[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relation of antiplatelet therapy (APT) discontinuation with the risk of serious cardiovascular events has not been fully addressed yet. This study is aimed to evaluate the risk of ischemic event after APT discontinuation based on long-term APT status of large cohort. In the CREDO-Kyoto Registry Cohort-2 enrolling 15939 consecutive patients undergoing first coronary revascularization, 10470 patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention either with bare-metal stents (BMS) only (N=5392) or sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) only (N=5078). Proportions of patients taking dual-APT were 67.3% versus 33.4% at 1-year, and 48.7% versus 24.3% at 5-year in the SES and BMS strata, respectively. We evaluated daily APT status (dual-, single- and no-APT) and linked the adverse events to the APT status just 1-day before the events. No-APT as compared with dual- or single-APT was associated with significantly higher risk for stent thrombosis (ST) beyond 1-month after SES implantation (cumulative incidence rates beyond 1-month: 1.23 versus 0.15/0.29, P<0.001/P<0.001), while higher risk of no-APT for ST was evident only until 6-month after BMS implantation (incidence rates between 1- and 6-month: 8.43 versus 0.71/1.20, P<0.001/P<0.001, and cumulative incidence rates beyond 6-month: 0.31 versus 0.11/0.08, P=0.16/P=0.08). No-APT as compared with dual- or single-APT was also associated with significantly higher risk for spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke regardless of the types of stents implanted. Single-APT as compared with dual-APT was not associated with higher risk for serious adverse events, except for the marginally higher risk for ST in the SES stratum. In conclusion, discontinuation of both aspirin and thienopyridines was associated with increased risk for serious cardiovascular events including ST, spontaneous MI and stroke beyond 1-month after coronary stenting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the retention of technetium-99m sestamibi (MIBI), a radiopharmaceutical that accumulates in mitochondria, in patients with type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that patients with type 2 diabetes had lower MIBI counts in their legs than non-diabetic volunteers, and that these abnormalities reflected a low anaerobic threshold (AT) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Eight non-diabetic volunteers (Group N) and 11 patients with type 2 diabetes (Group D) underwent CPX. Mitochondrial function was assessed using MIBI imaging of both legs. The MIBI counts in the legs were significantly lower in Group D than in Group N (D vs. N: 74.1 vs. 94.1 counts/pixel, p < 0.05). Similarly, peak oxygen uptake (peakVO2) and AT were lower in Group D than in Group N (peakVO2: 19.8 vs. 26.5 ml/kg/min, p < 0.05; AT: 13.1 vs. 17.2 ml/kg/min, p < 0.05). A strong correlation was observed between MIBI counts and the peakVO2 and AT (peakVO2: r = 0.62, p < 0.01; AT: r = 0.76, p < 0.01). After the exclusion of an outlying subject, the correlation between peakVO2 and MIBI count in the legs was lost (r = 0.28, p = 0.26); however, the AT correlation was maintained (r = 0.59, p = 0.01). Patients with type 2 diabetes had reduced skeletal muscle MIBI counts, indicating reduced mitochondrial function. This abnormality may be linked to a low AT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence, intensity, safety, and efficacy of oral anticoagulation (OAC) in addition to dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in "real-world" patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have not yet been fully evaluated. In the Coronary REvascularization Demonstrating Outcome Study in Kyoto registry cohort-2, a total of 1,057 patients with AF (8.3%) were identified among 12,716 patients undergoing first PCI. Cumulative 5-year incidence of stroke was higher in patients with AF than in no-AF patients (12.8% vs 5.8%, p <0.0001). Although most patients with AF had CHADS2 score ≥2 (75.2%), only 506 patients (47.9%) received OAC with warfarin at hospital discharge. Cumulative 5-year incidence of stroke in the OAC group was not different from that in the no-OAC group (13.8% vs 11.8%, p = 0.49). Time in therapeutic range (TTR) was only 52.6% with an international normalized ratio of 1.6 to 2.6, and only 154 of 409 patients (37.7%) with international normalized ratio data had TTR ≥65%. Cumulative 5-year incidence of stroke in patients with TTR ≥65% was markedly lower than that in patients with TTR <65% (6.9% vs 15.1%, p = 0.01). In a 4-month landmark analysis in the OAC group, there was a trend for higher cumulative incidences of stroke and major bleeding in the on-DAPT (n = 286) than in the off-DAPT (n = 173) groups (15.1% vs 6.7%, p = 0.052 and 14.7% vs 8.7%, p = 0.10, respectively). In conclusion, OAC was underused and its intensity was mostly suboptimal in real-world patients with AF undergoing PCI, which lead to inadequate stroke prevention. Long-term DAPT in patients receiving OAC did not reduce stroke incidence.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · The American Journal of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
This subanalysis aimed to clarify whether intensive lipid-lowering therapy with statins slows the progression of atherosclerosis in Japanese subjects under treatment for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
This was a subanalysis of the Justification for Atherosclerosis Regression Treatment (JART) Study. We compared the efficacy of intensive lipid-lowering therapy and conventional therapy with respect to changes in the mean intima-media thickness (IMT) and serum lipid levels. We also evaluated changes in the mean IMT over 24 months of treatment and assessed the relationship between these changes and reductions in the LDL-C levels using a post-hoc analysis.
Intensive lipid-lowering therapy with rosuvastatin was associated with significantly smaller changes in the mean IMT and a greater reduction in the serum lipid levels in comparison to conventional therapy with pravastatin. The average net change in the mean IMT was 0.010 mm (n=121) at 12 months and -0.004 mm (n=56) at 24 months. A decrease in LDL-C was found to be associated with a smaller change in the mean IMT (p=0.0009; Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test). A greater reduction in serum LDL-C was found to be associated with a smaller change in the mean IMT. Similar associations were observed for the serum TC and non-HDL-C levels and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. There were no notable differences in the incidence of serious adverse events among the LDL-C quartiles.
Lowering the LDL-C level with intensive lipid-lowering therapy is associated with reduced changes in the IMT among Japanese subjects at moderate to high risk under treatment for primary prevention. Subjects suitable for primary prevention may receive cardiovascular benefits from intensive lipid-lowering therapy, in association with significantly slower IMT progression than that observed with conventional therapy.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a measure of atherosclerosis, is modulated by multiple risk factors. Accordingly, comprehensive control of risk factors is indispensable for management of atherosclerosis. In this study, as a posthoc analysis of the JART Study we planned two analyses. In the main analysis, we evaluated the effect of intensive lipidlowering therapy with rosuvastatin on carotid IMT in high-risk patients. We also evaluated efficacy in the presence or absence of each risk factor using the full analysis population in the JART Study. Patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥ 140 mg/dL and max-IMT ≥ 1.1 mm were randomized to rosuvastatin or pravastatin therapy for 12 months. Dosages were allowed to increase to 10 mg/day and 20 mg/day to achieve LDL-goals (aggressive goals for rosuvastatin group and guideline goals for pravastatin group). For the main analysis, we assessed 200 high-risk patients (105 in the rosuvastatin group), as category III or secondary prevention according to the Japan Atherosclerosis Society guideline 2007, whereas we assessed 289 patients in the other analysis. Rosuvastatin significantly slowed the percentage change in mean-IMT at 12 months compared with pravastatin (1.40 ± 10.03% versus 6.43 ± 13.77%, P = 0.005). LDL-C was reduced by 48.1% in the rosuvastatin group and 27.9% in the pravastatin group. The rate of achieving the LDL-C goal was significantly greater in the rosuvastatin group compared with the pravastatin group (P < 0.001). Rosuvastatin slowed the change in mean-IMT in the presence of every risk factor. Thus, intensive lipid-lowering therapy reduced progression of carotid IMT in high-risk patients.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · International Heart Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Late adverse events such as very late stent thrombosis (VLST) or late target-lesion revascularization (TLR) after first-generation sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) implantation have not been yet fully characterized at long term in comparison with those after bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation.
Among 13 058 consecutive patients undergoing first percutaneous coronary intervention in the Coronary REvascularization Demonstrating Outcome study-Kyoto registry Cohort-2, 5078 patients were treated with SES only, and 5392 patients were treated with BMS only. During 7-year follow-up, VLST and late TLR beyond 1 year after SES implantation occurred constantly and without attenuation at 0.24% per year and at 2.0% per year, respectively. Cumulative 7-year incidence of VLST was significantly higher in the SES group than that in the BMS group (1.43% versus 0.68%, P<0.0001). However, there was no excess of all-cause death beyond 1 year in the SES group as compared with that in the BMS group (20.8% versus 19.6%, P=0.91). Cumulative incidences of late TLR (both overall and clinically driven) were also significantly higher in the SES group than in the BMS group (12.0% versus 4.1%, P<0.0001 and 8.5% versus 2.6%, P<0.0001, respectively), leading to late catch-up of the SES group to the BMS group regarding TLR through the entire 7-year follow-up (18.8% versus 25.2%, and 10.6% versus 10.2%, respectively). Clinical presentation as acute coronary syndrome was more common at the time of late SES TLR compared with early SES TLR (21.2% and 10.0%).
Late catch-up phenomenon regarding stent thrombosis and TLR was significantly more pronounced with SES than that with BMS. This limitation should remain the target for improvements of DES technology.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The imaging features of chronic periaortitis resemble those of infected aneurysms. Two illustrative cases of chronic periaortitis, in which the etiologies were caused by IgG4-related disease, are presented. The first case involved a 68-year-old man who presented with vague discomfort in his lower abdomen. The second case was a 42-year-old man who presented with a fever of 38°C and persistent, vague chest discomfort. Both cases demonstrated an increased amount of connective tissue around the aorta in computed tomography images and low intensity in the T2-weighed sequence and high intensity in the diffusion-weighed sequence, suggesting the presence of inflammation, in the magnetic resonance imaging. Negative blood cultures, elevated IgG4 levels, and pathological findings confirmed the diagnosis as chronic periaortitis due to IgG4-related disease. This is a newly recognized syndrome of unknown etiology, characterized by a fibroinflammatory condition, tumefactive lesions, and a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells. Both cases were successfully treated with corticosteroids. Infected aneurysms need to be carefully differentiated from this syndrome in view of the similar imaging features.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exercise training can improve endothelial function in patients with diabetes. We hypothesized that the favorable effect of exercise training on endothelial function in patients with diabetes is counteracted by cigarette smoking.
To assess whether there is a difference in the effect of exercise on endothelial function in smokers and non-smokers with type 2 diabetes.
We performed a 3-month controlled trial in 27 never-smoking and 17 smoking individuals with type 2 diabetes who participated in a home-based walking program. The percentage decrease in post-exercise ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI), which is an index of endothelial function, was assessed at baseline and after 3 months.
Compared to the smoking group, the never-smoking group showed a more significant improvement in post exercise ABI during the 3 months of home-based training (interaction, P < 0.01).
These results indicate that smoking may counteract the favorable effects of exercise training on endothelial function. Endothelial function plays an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease among patients with diabetes. Therefore, a Certified Diabetes Educator should strongly advise diabetic patients not to smoke.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Recently, it was reported from the Justification for Atherosclerosis Regression Treatment (JART) Study that intensive therapy with rosuvastatin significantly slowed progression of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) compared with conventional therapy with pravastatin at 12 months. To assess the long-term efficacy of intensive therapy, the present extension study was conducted. Methods and Results: Subjects in the intensive therapy group of the JART Study were asked to participate in the extension study and to continue rosuvastatin treatment. A total of 113 subjects were enrolled into the extension study and were included in the analysis. At 24 months, the mean daily dose of rosuvastatin (±SD) was 7.9±2.9mg. Mean change in mean IMT was -0.005mm (range, -0.024 to 0.015mm) at 24 months (P=0.633, compared with baseline). Rosuvastatin lowered low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mean±SD) by 46.4±13.8% and elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mean±SD) by 8.9±24.0% at 24 months compared with baseline. Gray scale median was measured in 25 subjects. It increased by 16.93±33.12 (mean±SD) % at 12 months and by 22.50±52.83% at 24 months from baseline (P=0.017, P=0.044, respectively). Conclusions: Two-year treatment with rosuvastatin inhibited progression of carotid IMT. Rosuvastatin also improved the plaque composition, and this qualitative change occurred relatively early after starting therapy.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Circulation Journal