Benjamin H. Natelson

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Borough of Manhattan, New York, United States

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Publications (314)1203.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Milnacipran, a serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), is FDA-approved for the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM). This report presents the results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of milnacipran conducted to test the hypotheses that (a) similar to patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, FM patients have elevated ventricular lactate at baseline; (b) 8 weeks of treatment with milnacipran will lower ventricular lactate levels compared to both baseline and to placebo; and (c) treatment with milnacipran will improve attention and executive function in the Attention Network Test compared to placebo. In addition, we examined the results for potential associations between ventricular lactate and pain. Baseline ventricular lactate measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)H MRSI) was found to be higher in FM than in healthy controls [F(1,37) = 22.11; p < 0.0001, partial η(2) = 0.37]. Milnacipran reduced pain in FM relative to placebo but had no effect on cognitive processing. At study end, ventricular lactate in the milnacipran-treated group decreased significantly compared to baseline and to placebo [F1,18 = 8.18, p = 0.01, partial η(2) = 0.31]. A significantly larger proportion of milnacipran-treated patients showed decreases in both ventricular lactate and in pain than placebo [p = 0.03]. These results suggest that (1)H MRSI measurements of lactate may serve as a potential biomarker for therapeutic response in FM and that milnacipran may act, at least in part, by targeting the brain response to glial activation and neuroinflammation. Patients treated with milnacipran showed decreases in both pain and ventricular lactate compared to those treated with placebo, but, even after treatment, levels of ventricular lactate remained higher than in controls. The hypothesized mechanism for these decreases is via drug-induced reductions of a central inflammatory state. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · The journal of pain: official journal of the American Pain Society
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    ABSTRACT: Since chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM) often co-exist, some believe they reflect the same process, somatization. Against that hypothesis are data suggesting FM but not CFS was common in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). The presence of discrete case definitions for CFS and FM allowed us to explore rates of CFS alone, CFS with FM, and FM alone in SDB patients compared to those with sleep complaints that fulfilled criteria for insomnia. Participants were 175 sequential patients with sleep-related symptoms (122 had SDB and 21 had insomnia) and 39 healthy controls. Diagnoses were made by questionnaires, tender point count, and rule out labs; sleepiness was assessed with Epworth Sleepiness Scale and mood with Beck Depression Inventory. Rates of CFS, FM or CFS + FM were high: 13% in SDB and 48% in insomnia. CFS occurred frequently in SDB and insomnia, but FM occurred frequently only in insomnia. SDB patients with CFS and/or FM had higher daytime sleepiness than those without these disorders. CFS patients should complete Epworth scales, and sleep evaluation should be considered for those with scores ≥ 16 before receiving the diagnosis of CFS; the coexistence of depressed mood in these patients suggests some may be helped by treatment of their depression. That FM was underrepresented in SDB suggests FM and CFS may have different underlying pathophysiological causes.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · BMC Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Effects of exercise on dynamic aspects of sleep have not been studied. We hypothesized exercise altered dynamic sleep morphology differently for healthy controls relative to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients. Sixteen controls (38 ± 9 years) and 17 CFS patients (41 ± 8 years) underwent polysomnography on baseline nights and nights after maximal exercise testing. We calculated transition probabilities and rates (as a measure of relative and temporal transition frequency, respectively) between sleep stages and cumulative duration distributions (as a measure of continuity) of each sleep stage and sleep as a whole. After exercise, controls showed a significantly greater probability of transition from N1 to N2 and a lower rate of transition from N1 to wake than at baseline; CFS showed a significantly greater probability of transition from N2 to N3 and a lower rate of transition from N2 to N1. These findings suggest improved quality of sleep after exercise. After exercise, controls had improved sleep continuity, whereas CFS had less continuous N1 and more continuous rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. However, CFS had a significantly greater probability and rate of transition from REM to wake than controls. Probability of transition from REM to wake correlated significantly with increases in subjective fatigue, pain, and sleepiness overnight in CFS - suggesting these transitions may relate to patient complaints of unrefreshing sleep. Thus, exercise promoted transitions to deeper sleep stages and inhibited transitions to lighter sleep stages for controls and CFS, but CFS also reported increased fatigue and continued to have REM sleep disruption. This dissociation suggests possible mechanistic pathways for the underlying pathology of CFS.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013
  • Fumiharu Togo · Gudrun Lange · Benjamin H Natelson · Karen S Quigley
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    ABSTRACT: Information processing difficulties are common in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). It has been shown that the time it takes to process a complex cognitive task, rather than error rate, may be the critical variable underlying CFS patients' cognitive complaints. The Attention Network Task (ANT) developed by Fan and colleagues may be of clinical utility to assess cognitive function in CFS, because it allows for simultaneous assessment of mental response speed, also called information processing speed, and error rate under three conditions challenging the attention system. Comparison of data from two groups of CFS patients (those with and without comorbid major depressive disorder; n = 19 and 22, respectively) to controls (n = 29) consistently showed that error rates did not differ among groups across conditions, but speed of information processing did. Processing time was prolonged in both CFS groups and most significantly affected in response to the most complex task conditions. For simpler tasks, processing time was only prolonged in CFS participants with depression. The data suggest that the ANT may be a task that could be used clinically to assess information processing deficits in individuals with CFS.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Neuropsychology
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    ABSTRACT: A major hypothesis regarding the cause of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is immune dysregulation, thought to be reflected in upregulated proinflammatory cytokines leading to the symptoms that are characteristic of this illness. Because the symptoms worsen with physical exertion or sleep loss, we hypothesized that we could use these stressors to magnify the underlying potential pathogenic abnormalities in the cytokine systems of people with CFS. We conducted repeat blood sampling for cytokine levels from healthy subjects and CFS patients during both postexercise and total sleep deprivation nights and assayed for protein levels in the blood samples, mRNA activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), and function in resting and stimulated PBLs. We found that these environmental manipulations did not produce clinically significant upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. These data do not support an important role of immune dysregulation in the genesis of stress-induced worsening of CFS.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI
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    Benjamin H Natelson
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    ABSTRACT: We have been able to reduce substantially patient pool heterogeneity by identifying phenotypic markers that allow the researcher to stratify chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients into subgroups. To date, we have shown that stratifying based on the presence or absence of comorbid psychiatric diagnosis leads to a group with evidence of neurological dysfunction across a number of spheres. We have also found that stratifying based on the presence or absence of comorbid fibromyalgia leads to information that would not have been found on analyzing the entire, unstratified patient group. Objective evidence of orthostatic intolerance (OI) may be another important variable for stratification and may define a group with episodic cerebral hypoxia leading to symptoms. We hope that this review will encourage other researchers to collect data on discrete phenotypes in CFS to allow this work to continue more broadly. Finding subgroups of CFS suggests different underlying pathophysiological processes responsible for the symptoms seen. Understanding those processes is the first step toward developing discrete treatments for each.
    Preview · Article · May 2013 · Frontiers in Physiology
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    Fumiharu Togo · Benjamin H Natelson
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    ABSTRACT: We determined whether alterations in heart rate dynamics during sleep in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) differed from controls and/or correlated with changes of sleepiness before and after a night in the sleep laboratory. We compared beat-to-beat RR intervals (RRI) during nocturnal sleep, sleep structure, and subjective scores on visual analog scale for sleepiness in 18 CFS patients with 19 healthy controls aged 25-55 after excluding subjects with sleep disorders. A short-term fractal scaling exponent (α1) of RRI dynamics, analyzed by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method, was assessed after stratifying patients into those who reported more or less sleepiness after the night's sleep (a.m. sleepier or a.m. less sleepy, respectively). Patients in the a.m. sleepier group showed significantly (p<0.05) higher fractal scaling index α1 during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep (Stages 1, 2, and 3 sleep) than healthy controls, although standard polysomnographic measures did not differ between the groups. The fractal scaling index α1 during non-REM sleep was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that during awake periods after sleep onset for healthy controls and patients in the a.m. less sleepy group, but did not differ between sleep stages for patients in the a.m. sleepier group. For patients, changes in self-reported sleepiness before and after the night correlated positively with the fractal scaling index α1 during non-REM sleep (p<0.05). These results suggest that RRI dynamics or autonomic nervous system activity during non-REM sleep might be associated with disrupted sleep in patients with CFS.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Autonomic neuroscience: basic & clinical
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex illness, which is often misdiagnosed as a psychiatric illness. In two previous reports, using (1)H MRSI, we found significantly higher levels of ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate in patients with CFS relative to those with generalized anxiety disorder and healthy volunteers (HV), but not relative to those with major depressive disorder (MDD). In this third independent cross-sectional neuroimaging study, we investigated a pathophysiological model which postulated that elevations of CSF lactate in patients with CFS might be caused by increased oxidative stress, cerebral hypoperfusion and/or secondary mitochondrial dysfunction. Fifteen patients with CFS, 15 with MDD and 13 HVs were studied using the following modalities: (i) (1)H MRSI to measure CSF lactate; (ii) single-voxel (1)H MRS to measure levels of cortical glutathione (GSH) as a marker of antioxidant capacity; (iii) arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF); and (iv) (31)P MRSI to measure brain high-energy phosphates as objective indices of mitochondrial dysfunction. We found elevated ventricular lactate and decreased GSH in patients with CFS and MDD relative to HVs. GSH did not differ significantly between the two patient groups. In addition, we found lower rCBF in the left anterior cingulate cortex and the right lingual gyrus in patients with CFS relative to HVs, but rCBF did not differ between those with CFS and MDD. We found no differences between the three groups in terms of any high-energy phosphate metabolites. In exploratory correlation analyses, we found that levels of ventricular lactate and cortical GSH were inversely correlated, and significantly associated with several key indices of physical health and disability. Collectively, the results of this third independent study support a pathophysiological model of CFS in which increased oxidative stress may play a key role in CFS etiopathophysiology.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · NMR in Biomedicine
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    B Abbi · B H Natelson
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM) are medically unexplained syndromes that can and often do co-occur. For this reason, some have posited that the two are part of the same somatic syndrome-examples of symptom amplification. This hypothesis would suggest that few differences exist between the two syndromes. To evaluate this interpretation, we have searched the literature for articles comparing CFS to FM, reviewing only those articles which report differences between the two. This review presents data showing differences across a number of parameters-implying that the underlying pathophysiology in CFS may differ from that of FM. We hope that our review encourages other groups to look for additional differences between CFS and FM. By continuing to preserve the unique illness definitions of the two syndromes, clinicians will be able to better identify, understand and provide treatment for these individuals.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · QJM: monthly journal of the Association of Physicians
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    Fumiharu Togo · Akifumi Kishi · Benjamin H. Natelson
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To provide a selectively brief review of sleep and fibromyalgia studies and to relate future studies in fibromyalgia to sleep. Results: Generally fibromyalgia patients report poor sleep along with somatic symptoms. Sleep EEC alpha is a possible measure of this unrefreshing sleep. However, more uniform measurement and analysis techniques are required if such an index is to be proposed as sensitive and specific. Recent proposals on the function of sleep, such as for bodily restoration and/or immunoregulation hold much promise for investigating the emergence of fibromyalgia symptoms. Conclusions: Because fibromyalgia is predominantly an illness affecting women, the sleep/immunologic relationships will be confounded by a variety of time dynamic issues including circadian menstrual cycles.
    Full-text · Chapter · Jan 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM) are chronic multisymptom illnesses with substantial clinical and diagnostic overlap. We have previously shown that, when controlling for aerobic fitness and accounting for comorbid FM, CFS patients do not exhibit abnormal cardiorespiratory responses during maximal aerobic exercise compared with healthy controls, despite differences in pain and exertion. The purpose of the present study was to examine cardiac and perceptual responses to steady-state submaximal exercise in CFS patients and healthy controls. Twenty-one CFS patients (13 CFS with comorbid FM (CFS + FM)) and 14 controls completed 20 min of submaximal cycling exercise. Impedance cardiography was used to determine cardiac responses during exercise. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), RPE, and leg muscle pain were also measured. Data were analyzed using a doubly multivariate, repeated-measures MANOVA to model the exercise response. There was a significant multivariate time-by-group interaction (P < 0.05). The CFS + FM group exhibited an exercise response characterized by higher stroke index, ventilatory equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide and RPE, lower SBP, and similar HR responses compared to controls. The present results extend on our previous work with maximal exercise and show that CFS and CFS + FM differ in their responses to steady-state exercise. These results highlight the importance of accounting for comorbid conditions when conducting CFS research, particularly when examining psychophysiological responses to exercise.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Medicine and science in sports and exercise
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM) are medically unexplained conditions that often have overlapping symptoms, including sleep-related complaints. However, differences between the 2 conditions have been reported, and we hypothesized that dynamic aspects of sleep would be different in the 2 groups of patients. Subjects were 26 healthy control subjects, 14 patients with CFS but without FM (CFS alone), and 12 patients with CFS and FM (CFS+FM)-all women. We studied transition probabilities and rates between sleep stages (waking, rapid eye movement [REM] sleep, stage 1 [S1], stage 2 [S2], and slow-wave sleep [SWS]) and duration distributions of each sleep stage. We found that the probability of transition from REM sleep to waking was significantly greater in subjects with CFS alone than in control subjects, which may be the specific sleep problem for people with CFS alone. Probabilities of (a) transitions from waking, REM sleep, and S1 to S2 and (b) those from SWS to waking and S1 were significantly greater in subjects with CFS+FM than in control subjects; in addition, rates of these transitions were also significantly increased in subjects with CFS+FM. Result (a) might indicate increased sleep pressure in subjects with CFS+FM whereas result (b) may be the specific sleep problem of subjects with CFS+FM. We also found that shorter durations of S2 sleep are specific to patients with CFS+FM, not to CFS alone. These results suggest that CFS and FM may be different illnesses associated with different problems of sleep regulation.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Sleep
  • Jacob D. Meyer · Aaron J. Stegner · Benjamin H. Natelson · Dane B. Cook

    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
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    ABSTRACT: Recent reports showed many patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) harbor a retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia-related virus (XMRV), in blood; other studies could not replicate this finding. A useful next step would be to examine cerebrospinal fluid, because in some patients CFS is thought to be a brain disorder. Finding a microbe in the central nervous system would have greater significance than in blood because of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. We examined cerebrospinal fluid from 43 CFS patients using polymerase chain reaction techniques, but did not find XMRV or multiple other common viruses, suggesting that exploration of other causes or pathogenetic mechanisms is warranted.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Annals of Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Neurologic Post Treatment Lyme disease (nPTLS) and Chronic Fatigue (CFS) are syndromes of unknown etiology. They share features of fatigue and cognitive dysfunction, making it difficult to differentiate them. Unresolved is whether nPTLS is a subset of CFS. Pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from nPTLS patients, CFS patients, and healthy volunteers were comprehensively analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS), coupled with immunoaffinity depletion methods to reduce protein-masking by abundant proteins. Individual patient and healthy control CSF samples were analyzed directly employing a MS-based label-free quantitative proteomics approach. We found that both groups, and individuals within the groups, could be distinguished from each other and normals based on their specific CSF proteins (p<0.01). CFS (n = 43) had 2,783 non-redundant proteins, nPTLS (n = 25) contained 2,768 proteins, and healthy normals had 2,630 proteins. Preliminary pathway analysis demonstrated that the data could be useful for hypothesis generation on the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these two related syndromes. nPTLS and CFS have distinguishing CSF protein complements. Each condition has a number of CSF proteins that can be useful in providing candidates for future validation studies and insights on the respective mechanisms of pathogenesis. Distinguishing nPTLS and CFS permits more focused study of each condition, and can lead to novel diagnostics and therapeutic interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · PLoS ONE
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    Bharat Biswal · Pratap Kunwar · Benjamin H Natelson
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic fatigue syndrome is diagnosed by a set of clinical criteria and therefore is probably heterogeneous. Earlier reports tested the hypothesis that the syndrome had a neurological substrate by doing studies of cerebral blood flow (CBF) but with discrepant results. One possible reason for the discrepancy was that relative CBF was assessed. We found reduced CBF in an earlier study of absolute CBF using xenon-CT. The purpose of this study was to use a second method of assessing CBF and to look within the study group for heterogeneity of responses. Eleven CFS patients and 10 age matched healthy controls underwent neuroimaging using arterial spin labeling to determine their regional and global absolute CBF. A template was constructed based on the control data, and individual patient montages were compared on a case by case basis to determine if differences in regions of interest occurred. The patients as a group had significantly lower global CBF than the controls. The reduction in CBF occurred across nearly every region assessed. Nine of the 11 patients showed these reductions compared to the average control data, while two patients showed actual increases relative to the controls. The data extend our earlier observation that CFS patients as a group have broad decreases in CBF compared to healthy controls. However, as expected, the effect was not homogeneous in that 2 of the 11 patients studied showed actual increases in CBF relative to controls.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of the neurological sciences
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Neurologic Post Treatment Lyme disease (nPTLS) and Chronic Fatigue (CFS) are syndromes of unknown etiology. They share features of fatigue and cognitive dysfunction, making it difficult to differentiate them. Unresolved is whether nPTLS is a subset of CFS. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from nPTLS patients, CFS patients, and healthy volunteers were comprehensively analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS), coupled with immunoaffinity depletion methods to reduce protein-masking by abundant proteins. Individual patient and healthy control CSF samples were analyzed directly employing a MS-based label-free quantitative proteomics approach. We found that both groups, and individuals within the groups, could be distinguished from each other and normals based on their specific CSF proteins (p<0.01). CFS (n = 43) had 2,783 non-redundant proteins, nPTLS (n = 25) contained 2,768 proteins, and healthy normals had 2,630 proteins. Preliminary pathway analysis demonstrated that the data could be useful for hypothesis generation on the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these two related syndromes. CONCLUSIONS: nPTLS and CFS have distinguishing CSF protein complements. Each condition has a number of CSF proteins that can be useful in providing candidates for future validation studies and insights on the respective mechanisms of pathogenesis. Distinguishing nPTLS and CFS permits more focused study of each condition, and can lead to novel diagnostics and therapeutic interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011
  • Susan K. Johnson · John Deluca · Bruce J. Diamond · Benjamin H. Natelson
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated short-term memory capacity in three fatiguing illnesses: multiple sclerosis (MS); chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); and depression (DEP) using a proactive interference (PI) and a Brown-Peterson distraction paradigm. There were no significant differences in build-up and release from PI relative to controls, although the CFS and MS groups recalled significantly fewer words overall. All three fatigue groups evidenced recall impairment after a brief distractor. Furthermore, brief distraction resulted in impaired immediate and delayed recall in the MS and CFS groups compared to controls. Results indicate that fatiguing illness groups, particularly MS and CFS, are vulnerable to limited disruption in short-term memory processing and this can affect recall.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM) are medically unexplained conditions that share considerable overlapping symptoms, including sleep-related complaints. However, differences between the two conditions have been reported, and we hypothesized that dynamic aspects of sleep, recently attracting scientific interests, would be different in the two groups of patients. We thus study transition probabilities between sleep stages of CFS patients with or without FM. Subjects were 26 healthy controls, 14 CFS patients without FM (CFS alone) and 12 CFS patients with FM (CFS+FM) - all women. We studied transition probabilities between sleep stages (waking, REM sleep and Stage I, Stage II and slow-wave sleep (Stage III+IV)). We found that probabilities of transition from REM sleep to waking were significantly greater in CFS alone than in controls; we have reported previously this sleep disruption as the specific sleep problem for CFS alone [Kishi et al., 2008]. Probabilities of transitions from waking, REM sleep and Stage I to Stage II, and those from slow-wave sleep to Stage I, were significantly greater in CFS+FM than in controls; the former might indicate increased sleep pressure in CFS+FM and the latter may be the specific sleep problem of CFS+FM. These results suggest that CFS and FM are different illnesses associated with different problems of sleep regulation.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference
  • Donald S Ciccone · Helena K Chandler · Benjamin H Natelson
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    ABSTRACT: The natural progression of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in adults is not well established. The aims of this longitudinal study were to (a) compare CFS Improvers and Non-Improvers; (b) determine whether an initial diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM) was associated with CFS nonimprovement; and (c) determine whether this effect could be explained by the presence of nonspecific physical symptoms. Consecutive referrals to a tertiary clinic that satisfied case criteria for CFS were invited to enroll in a longitudinal study. After an initial on-site physical examination and psychiatric interview, a total of 94 female care-seekers completed biannual telephone surveys, including the Short Form-36 physical functioning (PF) scale, over a period of 2(1/2) years. There were very few differences between Improvers and Non-Improvers at baseline but at final assessment Improvers had less disability, less fatigue, lower levels of pain, fewer symptoms of depressed mood, and fewer nonspecific physical complaints. Participants with FM at baseline were 3.23 times (p < 0.05) more likely to become Non-Improvers than those without FM. Participants identified initially as Somatizers were 3.33 times (p < 0.05) more likely to become Non-Improvers. Patients with CFS who bear the added burden of FM are at greater risk of a negative outcome than patients with CFS alone. This effect could not be explained by the presence of multiple, nonspecific symptoms.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · The Journal of nervous and mental disease

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,203.04 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      Borough of Manhattan, New York, United States
  • 2012-2013
    • Albert Einstein Medical Center
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2010-2013
    • Beth Israel Medical Center
      • Department of Pain Medicine and Palliative Care
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1977-2013
    • Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
      • • Division of Neurology
      • • Department of Neurology and Neurosciences
      • • New Jersey Medical School
      Newark, New Jersey, United States
    • University of Kentucky
      • Department of Medicine
      Lexington, Kentucky, United States
  • 1974-2013
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Neuroradiology
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2009-2012
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006
    • Ball State University
      Muncie, Indiana, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      • Department of Kinesiology
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2004
    • Michigan State University
      Ист-Лансинг, Michigan, United States
  • 2003
    • Temple University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • New York Presbyterian Hospital
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2001
    • Fairleigh Dickinson University
      Teaneck, New Jersey, United States
  • 1986-2001
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      • Department of Psychology
      Нью-Брансуик, New Jersey, United States
  • 1998-1999
    • University of North Carolina at Charlotte
      Charlotte, North Carolina, United States
  • 1996-1999
    • United States Department of Veterans Affairs
      Бедфорд, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1989-1999
    • New Jersey Institute of Technology
      • • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      • • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Newark, New Jersey, United States
  • 1978-1999
    • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
      • • Department of Microbiology & Immunology
      • • Department of Neuroscience
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1995
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Psychology
      Princeton, NJ, United States
  • 1994
    • Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 1993
    • Kessler Foundation
      West Orange, New Jersey, United States
  • 1990
    • Newark Academy
      Ливингстон, New Jersey, United States
  • 1980
    • The College of New Jersey
      Ewing, New Jersey, United States
  • 1975-1977
    • Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
      Silver Spring, Maryland, United States
  • 1973
    • White Plains Hospital
      White Plains, New York, United States