[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypopotassemia with acid–base imbalance caused by laxative abuse is one of the disorders that nephrologists can be consulted for. Although laxatives are not supposed to form psychological dependence in themselves and their abuse should be cured theoretically by just finishing the overdose, the patients often resist treatment due to unpleasant symptoms such as edema and worsening constipation. Thus, chronic laxative abuse is often regarded as a drug addiction. We report a successfully treated case of chronic laxative abuse, where drastic reduction of laxatives was achieved by applying diuretics. After drastic reduction of laxatives, diuretics were added until they eased edema and bloating so that the patient could feel them to be tolerable, paying attention to lab data such as potassium and renal function. The diuretics, which substituted for laxatives in fluid control, could be tapered off over 3 months without any withdrawal symptoms or a need of additional laxatives. Our experience of simple but successful treatment of chronic laxative abuse emphasizes importance of physical management and suggests that there are cases where the two different kinds of drugs, laxatives and diuretics, can practically be regarded as swappable in the treatment of laxative abuse. This presentation should contribute to accumulation of knowledge in how to treat chronic laxative abuse where no standardized method is established yet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in blood pressure regulation even in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD).
To understand the role of the sympathetic system, we examined the relationship between day/night ratios of both heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) as well as HR variability (HRV, SD) before and during an 8-week treatment with the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), olmesartan, in 45 patients with CKD.
The day/night HR ratio strongly correlated with the day/night MAP ratio before and during ARB treatment. The ratio of [day/night HR ratio] over [day/night MAP ratio] was increased as renal function deteriorated at baseline (r = -0.31, P = 0.04), and it was attenuated (1.10 ± 0.10 to 1.06 ± 0.10; P = 0.04) and became independent of renal function during ARB treatment (r = -0.04, P = 0.8). ARB increased both the day/night HR ratio (1.17 ± 0.09 to 1.21 ± 0.13; P = 0.04) and HRV (10.6 ± 2.9 to 11.7 ± 4.2; P = 0.04), which were lower when baseline renal function deteriorated.
The present study indicates that there exists a close correlation in circadian rhythms between HR and MAP in CKD. Synchronization between the two rhythms was progressively lost as renal function deteriorated, and ARB partly restored the synchronization. These findings suggest that the sympathetic nervous system is activated as renal function deteriorates, and ARB may suppress its activation.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
We have reported that the circadian rhythm of urinary potassium excretion (U(K)V) is determined by the rhythm of urinary sodium excretion (U(Na)V) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We also reported that treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) increased the U(Na)V during the daytime, and restored the non-dipper blood pressure (BP) rhythm into a dipper pattern. However, the circadian rhythm of U(K)V during ARB treatment has not been reported.
Materials and methods:
Circadian rhythms of U(Na)V and U(K)V were examined in 44 patients with CKD undergoing treatment with ARB.
Whole-day U(Na)V was not altered by ARB whereas whole-day U(K)V decreased. Even during the ARB treatment, the significant relationship persisted between the night/day ratios of U(Na)V and U(K)V (r=0.56, p<0.0001). Whole-day U(K)V/U(Na)V ratio (p=0.0007) and trans-tubular potassium concentration gradient (p=0.002) were attenuated but their night/day ratios remained unchanged. The change in the night/day U(K)V ratio correlated directly with the change in night/day U(Na)V ratio (F=20.4) rather than with the changes in aldosterone, BP or creatinine clearance.
The circadian rhythm of U(K)V was determined by the rhythm of UNaV even during ARB treatment. Changes in the circadian U(K)V rhythm were not determined by aldosterone but by U(Na)V.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) that the circadian rhythms of blood pressure (BP) and urinary sodium excretion were both impaired into non-dipper pattern as renal function deteriorated. However, the circadian rhythm of urinary potassium excretion has not been studied in relation to renal dysfunction.
BP and urinary excretion rates of sodium (UNaV) and potassium (UKV) were evaluated for daytime and nighttime to estimate their circadian rhythms in 83 subjects with CKD.
As renal function deteriorated, night/day ratios of UNaV and UKV were both increased. Night/day ratio of UKV was positively correlated with night/day ratio of UNaV (r = 0.60, p < 0.0001). Multiple regression analysis (R2 = 0.37, p < 0.0001) revealed that night/day ratio of UKV was determined independently by the night/day ratio of UNaV (r = -0.55, p < 0.0001), rather than renal function or night/day ratio of BP.
Circadian rhythm of natriuresis was regulated by renal function and night/day ratio of BP. On the other hand, the circadian rhythm of urinary potassium excretion was primarily determined by neither renal function nor BP, but was correlated with that of urinary sodium excretion.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Clinical nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is known that reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a crucial factor to limit the blood pressure lowering effect of antihypertensives. In the present study, we tested whether the effects of monotherapy with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) to lower proteinuria could be restricted by reduced GFR.
Thirty-five renal patients who had albuminuria more than 30 mg/day, but did not have diabetic nephropathy or nephrotic syndrome, were studied before and during eight weeks of monotherapy with ARB, olmesartan.
Blood pressure was lowered from 129 ± 18/79 ± 12 to 116 ± 18/72 ± 12 mmHg (p < 0.0001), while albuminuria was reduced from 614±630 to 343±472 mg/day (p < 0.0001). Albuminuria was inversely correlated with GFR both before and during treatment. Albuminuria reduction was enhanced as plasma renin activity (p = 0.047) and dose of olmesartan were increased (p = 0.04). Although the absolute reduction in proteinuria was not correlated with GFR (p = 0.56), the % reduction was significantly proportional with GFR (p = 0.027). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that 64% of proteinuria reduction could be explained by baseline levels of albuminuria, GFR and renin activity.
The reduction in proteinuria by olmesartan may be roughly predicted using baseline GFR and other parameters. These findings clarify that the effect of ARB on proteinuria reduction is restricted by reduced GFR.
Preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
We have previously shown regional differences in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within Japan, which is ethnically homogenous, suggesting that non-genetic factors may contribute to the differences. We examined regional distribution in the incidence of low birth weight (LBW), a surrogate for low nephron number, in our search for an explanation.
Each year, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan and the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy report the number of LBW babies and patients initiating maintenance dialysis in each prefecture of Japan, respectively. In this study, we calculated the annual incidences of LBW and ESRD in 11 regions of Japan over a 24-year period from 1984 to 2007.
There were distinct regional differences in the annual incidences of both LBW and ESRD (p < 0.0001). These regional distributions persisted despite consistent increases (p < 0.0001) in incidences of both LBW and ESRD during the study period. Compared with the reference group consisting of 3 regions with the lowest LBW incidence, the odds ratios for ESRD (95% confidence interval) of the 5 regions with intermediate LBW incidence and the 3 regions with the highest LBW incidence are 1.09 (1.05–1.14) and 1.29 (1.22–1.35), respectively. The annual incidence of LBW was positively correlated with annual incidence of ESRD in their regional distribution across 11 regions (r = 0.66, p = 0.03).
The present study, relating regional distribution between LBW and ESRD dynamics in a nationwide population of Japan, revealed that the marked regional differences in the incidence of ESRD within Japan could be explained by a similar regional distribution in the incidence of LBW.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown that as renal function deteriorates, the circadian blood pressure (BP) rhythm shifts to a nondipper pattern and the duration until nocturnal BP decline [dipping time (DT)] is prolonged. We investigated whether or not morning hypertension (BP 2 h after awakening >135/85 mmHg) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) was sustained type with a prolonged DT.
Twenty-four-hour BP was monitored in 104 patients with CKD. Fifty-one of 104 participants (group A) did not exhibit morning hypertension. The patients with morning hypertension (group B, n=53) were classified into three groups: group C (n=23), participants who exhibited morning hypertension but did not meet the criteria for the surge or sustained type; group D (n=29), the sustained type (with no night-time BP readings <120/70 mmHg); and group E (n=1), the surge type (systolic BP rises >25 mmHg after awakening).
The night/day BP ratio and DT were compared among groups A, C, and D because there was only one participant in group E. Night/day ratio of BP and DT were both significantly higher in group D compared with groups A and C. The prevalence of nondippers tended to be higher in group D compared with the other groups (A, 65%; C, 57%; D, 86%, P=0.09). Creatinine clearance was significantly lower in group D compared with groups A and C.
Sustained elevation of night-time BP until the early morning and high night/day ratio of BP may contribute to the high frequency of morning hypertension, which is generally the sustained rather than the surge type in CKD.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Blood pressure monitoring
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reported a remarkable regional difference within Japan in the incidence of end-stage renal disease. Regional differences were also well-known for salt intake, blood pressure (BP), and mortality from stroke, which remains one of the leading causes of death. Noting these regional differences, we examined mutual relationships among salt intake, BP, and stroke mortality in 12 regions of Japan. Data of salt intake, BP, and stroke mortality in 12 regions were collected from National Nutrition Survey (NNS-J), reanalysis of NNS-J, and Vital Statistics of National Population Dynamic Survey (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare), respectively. Significant regional differences were found in salt intake (P < .0001), mean arterial BP (P = .0001), and stroke mortality (P < .0001). Although annual changes in these parameters were also significant, their regional differences persisted. Salt intake had positive relationships with both mean arterial BP (r = 0.26, P = .0009) and stroke mortality (r = 0.26, P < .0001) across 12 regions, whereas mean arterial BP was not correlated with stroke mortality. Multiple regression analysis further identified salt intake as an independent factor to increase stroke mortality, but mean arterial BP was not a determinant. Compared with the four regions with lowest salt intake, odds ratios of stroke mortality adjusted by mean arterial BP were 1.04 (95% CI, 1.03-1.06) for the intermediate four regions and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.23-1.27) for the four regions with highest salt intake. These findings suggest that salt intake may have an adverse effect on stroke mortality independently of BP.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we found that an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) restored the circadian rhythm of the blood pressure (BP) from a nondipper to a dipper pattern, similar to that achieved with sodium intake restriction and diuretics (Fukuda M, Yamanaka T, Mizuno M, Motokawa M, Shirasawa Y, Miyagi S, Nishio T, Yoshida A, Kimura G. J Hypertens 26: 583-588, 2008). ARB enhanced natriuresis during the day, while BP was markedly lower during the night, resulting in the dipper pattern. In the present study, we examined whether the suppression of tubular sodium reabsorption, similar to the action of diuretics, was the mechanism by which ARB normalized the circadian BP rhythm. BP and glomerulotubular balance were compared in 41 patients with chronic kidney disease before and during ARB treatment with olmesartan once a day in the morning for 8 wk. ARB increased natriuresis (sodium excretion rate; U(Na)V) during the day (4.5 ± 2.2 to 5.5 ± 2.1 mmol/h, P = 0.002), while it had no effect during the night (4.3 ± 2.0 to 3.8 ± 1.6 mmol/h, P = 0.1). The night/day ratios of both BP and U(Na)V were decreased. The decrease in the night/day ratio of BP correlated with the increase in the daytime U(Na)V (r = 0.42, P = 0.006). Throughout the whole day, the glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.0006) and tubular sodium reabsorption (P = 0.0005) were both reduced significantly by ARB, although U(Na)V remained constant (107 ± 45 vs. 118 ± 36 mmol/day, P = 0.07). These findings indicate that the suppression of tubular sodium reabsorption, showing a resemblance to the action of diuretics, is the primary mechanism by which ARB can shift the circadian BP rhythm into a dipper pattern.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · AJP Renal Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously showed that there are marked geographic differences in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within Japan. In addition, the use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors was found to be inversely correlated with the increasing ESRD rate. It was recently demonstrated that the incidence of ESRD due to diabetic nephropathy is declining in both Europe and USA. Therefore, we investigated the increasing ESRD rate and its geographic difference in Japan.
Each year, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy reports the numbers of patients initiating maintenance dialysis therapy in each prefecture of Japan. We used old (1984-1991) and recent (2001-2008) data to compare the increasing ESRD rate, which was estimated from the slope of the regression line of the annual incidence corrected for population, between the two periods in 11 regions of Japan.
Increasing ESRD rate almost halved, from 11.1 ± 5.6 to 5.4 ± 0.7/million per year from the old to the recent period. Deceleration of the increasing ESRD rate from the old to the recent period was correlated with the incidence in the old period across 11 regions (r = 0.81, p < 0.003); i.e., the deceleration was greater in the regions where ESRD incidence had been higher. Whereas the increasing ESRD rate was significantly different among regions in the old period, this was not the case in the recent period, resulting in uniformity throughout Japan.
The increasing ESRD rate is slowing in Japan, and its geographic differences, previously observed, have disappeared.
No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have postulated that the diminished renal capacity to excrete sodium causes nocturnal blood pressure (BP) elevation, which enhances pressure natriuresis in compensation for impaired daytime natriuresis. If such a mechanism holds, high BP during sleep at night may continue until excess sodium is sufficiently excreted into urine. This study examined whether the duration, defined as "dipping time," until nocturnal mean arterial pressure began to fall to <90% of daytime average became longer as renal function deteriorated. Ambulatory BP measurements and urinary sodium excretion rates were evaluated for daytime and nighttime to estimate their circadian rhythms in 65 subjects with chronic kidney disease. Dipping time showed an inverse relationship with creatinine clearance (C(cr); rho=-0.61; P<0.0001) and positive relationships with night/day ratios of mean arterial pressure (rho=0.84; P<0.0001) and natriuresis (rho=0.61; P<0.0001), both of which were also inversely correlated with C(cr) (mean arterial pressure: r=-0.58, P<0.0001; natriuresis: r=-0.69, P<0.0001). When divided into tertiles by C(cr) (mL/min), hazard ratios of nocturnal BP dip adjusted for age, gender, and body mass index were 0.37 (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.79; P=0.01) for the second tertile (C(cr): 50 to 90) and 0.20 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.55; P=0.002) for the third tertile (C(cr): 5 to 41) compared with the first tertile (C(cr): 91 to 164). These findings demonstrate that patients with renal dysfunction require a longer duration until BP falls during the night. The prolonged duration until BP dip during sleep seems an essential component of the nondipper pattern of the circadian BP rhythm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown that as renal function deteriorated, night-time fall in both blood pressure and urinary sodium excretion were diminished. We have also reported that sodium intake restriction and diuretics both normalized circadian blood pressure rhythm from nondipper to dipper patterns. In this study, we investigated whether an angiotensin II receptor blocker, olmesartan, could restore night-time blood pressure fall.
Twenty patients with chronic kidney disease (13 men, seven women; mean age 44.8 +/- 18.1 years; BMI 22.9 +/- 3.5 kg/m2) were studied. At baseline and 8 weeks after the treatment with olmesartan medoxomil (10-40 mg/day), 24-h blood pressure monitoring and urinary sampling for both daytime (0600-2100 h) and night-time (2100-0600 h) were repeated to compare the circadian rhythms of blood pressure and urinary sodium excretion.
The 24-h mean arterial pressure was lowered by olmesartan, while urinary sodium excretion remained unchanged. On the other hand, daytime urinary sodium excretion was increased from 4.8 +/- 2.2 to 5.7 +/- 2.1 mmol/h, while night-time urinary sodium excretion tended to be reduced from 3.9 +/- 1.7 to 3.4 +/- 1.6 mmol/h. Night/day ratios of mean arterial pressure (0.98 +/- 0.1 to 0.91 +/- 0.08; P = 0.01) and urinary sodium excretion (0.93 +/- 0.5 to 0.68 +/- 0.4; P = 0.0006) were both decreased. Olmesartan enhanced night-time falls more in mean arterial pressure (r = 0.77; r2 = 0.59; P < 0.0001) and urinary sodium excretion (r = 0.59; r2 = 0.34; P = 0.007), especially in patients whose baseline night-time falls were more diminished.
These findings demonstrated that olmesartan could restore night-time blood pressure fall, as seen with diuretics and sodium restriction, possibly by enhancing daytime sodium excretion. Since nocturnal blood pressure is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events, olmesartan could relieve cardiorenal load through normalization of circadian blood pressure rhythm besides having powerful ability to block the renin-angiotensin system.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Journal of Hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 34-year-old woman with liver insufficiency due to glycogen storage disease III underwent a living spousal liver transplantation. Soon after the successful operation, moderate hypercalcemia along with hyperbilirubinemia emerged without clarified reasons. The hypercalcemia persisted for over a month despite calcitonin treatment and the serum calcium level surged to 13.2 mg/dl with albumin correction. Renal dysfunction was indicated by an acute increase in serum creatinine (approximately 0.8 to approximately 2.8 mg/ml), which was assumed to be hypercalcemia-induced and was effectively treated with bisphosphonate, pamidronate (30 mg, i.v.). Recent topics related to transplantation-associated hypercalcemia are discussed.
No preview · Article · Oct 2004 · Internal Medicine