[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anthraquinone compounds are one of the abundant polyphenols found in fruits, vegetables, and herbs. However, the
anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanisms of anthraquinones have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the activity of anthraquinones using acute inflammatory and nociceptive experimental conditions. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenecarboxylic acid, AQCA), one of the major anthraquinones identified from Brazilian taheebo, ameliorated various inflammatory and algesic symptoms in EtOH/HCl- and acetylsalicylic acid- (ASA-) induced gastritis, arachidonic acid-induced edema, and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing without displaying toxic profiles in body and organ weight, gastric irritation, or serum parameters. In addition, AQCA suppressed the expression of inflammatory genes such as cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2 in stomach tissues and lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW264.7 cells. According to reporter gene assay and immunoblotting analyses, AQCA inhibited activation of the nuclear factor- (NF-)
B and activator protein- (AP-) 1 pathways by suppression of upstream signaling involving interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK1), p38, Src, and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Our data strongly suggest that anthraquinones such as AQCA act as potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive components
, thus contributing to the immune regulatory role of fruits and herbs.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Mediators of Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Korean traditional medicine, HangAmDan (HAD), was developed in 1996 for use as an antitumor agent, and has since been modified to HAD‑B (an altered form of HAD), in order to potentiate its therapeutic effects. In the present study, the effect of HAD‑B on the proliferation and invasion of NIH:OVCAR‑3 and SKOV‑3 human ovarian cancer cell lines was investigated. In addition, the expression of major signal transduction molecules and changes in the proteome in these cells were measured. HAD‑B treatment effectively induced a reduction in the levels of cell proliferation in serum‑free conditioned media. However, unaltered levels of PARP and caspase‑3 indicated that HAD‑B does not reduce proliferation by inducing apoptotic cell death. Fluorescence‑activated cell sorting analysis revealed no significant change in apoptosis following HAD-B treatment. Invasion assay results indicated a reduced rate of invasion following HAD‑B treatment. HAD‑B also influenced the expression of major signal transduction molecules; the phosphorylation of mTOR and AKT was reduced, while that of ERK was increased. Alterations in the proteomes of the two cell lines were investigated following HAD‑B treatment. Among the 9 proteins with differential expression, heat‑shock protein β‑1 (HSP27) was downregulated in NIH:OVCAR‑3 cells treated with HAD‑B. The reduced expression of HSP27 was associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) downregulation in these cells. In conclusion, the results of the current proteome assessment suggest that HAD‑B has the potential to suppress the proliferation and invasion of human ovarian cancer cells. HAD‑B treatment of NIH:OVCAR‑3 cells suppressed HSP27 expression and was also associated with Her2 downregulation.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Molecular Medicine Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) has been associated with glioma stemness, but the direct molecular mechanism linking the two is largely unknown. Here, we show that EGFRvIII induces the expression and secretion of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) via activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), thereby promoting self-renewal and tumor progression of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Mechanistically, PEDF sustained GSC self-renewal by Notch1 cleavage, and the generated intracellular domain of Notch1 (NICD) induced the expression of Sox2 through interaction with its promoter region. Furthermore, a subpopulation with high levels of PEDF was capable of infiltration along corpus callosum. Inhibition of PEDF diminished GSC self-renewal and increased survival of orthotopic tumor-bearing mice. Together, these data indicate the novel role of PEDF as a key regulator of GSC and suggest clinical implications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At present, a radical shift in cancer treatment is occurring in terms of predictive, preventive and personalised medicine (PPPM). Individual patients will participate in more aspects of their health care. During the development of PPPM, many rapid, specific, and sensitive new methods for earlier detection of cancer will result in more efficient management of the patient, and hence a better quality of life. Coordination of the various activities among different healthcare professionals in primary, secondary, and tertiary care requires well-defined competencies, implementation of training and educational programs, sharing of data, and harmonized guidelines.
In this position paper the current knowledge to understand cancer pre-disposition and risk factors, the cellular biology of cancer, predictive markers and treatment outcome, the improvement in technologies to screen, diagnose and provision of better drug development solutions, are discussed in the context of a better implementation of personalised medicine. Recognition of the major risk factors for cancer initiation is the key for preventive strategies . Of interest, cancer predisposing syndromes in particular the monogenic subtypes that lead to cancer progression are well defined and one should focus on implementation strategies to identify individuals at risk to allow preventive measures and early screening/diagnosis. Implementation of such measures are disturbed by improper use of the data, with breach of data protection as one of the risks to be heavily controlled. Population screening requires in depth cost-benefit analysis to justify health care costs and the parameters screened should provide information that allow an actionable deliverable, for better health care provision.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · EPMA Journal, The
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
To perform chemoradiotherapy (CRT) effectively, it is clinically beneficial to identify predictors of tumor response after CRT. This study examined the association between plasma fibrinogen level before preoperative CRT and tumor response in advanced rectal cancer.
This was a retrospective study of 947 patients who received preoperative CRT followed by curative surgery for primary rectal cancer. We analyzed clinical factors that could be associated with pathologic tumor response in terms of downstaging (ypStage 0-I), primary tumor regression (ypT0-1), and complete response (ypT0N0).
Downstaging was observed in 366 patients (38.6%), primary tumor regression in 187 patients (19.7%) and complete response in 138 patients (14.6%). Multivariate analysis found that pre-CRT carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, fibrinogen level, hemoglobin level, clinical T and N classification, distance from anal verge, and histologic grade were significant predictive factors for downstaging; CEA level, fibrinogen level, and N classification predicted primary tumor regression; CEA level, and fibrinogen level were predictive for complete response.
This study demonstrated that fibrinogen level was a significant predictor of pathologic tumor response after preoperative CRT.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Ginsenoside Rp1 (G-Rp1) is a novel ginsenoside derived from ginsenoside Rk1. This compound was reported to have anti-cancer, anti-platelet, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we examined the molecular target of G-Rp1’s anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities.
To examine the effects of G-Rp1, cell proliferation assays, propidium iodine staining, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting analysis, and a knockdown strategy were employed.
G-Rp1 dose-dependently suppressed the proliferation of colorectal cancer LoVo cells and also increased the apoptosis of these cells. Interestingly, G-Rp1 remarkably up-regulated the protein level of apolipoprotein (Apo)-A1 in LoVo, SNU-407, DLD-1, SNU-638, AGS, KPL-4, and SK-BR-3 cells. The knockdown of Apo-A1 by its siRNA increased the levels of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (c-PARP) and p53 and diminished the proliferation of LoVo cells.
These results suggest that G-Rp1 may act as an anti-cancer agent by strongly inhibiting cell proliferation and enhancing cell apoptosis through the up-regulation of Apo-A1.
Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of ginseng research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim
Current fecal screening tools for colorectal cancer (CRC), such as fecal occult blood tests (FOBT), are limited by their low sensitivity. Calgranulin B (CALB) was previously reported as a candidate fecal marker for CRC. This study investigated whether a combination of the FOBT and fecal CALB has increased sensitivity and specificity for a diagnosis of CRC.
Materials and Methods
Patients with CRC (n = 175), and healthy individuals (controls; n = 151) were enrolled into the development (81 cases and 51 controls) and validation (94 cases and 100 controls) sets. Stool samples were collected before bowel preparation. CALB levels were determined by western blotting. FOBT and fecal CALB results were used to develop a predictive model based on logistic regression analysis. The benefit of adding CALB to a model with only FOBT was evaluated as an increased area under the receiver operating curve (AUC), partial AUC, and reclassification improvement (RI) in cases and controls, and net reclassification improvement (NRI).
Mean CALB level was significantly higher in CRC patients than in controls (P<0.001). CALB was not associated with tumor stage or cancer site, but positivity on the FOBT was significantly higher in advanced than in earlier tumor stages. At a specificity of 90%, the cross-validated AUC and sensitivity were 89.81% and 82.72%, respectively, in the development set, and 92.74% and 79.79%, respectively, in the validation set. The incremental benefit of adding CALB to the model, as shown by the increase in AUC, had a p-value of 0.0499. RI in cases and controls and NRI all revealed that adding CALB significantly improved the prediction model.
A predictive model using a combination of FOBT and CALB may have greater sensitivity and specificity and AUC for predicting CRC than models using a single marker.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Patients show variable responses to chemoradiotherapy (CRT), which is generally administered before surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). The aim of this study was to identify molecular markers predictive of CRT responses by analysis of low-mass ions (LMIs) in serum of LARC patients.
Materials and Methods
LMIs (< 1,000 m/z) in serum obtained before CRT from 73 LARC (cT3-4) patients were profiled using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. LMIs with higher weighting factors in discriminating CRT responses were selected using principal components analysis and discriminant analysis. Selected LMIs were identified using the Human Metabolome Database. The concentrations of identified LMIs were determined by colorimetric enzyme assay, and compared according to post-CRT pathological stage (ypStage) or Dworak’s tumor regression grade (TRG).
The nine highest-ranking LMIs were selected. Among them, two LMIs with 137.08 and 169.04 m/z were identified as hypoxanthine (HX) and phosphoenolpyruvic acid (PEP), respectively. Higher HX concentration was observed in patients with ypStage 0-1 compared to ypStage 2-4 (p=0.034) or ypStage 3-4 (p=0.030); a similar difference was observed between TRG 4-3 and TRG 1 (p=0.035). HX > 16.0 μM showed significant association with ypStage 0-1 or TRG 4-3 than ypStage 3-4 (p=0.009) or TRG 1 (p=0.024), respectively. In contrast, a significantly lower concentration of PEP was observed in TRG 4-3 compared with TRG 2-1 (p=0.012).
Findings of this study demonstrated that serum concentrations of HX and PEP, identified using LMI profiling, may be useful for predicting the CRT response of LARC patients before treatment.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
The purpose of this study was the development of 68Ga-labeled neolactosylated human serum albumin (LSA) for imaging asialoglycoprotein receptors in the liver by using positron emission tomography (PET), which would enable functional imaging with higher resolution than single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).
LSA was synthesized by conjugating α-lactose to human serum albumin (HSA) by reductive amination. LSA was conjugated with 2-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (SCN-NOTA) and the resultant NOTA-LSA was labeled with 68Ga at room temperature. The labeling efficiency of NOTA-LSA was evaluated as a function of pH and time. The stability of 68Ga-NOTA-LSA in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and human serum at 37 °C was determined. Biodistribution and PET studies of 68Ga-NOTA-LSA were performed in mice following tail vein injection of radiotracer.
The numbers of lactose and NOTA units per HSA were determined to be 31.7 and 4.6, respectively. When the reaction was done at room temperature, the labeling efficiency of NOTA-LSA was higher than 99% at pH 4.8 and 96% at pH 6. More than 95% of the detected radioactivity was associated with the intact molecule for at least the 4 h following synthesis when incubated in PBS or human serum at 37 °C. Biodistribution and animal PET studies showed specific retention of 68Ga-NOTA-LSA in liver following intravenous administration.
68Ga-NOTA-LSA was successfully developed for imaging asialoglycoprotein receptors in the liver with a simple labeling method, high labeling efficiency, and high stability.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Nuclear Medicine and Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancer (OVC) is one of the most difficult types of cancer to detect in the early stages of its development. There have been numerous attempts to identify a biomarker for OVC; however, an accurate diagnostic marker has yet to be identified. The present study profiled OVC candidate metabolites from the serum to identify potential diagnostic markers for OVC. Data regarding low-mass ions (LMIs) in the serum were obtained using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight analysis. MALDI-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of each serum sample was repeated six times in order to reduce the likelihood of experimental errors. The intensity of the LMI mass peaks were normalized using total peak area sums. The normalized intensity of LMI was used in principal component analysis-discriminant analysis to differentiate between 142 patients with OVC and 100 healthy control participants. Liquid chromatography-MS/MS was used to identify the selected LMIs. Extracted ion chromatogram analysis was used to measure the relative quantity of candidate metabolites from the LMI mass peak areas. The concentration of common metabolites in the serum was determined using ELISA. The top 20 LMI mass peaks with a weigh factor over 0.05 were selected to distinguish between the patients with OVC and the controls. Among the LMIs, two with 184.05 and 496.30 m/z were identified as L-homocysteic acid (HCA) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) (16:0), respectively. The relative quantity of LPC (16:0) was found to be decreased in the OVC serum (P=0.05), while the quantity of HCA was observed to be significantly higher in the OVC serum (P<0.001). HCA was not detected in 59 cases out of the 63 control participants; however, the majority of the cases of OVC (16/25) exhibited significantly higher quantities of HCA. When the cutoff was 10 nmol/ml, the sensitivity and specificity of HCA were 64.0 and 96.9%, respectively. The level of LPC (16:0) was significantly correlated with tumor grade (P=0.045). HCA and LPC (16:0) showed correlation with stage and tumor histology, but the limited sample size resulted in a lack of statistical significance. The findings of the present study suggest that HCA may have potential to be a biomarker for OVC. The stratified screening including LPC (16:0) did not significantly increase the power for OVC screening; however, the present study showed that profiling LMIs in serum may be useful for identifying candidate metabolites for OVC screening.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA-binding proteins and is widely distributed in tissues including the liver, lung, spleen, and kidney. Like c-Jun and c-Fos, ATF2 responds to stress-related stimuli and may thereby influence cell proliferation, inflammation, apoptosis, oncogenesis, neurological development and function, and skeletal remodeling. Recent studies clarify the regulatory role of ATF2 in inflammation and describe potential inhibitors of this protein. In this paper, we summarize the properties and functions of ATF2 and explore potential applications of ATF2 inhibitors as tools for research and for the development of immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory drugs.
Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Mediators of Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overexpression of amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation causes abnormal hyperphosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Hyperphosphorylated isoforms of tau are major components of neurofibrillary tangles, which are histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major tau protein phosphatase, consists of a structural A subunit, catalytic C subunit, and a variety of regulatory B subunits. The B subunits have been reported to modulate function of the PP2A holoenzyme by regulating substrate binding, enzyme activity, and subcellular localization. In the current study, we characterized regulatory B subunit-specific regulation of tau protein phosphorylation. We showed that the PP2A B subunit PPP2R2A mediated dephosphorylation of tau protein at Ser-199, Ser-202/Thr-205, Thr-231, Ser-262, and Ser-422. Down-regulation of PPP2R5D expression decreased tau phosphorylation at Ser-202/Thr-205, Thr-231, and Ser-422, which indicates activation of the tau kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) by PP2A with PPP2R5D subunit. The level of activating phosphorylation of the GSK3β kinase Akt at Thr-308 and Ser-473 were both increased by PPP2R5D knockdown. We also characterized B subunit-specific phosphorylation sites in tau using mass spectrometric analysis. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the phosphorylation status of the tau protein may be affected by PP2A, depending on the specific B subunits. These studies further our understanding of the function of various B subunits in mediating site-specific regulation of tau protein phosphorylation.
Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a natural host defensive process that is largely regulated by macrophages during the innate immune response. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are proline-directed serine and threonine protein kinases that regulate many physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. p38 MAPKs are key MAPKs involved in the production of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). p38 MAPK signaling plays an essential role in regulating cellular processes, especially inflammation. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of p38 signaling in macrophage-mediated inflammation. In addition, we discuss the potential of using inhibitors targeting p38 expression in macrophages to treat inflammatory diseases.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Mediators of Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in patients with colorectal cancer prevents effective treatment and leads to unnecessary and burdensome chemotherapy. Therefore, prediction of 5-FU resistance is imperative.
To identify the proteins linked to 5-FU resistance, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomics was performed using the human colon cancer cell line SNU-C4R with induced 5-FU resistance. Proteins showing altered expression in SNU-C4R were identified by matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight analysis, and their roles in susceptibility to 5-FU or radiation were evaluated in various cell lines by transfection of specific siRNA or creation of overexpression constructs. Changes in cellular signaling and expression of mitochondrial apoptotic factors were investigated by Western Blot analysis. A mitochondrial membrane potential probe (JC-1 dye) and a flow cytometry system were employed to determine the mitochondrial membrane potential. Finally, protein levels were determined by Western Blot analysis in tissues from 122 patients with rectal cancer to clarify whether each identified protein is a useful predictor of a chemoradiation response.
We identified mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (mPEPCK) as a candidate predictor of 5-FU resistance. PEPCK was downregulated in SNU-C4R compared with its parent cell line SNU-C4. Overexpression of mPEPCK did not significantly alter the susceptibility to either 5-FU or radiation. Suppression of mPEPCK led to a decrease in both the cellular level of phosphoenolpyruvate and the susceptibility to 5-FU and radiation. Furthermore, the cellular levels of phosphoenolpyruvate (an end product of PEPCK and a substrate of pyruvate kinase), phosphorylated AKT, and phosphorylated 4EBP1 were decreased significantly secondary to the mPEPCK suppression in SNU-C4. However, mPEPCK siRNA transfection induced changes in neither the mitochondrial membrane potential nor the expression levels of mitochondrial apoptotic factors such as Bax, Bcl-2, and Bad. Downregulation of total PEPCK was observed in tissues from patients with rectal cancer who displayed poor responses to preoperative 5-FU-based radiation therapy.
Our overall results demonstrate that mPEPCK is a useful predictor of a response to chemoradiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aims:
The aim of this study was to investigate whether profiling metabolic compounds in human colon cancer cells with induced 5-florouracil resistance enables identification of predictive biomarkers for 5-florouracil resistance.
5-florouracil resistant and parental cells were extracted using methanol/chloroform solution, and analyzed by MALDI-TOF. Principal components analysis and discriminant analysis was performed to select low-mass ions with strong discriminating power between 5-florouracil resistant and parental cells. The correlation between the intensities of low-mass ions and intrinsic 5-florouracil resistance in 11 colon cancer cells was analyzed using the Spearman rank coefficient.
Eleven low-mass ions had strong discrimi-nating power between 5-florouracil-resistant and parental cells. Of these, the intensity of a low-mass ion with 256.29 m/z was negatively correlated with intrinsic 5-florouracil resistance in 11 colon cancer cells (r = -0.6545, P = 0.0338). By searching the H+ adduct with 0.05 m/z tolerance in the Human Metabolome Database, a low-mass ion of 256.29 m/z was identified as palmitic amide. Interestingly, extracellular treatment with palmitic amide reduced 5-florouracil resistance and invasiveness in 5-florouracil-resistant cells.
Palmitic amide showed potential not only as a predictor of 5-florouracil resistance, but also for reduction of 5-florouracil resistance in colon cancer cells.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Hepato-gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous derivatives of kojic acid have been synthesised to expand its immunopharmacological uses. Kojic acid is known to have anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-melanogenesis effects. We found that (5-hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-pyran-2-yl)methyl 6-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxylate (MHNC) strongly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) in an initial screening experiment. In this study, we explored the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of MHNC and its inhibitory mechanisms using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 cells and HCl/EtOH-treated ICR mice. MHNC dose-dependently diminished the secretion of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG)E2 in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. This compound also suppressed the upregulation of mRNA levels for the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 genes. Additionally, the transcriptional activation of these genes was inhibited by MHNC through the suppression of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB subunits (p65 and p50), as determined by a luciferase reporter assay. Interestingly, MHNC treatment was found to suppress a series of upstream signalling cascades consisting of IκBα, AKT, PDK1, Src, and Syk for NF-κB activation. Furthermore, a direct enzyme assay with purified Src and Syk and luciferase assays using Src and Syk overexpression indicated that these enzymes were directly inhibited by MHNC. Finally, MHNC (20mg/kg) prevented inflammatory symptoms of the stomach in mice treated with HCl/EtOH by reducing phospho-IκBα levels. Taken together, our data suggest that MHNC may negatively modulate in vitro and in vivo inflammatory responses via the direct suppression of Syk/Src and NF-κB.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · International immunopharmacology