[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myelin basic protein (MBP) isoforms in the myelin sheath are known to have distinct intracellular expression patterns, which
are profoundly related to functional specificity. Determining the differential localization of MBP isoforms is therefore important
for understanding their pathophysiological roles. In this study, we have developed a new method for phase separation of myelin.
The non-ionic detergent Triton X-114 is used to solubilize myelin sheath which then undergoes phase separation to yield four
fractions. The lipid raft-associated proteins and lipids in each fraction were analysed by immunoblotting and lipid analysis,
respectively. The present method gives two lipid raft-enriched fractions, one of them was found to contain only lipid raft-associated
galactocerebroside and cholesterol as the major lipids. The 21.5-kDa MBP isoforms (21.5 MBP), both unphosphorylated and phosphorylated,
were exclusively contained in this fraction. Phosphorylated 21.5 MBP (21.5 pMBP) has been shown to specifically disappear
from demyelinated loci. The present analytical method clearly indicated that disappearance of 21.5 pMBP corresponded to demyelination
and its reappearance corresponded to prevention of demyelination. Demyelination was also associated with aging and was prevented
by the myelin-protecting herbal medicine, Chinpi, a type of dried citrus peel.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association of sulfatide with specific proteins in oligodendrocytes was examined by co-immunoprecipitation with an anti-sulfatide antibody. Protein kinase activity was detected in precipitates with a monoclonal antibody to sulfatide (O4) from the rat primary immature oligodendrocytes. We conducted in vitro kinase assay of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins of 80, 59, 56, 53 and 40 kDa by gel electrophoresis. Of these proteins, the proteins of 59 kDa and 53/56 kDa were identified as the Src family tyrosine kinases Fyn and Lyn on the basis of their sequential immunoprecipitation with anti-Fyn and anti-Lyn antibodies, respectively. The 40 kDa protein was identified as the α subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein. These observations suggest that O4 immunoprecipitates sulfatide rafts including Fyn, Lyn and the α subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Glycoconjugate Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calmodulin-regulated spectrin-associated protein 1 (Camsap1) has been recognized as a new marker for astrocytic lineage cells and is expressed on mature astrocytes in the adult brain (Yamamoto et al.  J. Neurosci. Res. 87:503–513). In the present study, we found that newly born Camsap1-expressing cells exhibited regional heterogeneity in an early phase after stab injury of the mouse brain. In the surrounding area of the lesion site, Camsap1 was expressed on quiescent astrocytes. At 3 days after injury, Camsap1 immunoreactivity was upregulated on glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive (GFAP-ir) astrocytes. Some of these astrocytes incorporated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) together with re-expression of the embryonic cytoskeleton protein nestin. In the neighboring region of the lesion cavity, Camsap1 was expressed on GFAP-negative cells. At 3 days after injury, GFAP-ir astrocytes were absent around the lesion cavity. At this stage, NG2-ir cells immunopositive for Camsap1 and immunonegative for GFAP were distributed in border of the lesion cavity. By 10 days, Camsap1 immunoreactivity was exclusively detected on GFAP-ir reactive astrocytes devoid of NG2 immunoreactivity. BrdU pulse-chase labeling assay suggested the differentiation of Camsap1+/NG2+ cells into Camsap1+/GFAP+ astrocytes. In the subependymal zone of the lateral ventricle, Camsap1-ir cells increased after injury. Camsap1 immunoreactivity was distributed on ependymal and subependymal cells bearing various astrocyte markers, and BrdU incorporation was enhanced on such Camsap1-ir cells after injury. These results suggest that newly born reactive astrocytes are derived from heterogeneous Camsap1-expressing cells in the injured brain.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · The Journal of Comparative Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent research in neural development has highlighted the importance of markers to discriminate phenotypic alterations of neural cells at various developmental stages. We isolated a new monoclonal antibody, 4F2, which was shown to be specific for an oligodendrocyte lineage. In primary cultures of oligodendroglial and mixed neural cells, the 4F2 antibody labeled a large proportion of Sox2(+) , Sox10(+) , A2B5(+) , NG2(+) , Olig2(+) , O4(+) , and myelin basic protein (MBP)(+) cells but did not label any GFAP(+) or NeuN(+) cells. In immunohistochemisty of rat embryos, the 4F2 antibody labeled a portion of neuroepithelial cells of the neural tube at embryonic day 9. The 4F2-positive cells were located initially in the ventricular zone as Musashi1(+) Tuj1(-) populations and distributed throughout the striatum; thereafter, they populated the whole brain and spinal cord. These cells showed ramified processes during embryonal development. The 4F2 antigen was associated with all four isoforms of MBP in coimmunoprecipitation experiments using brain homogenates or cell lysates of cultured oligodendrocytes. Immunoscreening of a brain cDNA library identified the antigen as DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 54 (Ddx54), a member of the DEAD box family of RNA helicases involved in RNA metabolism, transcription, and translation. Cotransfection of the Ddx54 gene with MBP isoform genes increased the nuclear localization of the 21.5-kDa MBP isoform, which has been reported to function as a nuclear signal transduction molecule. These data indicate that Ddx54 might be not only a useful marker for investigating the ontogeny of oligodendrocytes but also an important factor in oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Neuroscience Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The disruption of myelin causes severe neurological diseases. An understanding of the mechanism of myelination and remyelination is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies for demyelination diseases. Our previous findings indicated that the FcRγ/Fyn cascade is a potential therapeutic target for remyelination caused by the Chinese/Japanese traditional herbal (Kampo) medicine ninjin'youeito (Ninjin-youei-to, NYT), which is a hot-water extract made from 12 medicinal herbs. To identify which constituents of NYT are involved in the reversal of demyelination and to examine the potential therapeutic effect, we tested several of the chemical constituents of NYT. Here, we report that Chinpi, a constituent of NYT, upregulates the FcRγ/Fyn signaling cascade resulting in a potentially therapeutic effect against age-induced demyelination. In addition, we observed that phosphorylated (activated) FcRγ/Fyn upregulated the expression of the 21.5 kDa isoform of myelin basic protein, inducing rapid morphological differentiation, when oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) were cultured in the presence of hesperidin and/or narirutin (the major active constituents of Chinpi). These results suggest that hesperidin and narirutin participate in the FcRγ/Fyn signaling pathway in OPCs causing these cells to differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes.
Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypothermia is believed to suppress cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis/necrosis and phase-specific/nonspecific cell cycle arrest, which are, directly or indirectly, related to a reduced energy supply. Intriguingly, hypothermia is known to improve neurological recovery of animals and humans exposed to focal brain hypoxic-ischemic injury. The underlying mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of hypothermia is unclear, although the prevention of neural cell apoptosis is thought to play a role. Herein we demonstrate that in vitro cell culture of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) under conditions of mild hypothermia (31.5°C) results in an increase in cell number relative to cells cultured under normothermic conditions (37°C). Cell cycle analysis, immunoblotting of cyclins, TUNEL assay, and immunocytochemistry of OPC differentiation markers suggest that hypothermia shifts the balance between proliferation and apoptosis/differentiation toward proliferation. A combination of transcriptome analysis, pharmacological intervention, and immunoaffinity-based assays suggests a possible involvement of the Gα13-Rho GTPase Cdc42-ERK1/2 signaling cascade and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), which associate or dissociate with Gα13 protein at 37°C and 31.5°C, respectively. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed the presence of VDAC1 in the plasma membrane of OPCs. Furthermore, the exogenous addition of impermeable VDAC1 inhibitors enhanced proliferation of OPCs at 37°C. These results may contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism of hypothermic neuroprotection as well as the possible novel role of plasmalemmal VDAC1.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of Neuroscience Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caspases are essential in multicellular organisms for inducing cell death during normal development and in the immune system. However, caspases can also trigger the degenerative process under certain conditions such as pathophysiological conditions and aging. Here, we identified Semaphorin 7A (Sema7A) as a novel substrate for caspase-9 that can be used to monitor caspase-9 activity in mice, and found nonapoptotic caspase-9 activation in the aged olfactory bulb (OB). Immunostaining of the OB for the caspase-9-cleaved form of Sema7A revealed abundant caspase-9-activated cells in 2-year-old (aged) but not in 2-month-old (young) mice. In fact, various regions of the aged brain, including the OB, exhibited an increased level of caspase-9 activity. However, the number of dying cells in the aged OB was, intriguingly, much lower (<20%) than in the OB of young mice. Furthermore, we found that the lower number dying cells in the aged OB was accompanied by a decreased expression of procaspase-3. These results suggest a survival strategy for aged OB neurons, which can no longer regenerate, in which the central apoptotic machinery downstream of caspase-9 is inactivated.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies of adult neurogenesis of the mammalian central nervous system have suggested unexpected plasticity and complexity of neural cell ontogenesis. Redefinition and reconstitution of cell classification and lineage relationships, especially between glial and neural precursors, are an urgent and crucial concern. In the present study, we describe a new monoclonal antibody, A3B10, which was produced by immunizing mice with the membrane fraction prepared from astrocyte-enriched primary neural cell cultures. Immunohistochemistry of brain sections, including brains from glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-deficient mice and primary mixed neural cell cultures, as well as immunoblot analysis and immunoelectron microscopy, have revealed that 1) A3B10 recognizes a majority of cells in ependyma in neonatal and adult rats, 2) A3B10 stains almost all GFAP(+) cells and some S100beta(+) cells in the corpus callosum, 3) A3B10 specifically stains astrocytes in vitro in primary cultures of rat embryonic cerebral hemispheres, 4) A3B10 equally stains ependymal cells of wild-type and GFAP-deficient mice, and 5) A3B10 antigen might construct intermediate filament bundles with GFAP and/or vimentin. These data suggested that the antibody labels a wide array of astorcytic-lineage cells including astrocytes, astrocyte precursors, and neural stem cells. Screening a cDNA library derived from rat embryonic brain has revealed that the antibody recognizes calmodulin-regulated spectrin-associated protein 1 (Camsap1). Thus this antibody may provide not only a new marker to identify astrocyte-lineage cells but also a new target molecule to elucidate the ontogeny, development, and pathophysiological functions of astrocyte-lineage cells.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of Neuroscience Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disruption of myelin causes severe neurological diseases. An understanding of the mechanisms that control myelination and remyelination is needed to develop therapeutic strategies for demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Our previous finding indicating the critical involvement of the gamma chain of immunogloblin Fc receptors (FcRgamma) and Fyn signaling in oligodendrocyte differentiaion and myelination demands a fundamental revision of the strategies used for MS therapy, because antigen-antibody complexes in MS patients may induce the direct dysregulation of myelination process as well as the inflammatory destruction of myelin sheath. Here we show that the FcRgamma/Fyn signaling cascade is critically involved in cuprizone-induced demyelination/remyelination, with no lymphocytic response. The levels of phosphorylated myelin basic proteins (p-MBPs), especially the 21.5-kDa isoform, but not the levels of total MBPs, decreased markedly during demyelination induced by aging, cuprizone treatment, and double knockout of FcRgamma/Fyn genes. We also showed that the recovery from demyelination in cuprizone-treated and aged mice is achieved after administration of the herbal medicine Ninjin'yoeito, an effective therapy targeting the FcRgamma/Fyn-Rho (Rac1)-MAPK (P38 MAPK)-p-MBPs signaling cascade. These results suggest that the restoration of FcRgamma/Fyn signaling represents a new approach for the treatment of demyelinating diseases.
No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Journal of Neuroscience Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We propose an approach to identify activated transcription factors from gene expression data using a statistical test. Applying the method, we can obtain a synoptic map of transcription factor activities which helps us to easily grasp the system's behavior. As a real data analysis, we use a case-control experiment data of mice treated by a drug of Kampo medicine remedying degraded myelin sheath of nerves in central nervous system. Kampo medicine is Japanese traditional herbal medicine. Since the drug is not a single chemical compound but extracts of multiple medicinal herb, the effector sites are possibly multiple. Thus it is hard to understand the action mechanism and the system's behavior by investigating only few highly expressed individual genes. Our method gives summary for the system's behavior with various functional annotations, e.g. TFAs and gene ontology, and thus offer clues to understand it in more holistic manner.
Preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Genome informatics. International Conference on Genome Informatics