[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
A postmarketing observational study was initiated to evaluate quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) effectiveness in children aged 2-17 years in the United States.
Children and adolescents aged 2-17 years seeking outpatient care for febrile acute respiratory illness <5 days duration were enrolled at 4 geographically diverse sites during the 2013-2014 influenza season. Nasal swabs were tested for influenza using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Vaccination status was documented from medical records or immunization registries. Children who received ≥1 dose of influenza vaccine ≥14 days before study visit were considered vaccinated. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated as 100×(1-adjusted odds ratio), where the odds of interest are the odds of vaccine exposure among influenza cases and test-negative controls.
In total, 1033 children and adolescents were included in the analysis. Influenza was detected in 14% (145/1033) of all children, with 74% (108/145) of the influenza cases due to A/H1N1pdm09 strains, 21% (31) to influenza B, and 4% (6) to influenza H3N2. LAIV did not show significant effectiveness against A/H1N1pdm09 (VE 13% [95% CI: -55 to 51]) but was effective against B/Yamagata strains (82% [95% CI: 12-96]). Inactivated influenza vaccine was effective against A/H1N1pdm09 (74% [95% CI: 50-86]) and B/Yamagata (70% [95% CI: 18-89]).
LAIV provided significant protection against B/Yamagata influenza but not against A/H1N1pdm09 in children aged 2-17 years in 2013-2014, resulting in a proposed change of the 2015-2016 formulation with a new and more heat-stable A/H1N1pdm09 LAIV strain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Otitis media is a prominent disease among children. Previous literature indicates that otitis media is a polymicrobial disease, with Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alloiococcus otitidis and Moraxella catarrhalis being the most commonly associated bacterial pathogens. Recent literature suggests that introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines has had an effect on the etiology of otitis media. Using a multiplex PCR procedure, we sought to investigate the presence of the aforementioned bacterial pathogens in middle ear fluid collected from children undergoing routine tympanostomy tube placement at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center during the period between January 2011 and March 2014. In purulent effusions, one or more bacterial organisms were detected in ~90% of samples. Most often the presence of H. influenzae alone was detected in purulent effusions (32%; 10 of 31). In non-purulent effusions, the most prevalent organism detected was A. otitidis (26%; 63 of 245). Half of the non-purulent effusions had none of these otopathogens detected. In purulent and non-purulent effusions, the overall presence of S. pneumoniae was lower (19%; 6 of 31, and 4%; 9 of 245, respectively) than that of the other pathogens being identified. The ratio of the percentage of each otopathogen identified in purulent vs. non-purulent effusions was >1 for the classic otopathogens but not for A. otitidis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
This study was performed to determine predictors of clinical influenza diagnosis among patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza.
Prospective, laboratory-confirmed surveillance for influenza was conducted among patients of all ages who were hospitalized or presented to the emergency department with fever and respiratory symptoms during 2009-2013. We evaluated all enrolled persons who had influenza confirmed by viral culture and/or polymerase chain reaction and received any discharge diagnosis. The primary outcome, clinical influenza diagnosis, was defined as (1) a discharge diagnosis of influenza, (2) a prescription of neuraminidase inhibitor, or (3) a rapid test positive for influenza virus. Bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression modeling were performed.
Influenza was diagnosed for 29% of 504 enrolled patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza and for 56% of 236 patients with high-risk conditions. Overall, clinical influenza diagnosis was predicted by race/ethnicity, insurance status, year, being hospitalized, having high-risk conditions, and receiving no diagnosis of bacterial infection. Being diagnosed with a bacterial infection reduced the odds of receiving an influenza diagnosis by >3-fold for all patients and for patients with high-risk conditions.
Many influenza virus-positive patients, including those with high-risk conditions, do not receive a clinical diagnosis of influenza. The pattern of clinical diagnoses among influenza virus-positive patients suggests preferential consideration of bacterial diseases as a diagnosis.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mathematical modeling of influenza epidemic is important for analyzing the main cause of the epidemic and finding effective interventions towards it. The epidemic is a dynamic process. In this process, daily infections are caused by people's contacts, and the frequency of contacts can be mainly influenced by their cognition to the disease. The cognition is in turn influenced by daily illness attack rate, climate, and other environment factors. Few existing methods considered the dynamic process in their models. Therefore, their prediction results can hardly be explained by the mechanisms of epidemic spreading. In this paper, we developed a heterogeneous graph modeling approach (HGM) to describe the dynamic process of influenza virus transmission by taking advantage of our unique clinical data. We built social network of studied region and embedded an Agent-Based Model (ABM) in the HGM to describe the dynamic change of an epidemic. Our simulations have a good agreement with clinical data. Parameter sensitivity analysis showed that temperature influences the dynamic of epidemic significantly and system behavior analysis showed social network degree is a critical factor determining the size of an epidemic. Finally, multiple scenarios for vaccination and school closure strategies were simulated and their performance was analyzed.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A detailed understanding of influenza movement in communities during yearly epidemics is needed to inform improved influenza control programs. We sought to determine the relative timing of influenza presentation and symptom onset by age group and influenza strain. Prospective, laboratory-confirmed surveillance was performed over three moderate influenza seasons in emergency departments and inpatient settings of both medical centers in Winston-Salem, NC. Influenza disease presented first in school age children through community epidemics of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B, and first in persons 5-49 years old for influenza A(H3N2). This finding indicates that influenza prevention in persons 5-49 years of age may be particularly important in influenza epidemic control.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The North Carolina Immunization Registry (NCIR) has been available since 2004. We sought to measure its utilization among practices that provide primary care for children who are enrolled in a prospective influenza surveillance study.
This study included children aged 0.5-17 years who presented with fever or acute respiratory symptoms to an emergency department or inpatient setting in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, from September 1, 2009, through May 19, 2010. Study team members verified influenza and pneumococcal immunization status by requesting records from each child's primary care practice and by independently reviewing the NCIR. We assessed agreement of nonregistry immunization medical records with NCIR data using the kappa statistic.
Fifty-six practices confirmed the immunization status of 292 study-enrolled children. For most children (238/292, 82%), practices verified the child's immunizations by providing a copy of the NCIR record. For 54 children whose practices verified their immunizations by providing practice records alone, agreement with the NCIR by the kappa statistic was 0.6-0.7 for seasonal and monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccines and 0.8-0.9 for pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines. A total of 221 (98%) of 226 enrolled children younger than 6 years of age had 2 or more immunizations documented in the NCIR.
NCIR usage may vary in other regions of North Carolina.
More than 95% of children younger than 6 years of age had 2 or more immunizations documented in the NCIR; thus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2010 goal for immunization information systems was met in this population. We found substantial agreement between practice records and the NCIR for influenza and pneumococcal immunizations in children.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · North Carolina medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective was to describe patterns of rapid influenza test ordering, diagnosis of influenza, and antiviral prescribing by the treating physician for children and adults presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with fever and acute respiratory symptoms in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, over two influenza seasons.
The authors prospectively enrolled patients presenting to the ED with fever and acute respiratory symptoms for two influenza seasons: H1N1 pandemic of September 2009 through mid-May 2010 and November 2010 through April 2011. Enrolled patients had nose or and throat swabs obtained and tested for influenza by viral culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Demographic information and medical history were obtained by patient or guardian report. Testing, treatment, and discharge diagnosis from the ED visit, as well as medical history and insurance status, were ascertained from chart review.
Among 2,293 eligible patients approached, 1,657 (72%) were enrolled, of whom 38% were younger than 18 years, 47% were 18 to 49 years, and 15% were 50 years of age and older. Overall, 14% had culture- or PCR-confirmed influenza. The odds of 1) rapid influenza test ordering, 2) a physician diagnosis of influenza, and 3) prescribing antiviral treatment during the ED visit were fourfold higher among patients with than without culture- or PCR-confirmed influenza. The odds of rapid influenza test ordering were threefold lower in 2009/2010 than 2010/2011, whereas the odds of physician diagnosis of influenza and antiviral prescriptions were 2- and 3.5-fold higher, respectively.
In 2009/2010 compared to 2010/2011, the odds of rapid influenza test ordering were lower, whereas the odds of influenza-specific discharge diagnoses and antiviral prescriptions were higher among patients presenting to the ED with culture/PCR-confirmed influenza. These results demonstrated a gap between clinical practice and recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of influenza from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Academic Emergency Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current trauma resuscitation protocols from the American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma, recommend intravascular volume expansion to treat shock after major trauma, assuming that hemorrhage is present. However, this assumption may not be correct. The purpose of this study was to identify the proportion of children with severe shock after trauma presenting with isolated head injury versus hemorrhagic injury.
A retrospective review of all pediatric trauma patients (aged 0-15 years) was conducted over a 5-year period. Severe shock was defined as the presence of both an elevated blood lactate level and low blood pressure for age. Traumatic injuries were classified as hemorrhagic injuries, head injuries, combined hemorrhagic and head injuries, or other injuries, by analyzing International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnostic codes.
A total of 31 (5%) of 680 pediatric trauma patients presented with severe shock. Among these 31 pediatric trauma patients, 9 (29%) had isolated head injury. Isolated head injury among children with shock was most frequently observed among children younger than 5 years (50%), and a decreased trend was noted with increasing age (23% for children 5-11 years and 0% for children 12-15 years [P = 0.03, Cochran-Armitage exact trend test]).
Isolated head injury was observed in 29% of children 0 to 15 years of age with severe shock after trauma and in 50% of children younger than 5 years. Head injury is an important cause of severe shock in pediatric trauma, particularly among young children.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Pediatric emergency care
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a leading cause of hospitalization among infants. However, estimates of the RSV hospitalization burden have varied, and precision has been limited by the use of age strata grouped in blocks of 6 to ≥12 months.METHODS:We analyzed data from a 5-year, prospective, population-based surveillance for young children who were hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed (reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) RSV acute respiratory illness (ARI) during October through March 2000-2005. The total population at risk was stratified by month of age by birth certificate information to yield hospitalization rates.RESULTS:There were 559 (26%) RSV-infected children among the 2149 enrolled children hospitalized with ARI (85% of all eligible children with ARI). The average RSV hospitalization rate was 5.2 per 1000 children <24 months old. The highest age-specific rate was in infants 1 month old (25.9 per 1000 children). Infants ≤2 months of age, who comprised 44% of RSV-hospitalized children, had a hospitalization rate of 17.9 per 1000 children. Most children (79%) were previously healthy. Very preterm infants (<30 weeks' gestation) accounted for only 3% of RSV cases but had RSV hospitalization rates 3 times that of term infants.CONCLUSIONS:Young infants, especially those who were 1 month old, were at greatest risk of RSV hospitalization. Four-fifths of RSV-hospitalized infants were previously healthy. To substantially reduce the burden of RSV hospitalizations, effective general preventive strategies will be required for all young infants, not just those with risk factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few US studies have assessed racial disparities in viral respiratory hospitalizations among children. This study enrolled black and white children under 5 years of age who were hospitalized for acute respiratory illness (ARI) in 3 US counties during October-May 2002-2009. Population-based rates of hospitalization were calculated by race for ARI and laboratory-confirmed influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), using US Census denominators. Relative rates of hospitalization between racial groups were estimated. Of 1,415 hospitalized black children and 1,824 hospitalized white children with ARI enrolled in the study, 108 (8%) black children and 111 (6%) white children had influenza and 230 (19%) black children and 441 (29%) white children had RSV. Hospitalization rates were higher among black children than among white children for ARI (relative rate (RR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6, 1.8) and influenza (RR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.6, 2.9). For RSV, rates were similar among black and white children under age 12 months but higher for black children aged 12 months or more (for ages 12-23 months, RR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.5; for ages 24-59 months, RR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3, 3.6). Black children versus white children were significantly more likely to have public insurance or no insurance (85% vs. 43%) and a history of asthma/wheezing (28% vs. 18%) but not more severe illness. The observed racial disparities require further study.
Preview · Article · Feb 2013 · American journal of epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To characterize the health care burden of influenza from 2004 through 2009, years when influenza vaccine recommendations were expanded to all children aged ≥6 months.
Population-based surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza was performed among children aged <5 years presenting with fever and/or acute respiratory illness to inpatient and outpatient settings during 5 influenza seasons in 3 US counties. Enrolled children had nasal/throat swabs tested for influenza by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and their medical records reviewed. Rates of influenza hospitalizations per 1000 population and proportions of outpatients (emergency department and clinic) with influenza were computed.
The study population comprised 2970, 2698, and 2920 children from inpatient, emergency department, and clinic settings, respectively. The single-season influenza hospitalization rates were 0.4 to 1.0 per 1000 children aged <5 years and highest for infants <6 months. The proportion of outpatient children with influenza ranged from 10% to 25% annually. Among children hospitalized with influenza, 58% had physician-ordered influenza testing, 35% had discharge diagnoses of influenza, and 2% received antiviral medication. Among outpatients with influenza, 7% were tested for influenza, 7% were diagnosed with influenza, and <1% had antiviral treatment. Throughout the 5 study seasons, <45% of influenza-negative children ≥6 months were fully vaccinated against influenza.
Despite expanded vaccination recommendations, many children are insufficiently vaccinated, and substantial influenza burden remains. Antiviral use was low. Future studies need to evaluate trends in use of vaccine and antiviral agents and their impact on disease burden and identify strategies to prevent influenza in young infants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the limits of detection of 3 rapid influenza diagnostic tests-BD Veritor(TM) System for Flu A+B, Binax NOW® Influenza A+B, and QuickVue® Influenza-for influenza strains circulating in 2010-2012. Limits of detection varied by influenza strain, with Veritor(TM) Flu A+B test showing the lowest limit of detection for all strains.
Preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The authors sought to describe the 2009-2010 seasonal influenza vaccine coverage of college students. Participants: A total of 4,090 college students from 8 North Carolina universities participated in a confidential, Web-based survey in October-November 2009. Methods: Associations between self-reported 2009-2010 seasonal influenza vaccination and demographic characteristics, campus activities, parental education, and e-mail usage were assessed by bivariate analyses and by a mixed-effects model adjusting for clustering by university. Results: Overall, 20% of students (range 14%-30% by university) reported receiving 2009-2010 seasonal influenza vaccine. Being a freshman, attending a private university, having a college-educated parent, and participating in academic clubs/honor societies predicted receipt of influenza vaccine in the mixed-effects model. Conclusions: The self-reported 2009-2010 influenza vaccine coverage was one-quarter of the 2020 Healthy People goal (80%) for healthy persons 18 to 64 years of age. College campuses have the opportunity to enhance influenza vaccine coverage among its diverse student populations.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of American College Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because previous studies have indicated that otitis media may be a polymicrobial disease, we prospectively analyzed middle ear effusions of children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement with multiplex polymerase chain reaction for four otopathogens.
Middle ear effusions from 207 children undergoing routine tympanostomy tube placement were collected and were classified by the surgeon as acute otitis media (AOM) for purulent effusions and as otitis media with effusion (OME) for non-purulent effusions. DNA was isolated from these samples and analyzed with multiplex polymerase chain reaction for Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alloiococcus otitidis, and Moraxella catarrhalis.
119 (57%) of 207 patients were PCR positive for at least one of these four organisms. 36 (30%) of the positive samples indicated the presence of more than one bacterial species. Patient samples were further separated into 2 groups based on clinical presentation at the time of surgery. Samples were categorized as acute otitis media (AOM) if pus was observed behind the tympanic membrane. If no pus was present, samples were categorized as otitis media with effusion (OME). Bacteria were identified in most of the children with AOM (87%) and half the children with OME (51%, p < 0.001). A single bacterial organism was detected in middle ear effusions from children with AOM more often than those with OME (74% versus 33%, p < 0.001). Haemophilus influenzae was the predominant single organism and caused 58% of all AOM in this study. Alloiococcus otitidis and Moraxella catarrhalis were more frequently identified in middle ear effusions than Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alloiococcus otitidis, and Moraxella catarrhalis were identified in the middle ear effusions of some patients with otitis media. Overall, we found AOM is predominantly a single organism infection and most commonly from Haemophilus influenzae. In contrast, OME infections had a more equal distribution of single organisms, polymicrobial entities, and non-bacterial agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We estimated the potential impact of parental Tdap immunization before delivery, at delivery and at the 2-week newborn visit on U.S. infant pertussis hospitalizations. We used published data for pertussis hospitalization rates among U.S. infants aged 0-4 months, the Tdap vaccine efficacy in adults, and the proportion of infants with pertussis <6 months of age in which either parent was the source (16-40% from mothers and 16-20% from fathers). Immunizing parents before pregnancy or ≥ 2 weeks prior to delivery should reduce pertussis hospitalizations among infants 0-4 months by 2694-9314 if both parents are vaccinated, and by 1347-6909 if only mothers are vaccinated. Greater reductions in pertussis hospitalizations would be achieved if parents are immunized ≥ 2 weeks prior to delivery than after delivery or the 2-week newborn visit. Although immunizing parents prior to pregnancy or delivery is best, immunizing parents in the postpartum period should provide protection to that newborn and to infants of subsequent pregnancies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have documented direct medical costs of influenza-related illness in young children, however little is known about the out-of-pocket and indirect costs (e.g., missed work time) incurred by caregivers of children with medically attended influenza.
To determine the indirect, out-of-pocket (OOP), and direct medical costs of laboratory-confirmed medically attended influenza illness among young children.
Using a population-based surveillance network, we evaluated a representative group of children aged <5 years with laboratory-confirmed, medically attended influenza during the 2003-2004 season. Children hospitalized or seen in emergency department (ED) or outpatient settings in surveillance counties with laboratory-confirmed influenza were identified and data were collected from medical records, accounting databases, and follow-up interviews with caregivers. Outcome measures included work time missed, OOP expenses (e.g., over-the-counter medicines, travel expenses), and direct medical costs. Costs were estimated (in 2009 US Dollars) and comparisons were made among children with and without high risk conditions for influenza-related complications.
Data were obtained from 67 inpatients, 121 ED patients and 92 outpatients with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Caregivers of hospitalized children missed an average of 73 work hours (estimated cost $1456); caregivers of children seen in the ED and outpatient clinics missed 19 ($383) and 11 work hours ($222), respectively. Average OOP expenses were $178, $125 and $52 for inpatients, ED-patients and outpatients, respectively. OOP and indirect costs were similar between those with and without high risk conditions (p>0.10). Medical costs totaled $3990 for inpatients and $730 for ED-patients.
Out-of-pocket and indirect costs of laboratory-confirmed and medically attended influenza in young children are substantial and support the benefits of vaccination.