recommendations on use of digoxin in AF.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Publication Stats

2k Citations
273.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Stanford Medicine
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 2006-2015
    • VA Palo Alto Health Care System
      • Center for Innovation to Implementation (Ci2i)
      Palo Alto, California, United States
    • Stanford University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of General Medical Disciplines
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 2005
    • Rogers Memorial Hospital
      Oconomowoc, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2003-2004
    • Boston University
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1999-2003
    • Boston Medical Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States