Deborah M Fine

University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, United States

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Publications (27)53.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Doxorubicin is a common antineoplastic agent with dose-dependent cardiotoxic adverse effects, and pre-existing myocardial dysfunction is a contraindication to its use.Objectives To systematically define the hemodynamic and biochemical alterations in dogs undergoing chemotherapy for newly diagnosed lymphoma and assess the reversibility of these alterations with fluid administration.AnimalsTwenty-one client-owned dogs with newly diagnosed lymphoma were evaluated 1 week after induction of chemotherapy. Underlying degenerative valve disease was exclusionary. Eighteen healthy age- and weight-matched dogs were used as controls.Methods Physical examination, blood pressure by Doppler, echocardiography, and biochemical evaluation (routine serum biochemistry, plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentrations, plasma and urine osmolalities, and urine electrolyte concentrations) were measured in dogs with lymphoma and compared to controls. Dogs with lymphoma received crystalloids IV at 6 mL/kg/h for 24 hours. All variables were reassessed at 4 and 24 hours. Deuterium oxide dilution and bromide dilution were used to determine total body water and extracellular water space, respectively.ResultsBaseline echocardiograms showed significantly smaller chamber dimensions in dogs with lymphoma compared to controls. These changes were reversed by fluid administration. Systolic blood pressure and urine sodium concentration were significantly increased, and bromide dilution space, PCV, urine specific gravity, and urine potassium concentration were significantly decreased compared to controls.Conclusion and Clinical ImportanceEchocardiographic and biochemical abnormalities in dogs with lymphoma appear consistent with volume depletion, and may be the result of systemic hypertension and subsequent pressure natriuresis.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background Subaortic stenosis (SAS) is one of the most common congenital cardiac defects in dogs. Severe SAS frequently is treated with a beta adrenergic receptor blocker (beta blocker), but this approach largely is empirical. Objective To determine the influence of beta blocker treatment on survival time in dogs with severe SAS. Methods Retrospective review of medical records of dogs diagnosed with severe, uncomplicated SAS (pressure gradient [PG] ≥80 mmHg) between 1999 and 2011. ResultsFifty dogs met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-seven dogs were treated with a beta blocker and 23 received no treatment. Median age at diagnosis was significantly greater in the untreated group (1.2 versus 0.6 years, respectively; P = .03). Median PG at diagnosis did not differ between the treated and untreated groups (127 versus 121 mmHg, respectively; P = .2). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify the influence of PG at diagnosis, age at diagnosis, and beta blocker treatment on survival. In the all-cause multivariate mortality analysis, only age at diagnosis (P = .02) and PG at diagnosis (P = .03) affected survival time. In the cardiac mortality analysis, only PG influenced survival time (P = .03). Treatment with a beta blocker did not influence survival time in either the all-cause (P = .93) or cardiac-cause (P = .97) mortality analyses. Conclusions Beta blocker treatment did not influence survival in dogs with severe SAS in our study, and a higher PG at diagnosis was associated with increased risk of death.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
  • Nina Tobler · Deborah M Fine · Nat T Messer · Philip J Johnson

    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • Mark W Harmon · Deborah M Fine

    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of mutations in PTPN11 (encoding the protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2) in families with congenital heart disease has facilitated mechanistic studies of various cardiovascular defects. However, the roles of normal and mutant Shp2 in the developing heart are still poorly understood. Furthermore, it remains unclear how Shp2 loss-of-function (LOF) mutations cause LEOPARD Syndrome (also termed Noonan Syndrome with multiple lentigines), which is characterized by congenital heart defects such as pulmonary valve stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In normal hearts, Shp2 controls cardiomyocyte size by regulating signaling through protein kinase B (Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). We hypothesized that Shp2 LOF mutations dysregulate this pathway, resulting in HCM. For our studies, we chose the Shp2 mutation Q510E, a dominant-negative LOF mutation associated with severe early onset HCM. Newborn mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of Q510E-Shp2 starting before birth displayed increased cardiomyocyte sizes, heart-to-body weight ratios, interventricular septum thickness, and cardiomyocyte disarray. In 3-mo-old hearts, interstitial fibrosis was detected. Echocardiographically, ventricular walls were thickened and contractile function was depressed. In ventricular tissue samples, signaling through Akt/mTOR was hyperactivated, indicating that the presence of Q510E-Shp2 led to upregulation of this pathway. Importantly, rapamycin treatment started shortly after birth rescued the Q510E-Shp2-induced phenotype in vivo. If rapamycin was started at 6 wk of age, HCM was also ameliorated. We also generated a second mouse model in which cardiomyocyte-specific Q510E-Shp2 overexpression started after birth. In contrast to the first model, these mice did not develop HCM. In summary, our studies establish a role for mTOR signaling in HCM caused by Q510E-Shp2. Q510E-Shp2 overexpression in the cardiomyocyte population alone was sufficient to induce the phenotype. Furthermore, the pathomechanism was triggered pre- but not postnatally. However, postnatal rapamycin treatment could still reverse already established HCM, which may have important therapeutic implications.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: The absence of dystrophin in the heart leads to Duchenne cardiomyopathy. Dystrophin-deficient dogs represent a critical model to translate novel therapies developed in mice to humans. Unfortunately, little is known about cardiophysiology changes in these dogs. We performed prospective electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examinations at 3, 6 and 12 months of age in four normal and three affected dogs obtained from the same litter. Affected dogs showed growth retardation and serum creatine kinase elevation. Necropsy confirmed cardiac dystrophin deficiency and histopathology. Q/R ratio elevation and diastolic left ventricular (LV) internal diameter reduction were the most consistent findings in affected dogs at all ages. At 6 and 12 months, dystrophic dogs also showed significant reduction of PR intervals, LV end diastolic/systolic volumes and systolic LV internal diameters. Epicardial and endocardial slope times were significantly reduced in affected dogs at 12 months. These results establish the baseline for evaluating experimental therapies in the future.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Neuromuscular Disorders
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    Stacey B Leach · Deborah Fine

    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011
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    ABSTRACT: An 8-year-old, castrated male Basset Hound was evaluated for congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Echocardiography and angiography demonstrated a left-to-right shunting aorticopulmonary fistula. Coil embolization of the fistula was initially successful in reducing the volume of blood flow through the vascular network. The dog was medically managed for congestive heart failure until it was euthanized 6 months after initial presentation. The physiology and treatment of centrally located arteriovenous fistulae are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
  • Deborah M Fine · Anthony H Tobias · John D Bonagura
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    ABSTRACT: Two dogs were diagnosed with iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis (1 definitive, 1 presumptive). Both showed physical examination findings of agitation, tachypnea, and tachycardia. Sinus tachycardia with supraventricular ectopy was diagnosed in one case, and syncope and atrial flutter was present in the other. Both dogs had concurrent cardiac disease that might have contributed to the severity of their clinical signs. Excessive thyroid hormone supplementation in humans causes supraventricular arrhythmias including sinus tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, and atrial flutter. Clinical signs and rhythm abnormalities resolved in both dogs with resolution of the thyrotoxicosis.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: TEA domain transcription factor-1 (TEAD-1) is essential for proper heart development and is implicated in cardiac specific gene expression and the hypertrophic response of primary cardiomyocytes to hormonal and mechanical stimuli, and its activity increases in the pressure-overloaded hypertrophied rat heart. To investigate whether TEAD-1 is an in vivo modulator of cardiac specific gene expression and hypertrophy, we developed transgenic mice expressing hemagglutinin-tagged TEAD-1 under the control of the muscle creatine kinase promoter. We show that a sustained increase in TEAD-1 protein leads to an age-dependent dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed decreases in cardiac output, stroke volume, ejection fraction, and fractional shortening. Isolated TEAD-1 hearts revealed decreased left ventricular power output that correlated with increased betaMyHC protein. Histological analysis showed altered alignment of cardiomyocytes, septal wall thickening, and fibrosis, although electrocardiography displayed a left axis shift of mean electrical axis. Transcripts representing most members of the fetal heart gene program remained elevated from fetal to adult life. Western blot analyses revealed decreases in p-phospholamban, SERCA2a, p-CX43, p-GSK-3alpha/beta, nuclear beta-catenin, GATA4, NFATc3/c4, and increased NCX1, nuclear DYKR1A, and Pur alpha/beta protein. TEAD-1 mice did not display cardiac hypertrophy. TEAD-1 mice do not tolerate stress as they die over a 4-day period after surgical induction of pressure overload. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that increased TEAD-1 can induce characteristics of cardiac remodeling associated with cardiomyopathy and heart failure.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Hydration status is important to the cardiovascular system because of its effects on preload. Decreased preload can alter echocardiographic measurements of systolic and diastolic function, potentially confounding interpretation of results. Mild fluid deficits are associated with measurable echocardiographic changes that are validated by physical and biochemical markers of decreased intravascular volume. Twenty-five healthy staff/student-owned dogs with no evidence of cardiac or renal disease. Prospective, interventional laboratory study. Dogs were randomly assigned to water deprivation (WD) alone for 8 hours (n = 13) or to furosemide treatment (FTx, 2.5mg/kg IV) followed by WD for 8 hours (n = 12). Echocardiograms, biochemical sampling, and physical parameters were measured at baseline, and after 4 and 8 hours. Both protocols induced fluid deficit as indicated by significant (P < .00001) decreases in weight at 4 hours (WD, 1.1%; FTx, 3.7%) and 8 hours (WD, 2.7%; FTx, 4.5%). Furosemide significantly decreased left ventricular end-diastolic volume (54.3 +/- 19.3-42.1 +/- 17.3 mL, P < .0001), cardiac index (4.2 +/- 1.1-2.9 +/- 0.9 L/min/M2, P < .0001), and mitral valve E wave velocity (0.79 +/- 0.2-0.66 +/- 0.2 m/s, P = .0004). These changes were accompanied by significant increases in blood urea nitrogen concentration (13.8 +/- 2.6-14.8 +/- 2.7 mg/dL, P = .04), vasopressin concentration (1.4 +/- 1.2-3.3 +/- 1.9 pg/mL, P = .045), and PCV (49.8 +/- 4.5-53.2 +/- 6.5%, P = .006). Effects of water deprivation alone were similar, but less pronounced. Mild fluid deficits have measurable hemodynamic effects in dogs. Hydration status should be considered when evaluating cardiac function by echocardiogram.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Duchenne cardiomyopathy is a heart disease resulting from the loss of cardiac dystrophin. It significantly reduces the life quality and shortens lifespan in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) and X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy patients and carriers. Gene replacement therapy with adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) and gene repair therapy with exon skipping hold great promise for restoring dystrophin expression and ameliorating cardiomyopathy. The last few years have witnessed tremendous advances towards Duchenne cardiomyopathy gene therapy. The infrastructure (animal models and functional assays) is now available for comprehensive preclinical studies. Essential parameters, such as the therapeutic threshold, have also been defined. Together with the recent developments in novel AAV vectors and modified antisense oligonucleotides, clinical application of Duchenne cardiomyopathy gene therapy may become a reality in the near future.
    No preview · Chapter · Nov 2009
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    ABSTRACT: Pimobendan is a positive inotrope and vasodilator that may be useful in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension (PHT) secondary to degenerative mitral valve disease. Pimobendan decreases the severity of PHT measured echocardiographically and improves quality-of-life scores. Changes in N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations will reflect improvement in severity of PHT. Ten client-owned dogs with peak tricuspid regurgitant flow velocity (TRFV) > or =3.5 m/s. Prospective short-term, double-blinded, crossover design, with a long-term, open-label component. Short term, dogs were randomly allocated to receive either placebo or pimobendan (0.18-0.3 mg/kg PO q12 h) for 14 days. After a 1-week washout, they received the alternative treatment for 14 days, followed by pimobendan open-label for 8 weeks. Short-term comparison: peak TRFV decreased in all dogs on pimobendan compared with placebo from a median of 4.40 (range, 3.2-5.6) to 3.75 (range, 2.4-4.8) m/s (P < .0001). NT-proBNP concentration decreased after treatment with pimobendan from a median of 2,143 (range, 450-3,981) to 1,329 (range, 123-2,411) pmol/L (P= .0009). All dogs improved their quality-of-life score (P= .006). In the long-term comparisons, peak TRFV decreased in all dogs from a median of 4.28 (range, 3.5-5.7) to 3.52 (range, 2.4-5.0) m/s (P < .0001). No significant changes in NT-proBNP or quality-of-life scores were detected. Pimobendan lowered severity of measurable PHT, improved quality-of-life scores, and decreased NT-proBNP concentrations short-term. Long term, only the reduction in TRFV was maintained.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) affects both skeletal and cardiac muscle. It is currently unclear whether the strategies developed for skeletal muscle can ameliorate cardiomyopathy. Synthetic mini-/micro-dystrophin genes have yielded impressive skeletal muscle protection in animal models. The 6-kb DeltaH2-R19 minigene is particularly promising because it completely restores skeletal muscle force to wild-type levels. Here, we examined whether expressing this minigene in the heart, but not skeletal muscle, could normalize cardiac function in the mdx model of DMD cardiomyopathy. Transgenic mdx mice were generated to express the DeltaH2-R19 minigene under the control of the alpha-myosin heavy-chain promoter. Heart structure and function were examined in adult and very old mice. The DeltaH2-R19 minigene enhanced cardiomyocyte sarcolemmal strength and prevented myocardial fibrosis. It also restored the dobutamine response and enhanced treadmill performance. Surprisingly, heart-restricted DeltaH2-R19 minigene expression did not completely normalize electrocardiogram and hemodynamic abnormalities. Overall, systolic function and ejection fraction were restored to normal levels but stroke volume and cardiac output remained suboptimal. Our results demonstrate that the skeletal muscle-proven DeltaH2-R19 minigene can correct cardiac histopathology but cannot fully normalize heart function. Novel strategies must be developed to completely restore heart function in DMD.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Molecular Therapy
  • Deborah M Fine · Amy E DeClue · Carol R Reinero
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate assessment of circulating amino terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration as a means to discriminate between congestive heart failure and primary pulmonary disease in dogs. Prospective case series. 46 dogs with signs of respiratory distress or coughing. All dogs underwent physical and thoracic radiographic examinations. Dogs with evidence of heart disease (eg, murmur, arrhythmia, or large cardiac silhouette detected by radiography) also underwent echocardiography. Dogs with no evidence of heart disease or failure were included if they underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (with cytologic examination and bacterial culture of the lavage fluid). Blood samples for NT-proBNP assay were obtained within 12 hours of the diagnosis of heart failure or prior to bronchoalveolar lavage in dogs with primary pulmonary disease. Circulating concentrations of NT-proBNP were compared between groups and correlated with radiographic and echocardiographic measures of cardiac size. Congestive heart failure and primary pulmonary disease were diagnosed in 25 and 21 dogs, respectively. Dogs with congestive heart failure had significantly higher median serum or plasma NT-proBNP concentration (2,554 pmol/L; interquartile [25% to 75%] range, 1,651.5 to 3,475.5 pmol/L) than dogs with primary pulmonary disease (357 pmol/L; interquartile range, 192.5 to 565.5 pmol/L). Radiographic vertebral heart score and echocardiographic left atrial-to-aortic diameter ratio were not correlated with NT-proBNP concentration. Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (measured echocardiographically) and NT-proBNP concentration were weakly correlated. Serum or plasma NT-proBNP concentration assessment may be useful for discrimination of congestive heart failure from primary pulmonary disease in dogs with respiratory distress or cough.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin-II (Ang-II) contributes to cardiac remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction. In contrast, exercise may have beneficial effects on left ventricular structure and function. We investigated the effects of low-intensity exercise training (ET) on in vivo cardiac function in hypertensive TG (mREN-2)27 rats (Ren-2) which develop left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction. Ren-2 rats and Sprague Dawley (SD) controls (4-5 weeks) began treadmill exercise every day for 5-6 weeks. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography. Cardiac output and stroke volume were increased by ET in both 8-wk-old SD and Ren-2. Slope of mitral deceleration time, a non-invasive measure of diastolic function, was lower in the Ren-2 rats, but not changed by ET. LV collagen deposition, as assessed by hydroxyproline assay, was not affected by rat strain or ET at 10-11 weeks of age. Left ventricular B-type natriuretic peptide mRNA levels were higher in the Ren-2 rats (100%), but not affected by ET. Both alpha (~14.5 fold) and beta (~2.5 fold) myosin heavy chain mRNA were higher in the LV of Ren-2 rats (p < 0.05), but were not changed by ET. Low-intensity exercise training in Ren-2 rats, a model of Ang-II-mediated hypertension, maintains cardiac index and stroke volume in the presence of impaired diastolic function at 8 wks of age.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
  • Deborah M Fine · Anthony H Tobias
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    ABSTRACT: Infection is an infrequent but major complication of cardiovascular device implantation. Treatment of patients with cardiovascular implant infection with antibiotic therapy and removal of the device is superior to antibiotic therapy alone. Medical records were reviewed for dogs that received a cardiovascular device from June 2001 to August 2006 at the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center and the University of Missouri Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital. Six of 63 (9.5%) pacemaker systems and 2 of 47 (4.3%) patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) occlusion devices became infected. Median time from procedure to diagnosis of implant infection was 62 days (range, 5 to 419). Median age of dogs with pacemaker infections was 8.5 years (range, 6.2 to 11.9). Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus spp were the most commonly cultured isolates. Four dogs were treated with antibiotics and pacemaker replacement. All 4 recovered completely from their infections. One was alive at the end of the study period, and 3 had been euthanized. However, the reasons for euthanasia were unrelated to pacemaker infection. In contrast, both dogs with infected pacemakers that were treated with antibiotics alone were euthanized because of complications attributable to infection. Infection of PDA occlusion devices occurred in puppies < 16 weeks of age, and Pasteurella spp were isolated from both. One was successfully treated with a combination of antibiotics and surgery, and the other was euthanized without treatment. Antibiotic therapy alone is associated with chronic complications in patients with cardiovascular implants and is unlikely to effect a cure.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
  • Anne C Wood · Deborah M Fine · Alan W Spier · George E Eyster
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    ABSTRACT: CASE DESCRIPTION-A 12-week-old female English Springer Spaniel was evaluated for lethargy, vomiting, and pyrexia 1 week after treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) via coil occlusion. CLINICAL FINDINGS-Test results were consistent with septicemia, and the assumption was made that the PDA occlusion coils were infected. Radiography revealed partial migration of the coil mass into the pulmonary artery and signs of congestive heart failure. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME-After successful treatment of the septicemia and heart failure, surgical removal of the coils and resection of the PDA were undertaken. Although the coil that embolized to the pulmonary vasculature was left in place, the dog's clinical signs resolved. CLINICAL RELEVANCE-This case highlights the fact that as PDA coil occlusion devices become more widely used in dogs, practitioners must be prepared to treat implant infections aggressively, with both medical and surgical interventions if necessary.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2006 · Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: A 13-year-old llama was examined because of lethargy, inappetence, and syncope. Physical examination revealed muffled heart and lung sounds and peripheral edema. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included lymphopenia, hyperglycemia, prerenal azotemia, mild hyponatremia, mild hypoalbuminemia, and high gamma-glutamyltransferase and creatine kinase activities. On ultrasonography, the liver appeared hyperechoic and ascites and pleural effusion were seen. Echocardiography revealed severe dilatation of the right atrium, right ventricle, and pulmonary artery; severe tricuspid regurgitation; and high right ventricular systolic pressure consistent with right-sided heart failure secondary to pulmonary hypertension. Treatment with furosemide was attempted, but because of failing health, the llama was euthanized 4 weeks later. Macronodular cirrhosis of the liver, glomerulonephritis, and intimal fibrosis and medial hypertrophy of muscular pulmonary arteries were seen on histologic examination of postmortem specimens. Findings in this case were similar to those reported for human patients with portopulmonary hypertension secondary to hepatic cirrhosis. Pulmonary hypertension secondary to hepatic disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of right-sided heart failure.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2006 · Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Publication Stats

403 Citations
53.70 Total Impact Points


  • 2007-2014
    • University of Missouri
      • • College of Veterinary Medicine
      • • Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery
      Columbia, Missouri, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 2002-2003
    • Saint Catherine University
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States