[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab exerts anti-angiogenic effects in cancer patients by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, its use is still limited due to the development of resistance to the treatment. Such resistance can be regulated by various factors, although the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we show that bone marrow-derived fibrocyte-like cells, defined as alpha-1 type I collagen-positive and CXCR4-positive cells, contribute to the acquired resistance to bevacizumab. In mouse models of malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer, fibrocyte-like cells mediate the resistance to bevacizumab as the main producer of fibroblast growth factor 2. In clinical specimens of lung cancer, the number of fibrocyte-like cells is significantly increased in bevacizumab-treated tumours, and correlates with the number of treatment cycles, as well as CD31-positive vessels. Our results identify fibrocyte-like cells as a promising cell biomarker and a potential therapeutic target to overcome resistance to anti-VEGF therapy.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Nature Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is the principal inhibitor of plasminogen activators, and is responsible for the degradation of fibrin and extracellular matrix. IMD-4690 is a newly synthesized inhibitor for PAI-1, whereas the effect on allergic airway inflammation and remodeling is still unclear. We examined the in vivo effects by using a chronic allergen exposure model of bronchial asthma in mice. The model was generated by an immune challenge for 8 weeks with house dust mite antigen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp). IMD-4690 was intraperitoneally administered during the challenge. Lung histopathology, hyperresponsiveness and the concentrations of mediators in lung homogenates were analyzed. The amount of active PAI-1 in the lungs was increased in mice treated with Dp. Administration with IMD-4690 reduced an active/total PAI-1 ratio. IMD-4690 also reduced the number of bronchial eosinophils in accordance with the decreased expressions of Th2 cytokines in the lung homogenates. Airway remodeling was inhibited by reducing subepithelial collagen deposition, smooth muscle hypertrophy, and angiogenesis. The effects of IMD-4690 were partly mediated by the regulation of TGF-β, HGF and matrix metalloproteinase. These results suggest that PAI-1 plays crucial roles in airway inflammation and remodeling, and IMD-4690, a specific PAI-1 inhibitor, may have therapeutic potential for patients with refractory asthma due to airway remodeling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale: Circulating fibrocytes had been reported to migrate into the injured lungs, and contribute to fibrogenesis via CXCL12-CXCR4 axis. On the other hand, we reported that imatinib mesylate prevented bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), even when it was administered only in the early phase. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that PDGF might directly contribute to the migration of fibrocytes to the injured lungs. Methods: PDGFR expression in fibrocytes was examined by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. The migration of fibrocytes was evaluated by using a chemotaxis assay for human fibrocytes isolated from peripheral blood. The numbers of fibrocytes triple-stained for CD45, collagen-1 and CXCR4 were also examined in lung digests of BLM-treated mice. PDGFR mRNA levels in fibrocytes isolated from IPF patients were investigated by real time PCR. Results: Fibrocytes expressed both PDGFRs, and migrated in response to PDGFs. PDGFR inhibitors (imatinib, PDGFR-blocking antibodies) suppressed fibrocyte migration in vitro, and reduced the number of fibrocyte in the lungs of BLM-treated mice. PDGF-BB was a stronger chemoattractant than the other PDGFs in vitro, and anti-PDGFR-β blocking antibody decreased numbers of fibrocyte in the lungs as compared to anti-PDGFR-α antibody in vivo. Marked expression of PDGFR-β was observed in fibrocytes from IPF patients compared to healthy subjects. Conclusions: These results suggest that PDGF directly function as a strong chemoattractant for fibrocytes. Especially, PDGF-BB and PDGFR-β biological axis might play a critical role in fibrocyte migration into the fibrotic lungs.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) is a recently reported rare disease entity characterized by fibrotic thickening of the pleural and subpleural parenchyma predominantly in the upper lobes in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). Because the clinical features of this rare disease are not fully elucidated, we examined the clinical characteristics of IPPFE, especially for serum interstitial biomarkers, surfactant protein-D (SP-D), and Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6).
Methods and Results
Four consecutive cases of IPPFE who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria were studied. All cases were more than 60 years of age, and were classified as underweight by body mass index. A severe restrictive ventilatory defect was found in all cases on admission. High-resolution computed tomography showed intense pleural thickening associated with fibrosis predominant in upper lobes. Histopathological findings were also confirmed in three out of four cases. Interestingly, the serum level of SP-D was markedly elevated in all cases, while KL-6 was within normal range in three out of four cases. As compared with major IIPs such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and fibrotic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, IPPFE significantly showed higher frequency of cases with a unique pattern of serum biomarkers, which is characterized by an elevated level of SP-D with a normal range of KL-6.
In IPPFE, SP-D might tend to be elevated, while KL-6 was within a normal range. Further study is required to determine the pathogenesis and clinical significance of the elevated SP-D in IPPFE.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is a large multimeric protein found in the airways and alveoli of the lungs. SP-A is a member of the collectin family of proteins, characterized by NH2-terminal collagen-like regions and COOH-terminal lectin domains. Although other surfactant proteins such as SP-B function to reduce surface tension in the lungs, SP-A as well as SP-D regulates the pulmonary immune response. To date, a number of studies have shown the immunoregulatory function of SP-A, mainly in the field of infectious diseases. By binding to a wide variety of pathogens, SP-A opsonizes and enhances pathogen uptake by phagocytes. In addition to the effect on pathogens, recent studies have shown that SP-A also modulates lung immune system in the area of non-infectious lung diseases. In this review, the potential role of SP-A in the multiple aspects of pulmonary host defense will be discussed, focusing mainly on non-infectious lung diseases such as acute and chronic pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. J. Med. Invest. 61: 1-6, February, 2014.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · The Journal of Medical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) is induced by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and other cytokines that have been reported to be major inflammation mediators in RA. We previously demonstrated that TP plays an important role in angiogenesis and tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the role of TP in the pathogenesis of RA is similar to its role in tumors.
In FLS obtained from 2 patients with RA, the expression of TP, interferon-γ (IFNγ)-inducible protein 10 (CXCL10), and other cytokines was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Microarray analysis was performed using FLS transfected with TYMP complementary DNA and treated with a TP inhibitor.
The expression of TP in FLS was up-regulated by TNFα, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-17, IFNγ, and lipopolysaccharide. Microarray analysis of FLS overexpressing TP identified CXCL10 as a thymidine phosphorylase-related gene. The expression of CXCL10 was induced by TNFα, and this induction was suppressed by TYMP small interfering RNA and TP inhibitor. Furthermore, the combination of TNFα and IFNγ synergistically augmented the expression of TP and CXCL10. TP-induced CXCL10 expression was suppressed by the antioxidant EUK-8. In the synovial tissue of patients with RA, TP levels were significantly correlated with CXCL10 expression.
The combination of TNFα and IFNγ strongly induced the expression of thymidine phosphorylase in RA FLS. The induction of thymidine phosphorylase enhanced the expression of CXCL10, which may contribute to the Th1 phenotype and bone destruction observed in RA.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite recent advances in treatment, malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains a deadly disease. Targeted therapy generated broad interests and is highly expected for the treatment of MPM, yet promising preclinical results have not been translated into substantial clinical benefits for the patients. In this study, we tried to identify the genes which play functional roles in cell migration as well as to test whether they can be used as novel targets for molecular targeted therapy for MPM in preclinical model. In our study, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) was identified as a gene whose expression level is correlated with MPM cell migration by correlation analysis combining MPM cell migration ability and their gene expression profiles. Highly migratory cells were selected from MPM cell lines, MSTO-211H, NCI-H290 and EHMES-1 in vitro and up-regulation of PAPPA in these cells were confirmed. In vitro, PAPPA was demonstrated to stimulate the MPM cell migration via cleavage of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-4 and subsequent release of IGF-1. Gene silencing of PAPPA in MPM cells led to reduced migration, invasion and proliferation. Furthermore, PAPPA shRNA transfected NCI-H290 when orthotopically inoculated into pleural cavity of severe combined immunodeficiency recipient mice, failed to develop tumors and produce bloody pleural effusion as control shRNA transfected cells did. Our study suggests that PAPPA plays a functional role in promoting MPM cell migration and it might serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of MPM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Podoplanin (Aggrus), which is a type I transmembrane sialomucin-like glycoprotein, is highly expressed in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). We previously reported the generation of a rat anti-human podoplanin Ab, NZ-1, which inhibited podoplanin-induced platelet aggregation and hematogenous metastasis. In this study, we examined the antitumor effector functions of NZ-1 and NZ-8, a novel rat-human chimeric Ab generated from NZ-1 including Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity against MPM in vitro and in vivo. Immunostaining with NZ-1 showed the expression of podoplanin in 73% (11 out of 15) of MPM cell lines and 92% (33 out of 36) of malignant mesothelioma tissues. NZ-1 could induce potent ADCC against podoplanin-positive MPM cells mediated by rat NK (CD161a(+)) cells, but not murine splenocytes or human mononuclear cells. Treatment with NZ-1 significantly reduced the growth of s.c. established tumors of MPM cells (ACC-MESO-4 or podoplanin-transfected MSTO-211H) in SCID mice, only when NZ-1 was administered with rat NK cells. In in vivo imaging, NZ-1 efficiently accumulated to xenograft of MPM, and its accumulation continued for 3 wk after systemic administration. Furthermore, NZ-8 preferentially recognized podoplanin expressing in MPM, but not in normal tissues. NZ-8 could induce higher ADCC mediated by human NK cells and complement-dependent cytotoxicity as compared with NZ-1. Treatment with NZ-8 and human NK cells significantly inhibited the growth of MPM cells in vivo. These results strongly suggest that targeting therapy to podoplanin with therapeutic Abs (i.e., NZ-8) derived from NZ-1 might be useful as a novel immunotherapy against MPM.
Preview · Article · May 2013 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is a large multimeric protein found in the lungs. In addition to its immunoregulatory function in infectious respiratory diseases, SP-A is also used as a marker of lung adenocarcinoma. Despite the finding that SP-A expression levels in cancer cells has a relationship with patient prognosis, the function of SP-A in lung cancer progression is unknown. We investigated the role of SP-A in lung cancer progression by introducing the SP-A gene into human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. SP-A gene transduction suppressed the progression of tumor in subcutaneous xenograft or lung metastasis mouse models. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the number of M1 antitumor tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) was increased and the number of M2 tumor-promoting TAMs was not changed in the tumor tissue produced by SP-A-expressing cells. In addition, natural killer (NK) cells were also increased and activated in the SP-A-expressing tumor. Moreover, SP-A did not inhibit tumor progression in mice depleted of NK cells. Taking into account that SP-A did not directly activate NK cells, these results suggest that SP-A inhibited lung cancer progression by recruiting and activating NK cells via controlling the polarization of TAMs.
Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · American Journal Of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The organ microenvironment significantly affects the processes of cancer metastasis. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of interaction between tumor cells and the organ microenvironment is crucial for the development of effective therapeutic strategies to eradicate cancer metastases. Macrophage stimulating protein (MSP), an activator of macrophages, regulates a pleiotropic array of effects, including proliferation, cellular motility, invasiveness, angiogenesis, and resistance to anoikis. However, the role of MSP in cancer metastasis is still largely unknown. In this study, the action of MSP on the production of metastases was determined in a multiple-organ metastasis model. The murine MSP gene was transfected into two human SCLC cell lines, SBC-5 and H1048, to establish transfectants secreting biologically active MSP. MSP gene transduction did not affect cell proliferation and motility in vitro. Intravenously inoculated MSP transfectants produced significantly larger numbers of liver metastases than parental cells or vector control clones, while there were no significant differences in bone or lung metastases among them. Immunohistochemical analyses of liver metastases revealed that tumor-associated microvessel density and tumor-infiltrating macrophages were significantly increased in lesions produced by MSP transfectants. MSP could stimulate the migration of murine macrophages and endothelial cells in vitro. Consequently, MSP may be one of the major determinants that affects the properties of tumor stroma and that produces a permissive microenvironment to promote cancer metastasis.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Clinical and Experimental Metastasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Notch signaling regulates cell-fate decisions during development and postnatal life. Little is known, however, about the role of Delta-like-4 (Dll4)-Notch signaling between cancer cells, or how this signaling affects cancer metastasis. We therefore assessed the role of Dll4-Notch signaling in cancer metastasis. We generated a soluble Dll4 fused to the IgG1 constant region (Dll4-Fc) that acts as a blocker of Dll4-Notch signaling and introduced it into human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines expressing either high levels (SBC-3 and H1048) or low levels (SBC-5) of Dll4. The effects of Dll4-Fc on metastasis of SCLC were evaluated using a mouse model. Although Dll4-Fc had no effect on the liver metastasis of SBC-5, the number of liver metastasis inoculated with SBC-3 and H1048 cells expressing Dll4-Fc was significantly lower than that injected with control cells. In order to study the molecular mechanisms of the effects of Dll4-Fc on liver metastasis, a PCR array analysis was performed. Since the expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) target genes was affected by Dll4-Fc, we performed an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and observed that NF-κB activities, both with and without stimulation by TNF-α, were downregulated in Dll4-Fc-overexpressing SBC-3 and H1048 cells compared with control cells. Moreover, Dll4-Fc attenuates, at least in part, the classical and alternative NF-κB activation pathway by reducing Notch1 signaling. These results suggest that Dll4-Notch signaling in cancer cells plays a critical role in liver metastasis of small cell lung cancer by regulating NF-κB signaling.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive neoplasm of the mesothelium with high chemotherapeutic resistance. In this study, the preclinical therapeutic activity of the multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor, SU6668, against MPM was examined.
Two human MPM cell lines with different pro-angiogenic cytokine expression, Y-MESO-14 cells that express high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and MSTO-211H cells that express high levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), were orthotopically inoculated into the thoracic cavities of mice with severe combined immunodeficiency. The mice with MPM were treated or not treated with SU6668 (200 mg/kg/day).
SU6668 abrogated the proliferation of endothelial cells stimulated by VEGF or bFGF, but did not directly affect the growth of human MPM cells in vitro. In this orthotopic implantation model, treatment with SU6668 effectively reduced tumour weight and pleural effusion volumes, in association with inhibition of the growth of tumour vasculature. More importantly, treatment with SU6668 significantly prolonged survival time in mice with MPM.
These findings suggest that SU6668 has a promising therapeutic effect on the progression of MPM in vivo through its anti-angiogenic effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is commonly associated with multi-organ metastasis, and the bone is a frequent metastatic site for lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of organ-specific metastasis remains poorly understood. To elucidate this issue, we analyzed in this study genome-wide gene expression profiles of 15 metastatic lesions from three organs (bone, lung and liver) in a mouse model with multi-organ metastasis properties of human non-small cell lung cancer cells (ACC-LC319/bone2), using a combination of laser-microbeam microdissection and DNA microarrays. We identified 299 genes that could potentially be involved in the organ-selective nature of lung cancer metastasis. Among them, 77 were bone-specifically expressed elements, including genes involved in cell adhesion, cytoskeleton/cell motility, extracellular matrix remodeling and cell-cell signaling as well as genes already known to be involved in the bone metastasis of breast cancers. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the specific upregulation of eight genes in bone metastasis tumors, suggesting that these genes may be involved in bone metastasis. Our findings should be helpful for a better understanding of the molecular aspects of the metastatic process in different organs, and could lead to molecular target-based anticancer drugs and prevention of metastasis, especially bone metastasis.
Preview · Article · Jan 2012 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary surfactant lipoproteins lower the surface tension at the alveolar-airway interface of the lung and participate in host defense. Previous studies reported that surfactant protein A (SP-A) inhibits lymphocyte proliferation. We hypothesized that SP-A-mediated modulation of T cell activation depends upon the strength, duration, and type of lymphocyte activating signals. Modulation of T cell signal strength imparted by different activating agents ex vivo and in vivo in different mouse models and in vitro with human T cells shows a strong correlation between strength of signal (SoS) and functional effects of SP-A interactions. T cell proliferation is enhanced in the presence of SP-A at low SoS imparted by exogenous mitogens, specific Abs, APCs, or in homeostatic proliferation. Proliferation is inhibited at higher SoS imparted by different doses of the same T cell mitogens or indirect stimuli such as LPS. Importantly, reconstitution with exogenous SP-A into the lungs of SP-A(-/-) mice stimulated with a strong signal also resulted in suppression of T cell proliferation while elevating baseline proliferation in unstimulated T cells. These signal strength and SP-A-dependent effects are mediated by changes in intracellular Ca(2+) levels over time, involving extrinsic Ca(2+)-activated channels late during activation. These effects are intrinsic to the global T cell population and are manifested in vivo in naive as well as memory phenotype T cells. Thus, SP-A appears to integrate signal thresholds to control T cell proliferation.
Preview · Article · Jan 2012 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) show dramatic antitumor activity in a subset of patients with non-small cell lung cancer who have an active mutation in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. On the other hand, some lung cancer patients with wild type EGFR also respond to EGFR-TKIs, suggesting that EGFR-TKIs have an effect on host cells as well as tumor cells. However, the effect of EGFR-TKIs on host microenvironments is largely unknown. A multiple organ metastasis model was previously established in natural killer cell-depleted severe combined immunodeficient mice using human lung cancer cells. This model was used to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of erlotinib, an EGFR-TKI, on multiple organ metastases induced by human small cell lung cancer cells (SBC-5 cells) that did not express EGFR. Although erlotinib did not have any effect on the proliferation of SBC-5 cells in vitro, it significantly suppressed bone and lung metastases in vivo, but not liver metastases. An immunohistochemical analysis revealed that, erlotinib significantly suppressed the number of osteoclasts in bone metastases, whereas no difference was seen in microvessel density. Moreover, erlotinib inhibited EGF-induced receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B expression in an osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1 cells). These results strongly suggested that erlotinib prevented bone metastases by affecting host microenvironments irrespective of its direct effect on tumor cells.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Clinical and Experimental Metastasis