[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that plant-derived extracts and their isolated components are useful for treatment of seizures and, hence, constitute a valuable source of new antiepileptic drugs with improved efficacy and better adverse effect profile. β-Caryophyllene is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that occurs in a wide range of plant species and displays a number of biological actions, including neuroprotective activity. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that β-caryophyllene displays anticonvulsant effects. In addition, we investigated the effect of β-caryophyllene on behavioral parameters and on seizure-induced oxidative stress. Adult C57BL/6 mice received increasing doses of β-caryophyllene (0, 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg). After 60 min, we measured the latencies to myoclonic and generalized seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 60 mg/kg). We found that β-caryophyllene increased the latency to myoclonic jerks induced by PTZ. This result was confirmed by electroencephalographic analysis. In a separate set of experiments, we found that mice treated with an anticonvulsant dose of β-caryophyllene (100 mg/kg) displayed an improved recognition index in the object recognition test. This effect was not accompanied by behavioral changes in the open-field, rotarod, or forced swim tests. Administration of an anticonvulsant dose of β-caryophyllene (100 mg/kg) did not prevent PTZ-induced oxidative stress (i.e., increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances or the decrease in nonprotein thiols content). Altogether, the present data suggest that β-caryophyllene displays anticonvulsant activity against seizures induced by PTZ in mice. Since no adverse effects were observed in the same dose range of the anticonvulsant effect, β-caryophyllene should be further evaluated in future development of new anticonvulsant drugs.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · Epilepsy & Behavior
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Throughout the world, traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major causes of disabilities including motor function, memory and epilepsy. Although some studies have shown the beneficial effects of physical exercise after TBI, the prophylactic effects are poorly understood. In the current study, we demonstrated that TBI induced by fluid percussion injury (FPI) in adult male Wistar rats caused early motor impairment (24 hrs), learning deficit (15 days), spontaneous epileptiform events (SEE) and hilar cell loss in the hippocampus (35 days) after TBI. The hippocampal alterations in the redox status, which were characterized by dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) oxidation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity inhibition, led to the impairment of protein function (Na+, K+-ATPase activity inhibition) and glutamate uptake inhibition 24 hours after neuronal injury. The molecular adaptations elicited by previous swim training protected against the glutamate uptake inhibition, oxidative stress and inhibition of selected targets for free radical (e.g., Na+, K+-ATPase) 24 hours after neuronal injury. Our data indicate that this protocol of exercise protected against FPI-induced motor impairment, learning deficits and SEE. In addition, the enhancement of the hippocampal pNrf2/Nrf2, Hsp70 and BDNF immune content in the trained injured rats suggests that protein expression modulation associated with an antioxidant defense elicited by previous physical exercise can prevent toxicity induced by TBI, which is characterized by cell loss in the dentate gyrus hilus at 35 days after TBI. Therefore, this report suggests that previous physical exercise can decrease lesion progression in this model of brain damage.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of neurotrauma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a Fusarium spp. mycotoxin which constitutes a major public health issue because of its worldwide distribution and diversity of toxic effects. While the liver and kidney are considered the major target organs of FB1 toxicity in several species, evidence indicates that FB1 may be toxic to the brain. To further investigate the effects of FB1 on the central nervous system the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that acute FB1 exposure causes brain hyperexcitability and the potential underlying mechanisms. For these purposes, adult male C57BL/6 mice were injected with FB1 (8mg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle and 30min thereafter received with a low dose of the classical convulsant pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 30mg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle. After behavioral evaluation the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus were collected for analysis of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and mitochondrial complex I and II activities. We found that FB1 reduced the latency for PTZ-induced myoclonic jerks and increased the number of these events. After exposure to FB1 total and α1 Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities increased in cerebral cortex, whereas the same enzyme activities decreased in the hippocampus. Although no changes in mitochondrial complex I and II activities were found, acute exposure to FB1 increased ΔΨm in the cerebral cortex. Altogether, present results indicate that FB1 causes brain hyperexcitability in vivo, and that mitochondrial dysfunction may represent a potential underlying mechanism.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Neurotoxicology and Teratology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy with about one third of TLE patients being refractory to antiepileptic drugs. Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying seizure activity is fundamental to the discovery of new drug targets. Brain Na+,K+-ATPase activity contributes to the maintenance of the electrochemical gradients underlying neuronal resting and action potentials as well as the uptake and release of neurotransmitters. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that decreased Na+,K+-ATPase activity is associated with changes in the alpha subunit phosphorylation and/or redox state. Activity of Na+,K+-ATPase decreased in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 mice 60 days after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). In addition, the Michelis-Menten constant for ATP of α2/3 isoforms increased at the same time point. Nitration of the α subunit may underlie decreased Na+,K+-ATPase activity, however no changes in expression or phosphorylation state at Ser943 were found. Further studies are necessary define the potential of nitrated Na+,K+-ATPase as a new therapeutic target for seizure disorders.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Epilepsy Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. It has been reported to be a potential cause of liver cancer in rats and esophageal cancer in humans. The underlying mechanisms of FB1 toxicity are thought to be related to the inhibition of ceramide synthase, causing an accumulation of sphingosine (SO) and sphinganine (SA), which in turn may cause tissue functional impairment and the development of oxidative stress. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the effects of an FB1-contaminated diet on markers of oxidative stress in chick liver. A total of 24 male broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were fed a standard control diet or a diet contaminated with FB1 (100 mg/kg) for 21 days, starting on postnatal day one. The feed and animals were weighed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 to estimate the feed conversion ratio, and at 21 days, the liver weight and liver relative weight were determined. At the end of the experiment, samples of blood and liver were collected. The blood was used to quantify the SA/SO ratio, and the liver was used to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); ascorbic acid levels (Vit C), non-protein thiol (NPSH) levels and TBARS content were also determined. The FB1 diet increased the liver weight, liver relative weight, feed conversion and SA/SO ratio. Furthermore, hepatic TBARS levels, Vit C content and CAT activity were also increased. Conversely, the activities of SOD, GST and NPSH levels, in the liver were not altered by the mycotoxin-contaminated diet. In summary, we showed that subacute exposure of broiler chicks to FB1 induced liver oxidative stress concomitantly with SA/SO accumulation.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Veterinary Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin commonly found as a contaminant in cereals. ZEA toxicity targets mainly the reproductive system, and oxidative stress plays an etiological role in its toxic effects. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of lycopene, a potent carotenoid antioxidant, on markers of oxidative stress in liver, kidney and testes, and on reproductive, hematological and histopathological parameters after ZEA administration. Adult Swiss albino male mice received lycopene (20 mg/kg, p.o.) for ten days before a single oral administration of ZEA (40 mg/kg, p.o.), and 48 h thereafter tissues (liver, kidney, testes and blood) were collected for biochemical, hematological and histological analyses. Lycopene prevented ZEA-induced changes in hematological parameters (increased number of leukocytes, segmented neutrophils, sticks, eosinophils and monocytes and decreased number of red blood cells (RBC), number of lymphocytes and platelets). Moreover, lycopene prevented the reduction in the number and motility of spermatozoa and the testicular tissue damage induced by ZEA. In addition, lycopene prevented the decrease in glutathione-S-transferase activity in kidney and testes and increased glutathione-S-transferase activity per se in the liver, kidneys and testes as well as superoxide dismutase activity in the liver. In summary, lycopene was able to prevent ZEA-induced acute toxic effects in male mice, suggesting that this antioxidant carotenoid may represent a promising prophylactic strategy against ZEA toxicity.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are evidences indicating the role of kinins in pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury, but little is known about their action on memory deficits.
Our aim was to establish the role of bradykinin receptors B1 (B1R) and B2 (B2R) on the behavioral, biochemical, and histologic features elicited by moderate lateral fluid percussion injury (mLFPI) in mice.
The role of kinin B1 and B2 receptors in brain damage, neuromotor, and cognitive deficits induced by mLFPI, was evaluated by means of subcutaneous injection of B2R antagonist (HOE-140; 1 or 10 nmol/kg) or B1R antagonist (des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin (DAL-Bk; 1 or 10 nmol/kg) 30 min and 24 h after brain injury. Brain damage was evaluated in the cortex, being considered as lesion volume, inflammatory, and oxidative damage. The open field and elevated plus maze tests were performed to exclude the nonspecific effects on object recognition memory test.
Our data revealed that HOE-140 (10 nmol/kg) protected against memory impairment. This treatment attenuated the brain edema, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nitric oxide metabolites content elicited by mLFPI. Accordingly, HOE-140 administration protected against the increase of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity, thiobarbituric-acid-reactive species, protein carbonylation generation, and Na(+) K(+) ATPase inhibition induced by trauma. Histologic analysis showed that HOE-140 reduced lesion volume when analyzed 7 days after brain injury.
This study suggests the involvement of the B2 receptor in memory deficits and brain damage caused by mLFPI in mice.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Psychopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating disease that commonly causes persistent mental disturbances and cognitive deficits. Although studies have indicated that overproduction of free radicals, especially superoxide (O2(-)) derived from Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is a common underlying mechanism of pathophysiology of TBI, little information is available regarding the role of apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, in neurological consequences of TBI. Therefore, the present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of apocynin for treatment of inflammatory and oxidative damage, in addition to determining its action on neuromotor and memory impairments caused by moderate fluid percussion injury in mice (mLFPI). Statistical analysis revealed that apocynin (5 mg/kg), when injected subcutaneously (s.c.) 30 min and 24 h after injury, had no effect on neuromotor deficit and brain edema, however it provided protection against mLFPI-induced object recognition memory impairment 7 days after neuronal injury. The same treatment protected against mLFPI-induced IL-1β, TNF-α, nitric oxide metabolite content (NOx) 3 and 24 hours after neuronal injury. Moreover, apocynin treatment reduced oxidative damage (protein carbonyl, lipoperoxidation) and was effective against mLFPI-induced Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity inhibition. The present results were accompanied by effective reduction in lesion volume when analyzed 7 days after neuronal injury. These data suggest that superoxide (O2(-)) derived from NADPH oxidase can contribute significantly to cognitive impairment, and that the post injury treatment with specific NADPH oxidase inhibitors, such as apocynin, may provide a new therapeutic approach to the control of neurological disabilities induced by TBI.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Neurochemistry International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The methylmalonic acidemia is an inborn error of metabolism (IEM) characterized by methylmalonic acid (MMA) accumulation in body fluids and tissues, causing neurological dysfunction, mitochondrial failure and oxidative stress. Although neurological evidence demonstrate that infection and/or inflammation mediators facilitate metabolic crises in patients, the involvement of neuroinflammatory processes in the neuropathology of this organic acidemia is not yet established. In this experimental study, we used newborn Wistar rats to induce a model of chronic acidemia via subcutaneous injections of methylmalonate (MMA, from 5th to 28th day of life, twice a day, ranged from 0.72 to 1.67μmol/g as a function of animal age). In the following days (29th-31st) animal behavior was assessed in the object exploration test and elevated plus maze. It was performed differential cell and the number of neutrophils counting and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in the blood, as well as levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in the cerebral cortex were measured. Behavioral tests showed that animals injected chronically with MMA have a reduction in the recognition index (R.I.) when the objects were arranged in a new configuration space, but do not exhibit anxiety-like behaviors. The blood of MMA-treated animals showed a decrease in the number of polymorphonuclear and neutrophils, and an increase in mononuclear and other cell types, as well as an increase of IL-1β and TNF-α levels. Concomitantly, MMA increased levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and expression of iNOS and 3-NT in the cerebral cortex of rats. The overall results indicate that chronic administration of MMA increased pro-inflammatory markers in the cerebral cortex, reduced immune system defenses in blood, and coincide with the behavioral changes found in young rats. This leads to speculate that, through mechanisms not yet elucidated, the neuroinflammatory processes during critical periods of development may contribute to the progression of cognitive impairment in patients with methylmalonic acidemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate whether Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and phosphorylation state of the catalytic α subunit are altered by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. PTZ (30, 45 or 60g/kg, i.p.) was administered to adult male Swiss mice, and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and phosphorylation state were measured in the cerebral cortex 15min after PTZ administration. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity significantly decreased after PTZ-induced seizures (60mg/kg). Immunoreactivity of phosphorylated Ser943 at α subunit was increased after PTZ-induced seizures. A significant positive correlation between Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and latency to myoclonic jerks and generalized seizures was found. Conversely, a strong negative correlation between Ser943 phosphorylation and latency to generalized seizures was detected. Given the role of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase as a major regulator of brain excitability, Ser943 at Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α subunit may represent a potentially valuable new target for drug development for seizure disorders.
No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Epilepsy research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Statins are inhibitors of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis. Statins effectively prevent and reduce the risk of coronary artery disease through lowering serum cholesterol, and also exert anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects independently of changes in cholesterol levels. On the other hand, clinical and experimental evidence suggests that abrupt cessation of statin treatment (i.e. statin withdrawal) is associated with a deleterious rebound phenomenon. In fact, statin withdrawal increases the risk of thrombotic vascular events, causes impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation and facilitates experimental seizures. However, evidence for statin withdrawal-induced detrimental effects to the brain parenchyma is still lacking. In the present study adult male Wistar rats were treated with atorvastatin for seven days (10mg/kg/day) and neurochemical assays were performed in the cerebral cortex 30min (atorvastatin treatment) or 24h (atorvastatin withdrawal) after the last atorvastatin administration. We found that atorvastatin withdrawal decreased levels of nitric oxide and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activity, whereas increased NADPH oxidase activity and immunoreactivity for the protein nitration marker 3-nitrotyrosine in the cerebral cortex. Catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and xanthine oxidase activities were not altered by atorvastatin treatment or withdrawal, as well as protein carbonyl and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal immunoreactivity. Immunoprecipitation of mitochondrial SOD followed by analysis of 3-nitrotyrosine revealed increased levels of nitrated mitochondrial SOD, suggesting the mechanism underlying the atorvastatin withdrawal-induced decrease in enzyme activity. Altogether, our results indicate the atorvastatin withdrawal elicits oxidative/nitrosative damage in the rat cerebral cortex, and that changes in NADPH oxidase activity and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities may underlie such harmful effects.
Preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Pharmacological Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methylmalonic acidemias are inherited metabolic disorders characterized by methylmalonate (MMA) accumulation and neurological dysfunction, including seizures. Dietary fatty acids are known as an important energy source and reduce seizure activity in selected acute animal models. This study investigated whether chronic treatment with fish oil or with oleic acid attenuates MMA-induced seizures and whether maintenance of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity was involved in such an effect. Adult male Wistar rats were given fish oil (85mg/kg), oleic acid (85mg/kg) or vehicle (0.42% aqueous Cremophor EL™, 4mL/kg/body weight/day), p.o., for 75 days. On the 73th day a cannula was implanted in the right lateral ventricle with electrodes over the parietal cortex for EEG recording. On the 76th day the animals were injected with NaCl (2.5μmol/2.5μL, i.c.v.), or with MMA (2.5μmol/2.5μL, i.c.v.), and seizure activity was measured by electroencephagraphic (EEG) recording with concomitant behavior monitoring. The effect of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity of slices of cerebral cortex from NaCl-injected animals was determined. Fish oil increased the latency to MMA-induced tonic-clonic seizures, reduced the mean amplitude of ictal EEG recordings, and prevented PGE(2)-induced decrease of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in cortical slices in vitro. Oleic acid decreased mean amplitude of ictal EEG recordings. The results support that fish oil decreases MMA-induced seizures. The decreased sensitivity of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase to the inhibitory effect of PGE(2)in fish oil-treated animals may be related to the currently reported anticonvulsant activity.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Epilepsy research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Administration of the compound triterpene 3β, 6β, 16β-trihidroxilup-20(29)-ene (TTHL) resulted in antinociceptive activity in several pain models in mice. Because pain and epilepsy have common mechanisms, and several anticonvulsants are clinically used to treat painful disorders, we investigated the anticonvulsant potential of TTHL. Behavioral and electrographic recordings revealed that pretreatment with TTHL (30 mg/kg; i.g.) increased the latencies to the first clonic seizure to the tonic-clonic and reduced the duration of the generalized seizures induced by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist PTZ (80 mg/Kg; i.p.). The TTHL pretreatment also protected against PTZ-induced deleterious effects, as characterized by protein carbonylation, lipid peroxidation, [(3)H] glutamate uptake and the inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (subunits α(1)and α(2)/α(3)). Although TTHL did not exhibit DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activity per se and does not alter the binding of [(3)H]flunitrazepam to the benzodiazepinic site of the GABA(A) receptor, this compound was effective in preventing behavioral and EEG seizures, as well as the inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase induced by ouabain. These results suggest that the protection against PTZ-induced seizures elicited by TTHL is due to Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity maintenance. In fact, experiments in homogenates of the cerebral cortex revealed that PTZ (10 mM) reduced Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and that previous incubation with TTHL (10 μM) protected against this inhibition. Collectively, these data indicate that the protection exerted by TTHL in this model of convulsion is not related to antioxidant activity or GABAergic activity. However, these results demonstrated that the effective protection of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase elicited by this compound protects against the damage due to neuronal excitability and oxidation that is induced by PTZ.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Neuropharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A growing body of evidence indicates that creatine (Cr) exerts beneficial effects on a variety of pathologies where energy metabolism and oxidative stress play an etiological role. However, the benefits of Cr treatment for epileptics are still shrouded in controversy. In the present study, we found that acute Cr treatment (300 mg/kg, p.o.) prevented the increase in electroencephalographic wave amplitude typically elicited by PTZ (30, 45 or 60 mg/kg, i.p.). Cr treatment also increased the latency periods of first myoclonic jerks, lengthened the latency periods of the generalized tonic-clonic seizures and reduced the time spent in the generalized tonic-clonic seizures induced by PTZ (60 mg/kg). Administration of PTZ (all doses) decreased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate levels in the cerebral cortex, but Cr treatment prevented these effects. Cr administration also prevented increases in xanthine oxidase activity, adenosine monophosphate levels, adenosine levels, inosine levels and uric acid levels that normally occur after PTZ treatment (60 mg/kg, i.p.). We also showed that Cr treatment increased the total Cr (Cr + PCr) content, creatine kinase activity and the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) in the cerebral cortex. In addition, Cr prevented PTZ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by decreasing ΔΨ, increasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels and increasing protein carbonylation. These experimental findings reinforce the idea that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in models of epileptic seizures and suggest that buffering brain energy levels through Cr treatment may be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of this neurological disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Achievements made over the past few years have demonstrated the important role of the creatine and phosphocreatine system in the buffering and transport of high-energy phosphates into the brain; however, the non-energetic processes elicited by this guanidine compound in the hippocampus are still poorly understood. In the present study we disclosed that the incubation of rat hippocampal slices with creatine (10mM) for 30 min increased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. In addition, intrahippocampal injection of creatine (5 nmol/site) also increased the above-mentioned activity. The incubation of hippocampal slices with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA; MK-801, 10 μM) and NMDA Receptor 2B (NR2B; ifenprodil, 3 μM) antagonists but not with the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA)/kainate antagonist (DNQX, 10 μM) and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (NOS; l-NAME, 100 μM), blunted the effect of creatine on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. Furthermore, the calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine A, 200 nM) as well as the Protein Kinase C (PMA, 100 nM) and Protein Kinase A (8-Br-cAMP, 30 μM) activators attenuated the creatine-induced increase of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. In addition, the incubation of hippocampal slices with creatine (10mM) for 30 min increased calcineurin activity. The results presented here suggest that creatine increases Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity via NMDA-calcineurin pathway, proposing an putative underlying non-energetic role of this guanidine compound. However, more studies are needed to assess the contribution of this putative alternative role in neurological diseases that present decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Brain research bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although Creatine (Cr) and Phosphocreatine (PCr) systems play a key role in cellular energy and energy transport in neuronal cells, its implications for learning and memory are still controversial. Thus, we decided to investigate the involvement of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) in the spatial consolidation after an intrahippocampal injection of Cr. Statistical analysis revealed that Cr (2.5 nmol/hippocampus) (post-training) decreased the latency for escape and the mean number of errors on Barnes maze test. Post-training co-administration of the PKA inhibitor (H-89 25 ρmol/hippocampus) did not alter the facilitatory effect of Cr in this memory test. On the other hand, Cr-induced spatial retention was reverted by co-administration of the CaMKII inhibitor (STO-609 5 nmol/hippocampus). Neurochemical analysis revealed that intrahippocampal injection of Cr, when analyzed after 30 min rather than after 3 h, increased the levels of pCREB and pCaMKII but not pPKA levels. Statistical analysis also revealed that the post-training co-administration of STO-609 but not H-89 reversed the increase of pCREB levels induced by Cr. The results presented in this report suggest that intracellular CaMKII/CREB pathway plays a key role in the Cr-induced spatial retention. Thus, it is plausible to propose that Cr plays a putative role as a neuromodulator in the brain, and that at least some of its effects may be mediated by intracellular CaMKII/CREB pathway.