Publications (30)147.7 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A general and enantioselective synthesis of 2-substituted 2-phenylpyrrolidines and -piperidines, an important class of pharmaceutically relevant compounds that contain a quaternary stereocenter, has been developed. The approach involves lithiation-substitution of enantioenriched N-Boc-2-phenylpyrrolidine or -piperidine (prepared by asymmetric Negishi arylation or catalytic asymmetric reduction, respectively). The combined use of synthetic experiments and in situ IR spectroscopic monitoring allowed optimum lithiation conditions to be identified: n-BuLi in THF at -50 °C for 5-30 min. Monitoring of the lithiation using in situ IR spectroscopy indicated that the rotation of the tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc) group is slower in a 2-lithiated pyrrolidine than a 2-lithiated piperidine; low yields for the lithiation-substitution of N-Boc-2-phenylpyrrolidine at -78 °C can be ascribed to this slow rotation. For N-Boc-2-phenylpyrrolidine and -piperidine, the barriers to rotation of the Boc group were determined using density functional theory calculations and variable-temperature (1)H NMR spectroscopy. For the pyrrolidine, the half-life (t(1/2)) for rotation of the Boc group was found to be ∼10 h at -78 °C and ∼3.5 min at -50 °C. In contrast, for the piperidine, t(1/2) was determined to be ∼4 s at -78 °C.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A comprehensive study of the enantioselective Pd-catalyzed α-arylation of N-Boc pyrrolidine has been carried out. The protocol involves deprotonation of N-Boc pyrrolidine using s-BuLi/(-)-sparteine in TBME or Et(2)O at -78 °C, transmetalation with ZnCl(2) and Negishi coupling using Pd(OAc)(2), t-Bu(3)P-HBF(4) and the aryl bromide. This paper reports several new features including in situ React IR spectroscopic monitoring of the process; use of (-)-sparteine and the (+)-sparteine surrogate to access products with opposite configuration; development of a catalytic asymmetric lithiation-Negishi coupling reaction; extension to a wide range of heteroaromatic bromides; total synthesis of (R)-crispine A, (S)-nicotine and (S)-SIB-1508Y via short synthetic routes; and examples of α-vinylation of N-Boc pyrrolidine using vinyl bromides exemplified by the total synthesis of naturally occurring (+)-maackiamine (thus establishing its configuration as (R)). In this way, the full scope and limitations of the methodology are delineated.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hNK-1 antagonist candidate 3 is synthetically one of most challenging antagonist candidates at Merck, having six chiral centers. The ether bond was formed via π-allyl palladium chemistry with the zinc alkoxide of the chiral alcohol and chiral 2-cyclopenten-1-ol, prepared via enzymatic reduction of the corresponding ketone, to set two chiral centers. 4-Fluorophenyl group was introduced to the cyclopentene ring via 1,4-addition in a stereospecific manner. The δ-lactam having the quaternary chiral amine function was embedded onto the cyclopentane ring using Seebach’s chiral oxazolidinone. In this article, scalable synthesis of 3 is described in a chronological order.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A range of achiral bispidines have been synthesized and evaluated as the stoichiometric ligand in the two-ligand catalytic asymmetric deprotonation of N-Boc pyrrolidine.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A convergent and enantioselective route to the hNK-1 receptor antagonist (1) is described, which sets all six stereogenic centers with high diastereoselectivity and delivers 1 in only 11 steps and 23% overall yield. The process was enabled by the development of the enantioselective enzymatic reduction of 3-functionalized cyclopentenones and stereospecific Pd-catalyzed etherification coupling of fragments 6 and 7.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A diamine-free protocol for the s-BuLi-mediated lithiation-trapping of N-Boc heterocycles has been developed. In the optimized procedure, lithiation is accomplished using s-BuLi in THF at -30 °C for only 5 or 10 min. Subsequent electrophilic trapping or transmetalation-Negishi coupling delivered a range of functionalized pyrrolidines, imidazolidines, and piperazines in 43-83% yield.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high yielding asymmetric deprotonation trapping of N-Boc piperidine is successfully realized using s-BuLi and a (+)-sparteine surrogate. Monitoring of the lithiation by in situ React IR allowed the direct observation of a prelithiation complex.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of aziridinium ions in two different projects is described. First, the stereospecificity of the ring opening of aziridinium ions with MeNH2 as a route to chiral diamines has been explored. When the aziridinium ion contained a phenyl or para-methoxyphenyl substituent, stereospecific ring opening occurred. In contrast, switching the para-methoxy group to a para-N,N-dimethylamino group gave a racemic diamine product. Second, starting from N-Boc pyrrolidine, asymmetric lithiation-trapping-ring expansion (via an aziridinium ion) was used to synthesise a piperidine alcohol. In this way, a formal synthesis of (−)-swainsonine was completed.
Article: Synthesis of Taranabant
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taranabant (MK-0364) is a highly potent and selective cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB-1R) inverse agonist. It is being developed at Merck & Company to treat obesity. The chemical synthesis of MK-0364 drug substance involved the direct coupling of chiral amine and pyridine acid side chains mediated by cyanuric chloride. Four major process impurities were observed and characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with ultraviolet (UV) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. The exact mass data was used for structural elucidation which suggests that the impurities are derivatives of cyanuric chloride formed in the coupling step. Owing to the reactive nature of these impurities, an interesting degradation phenomenon was observed during stability testing of MK-0364 drug substance when stored at 40 degrees C/75% RH and 25 degrees C/60% RH conditions. Degradation pathways were proposed to explain the changes observed in the HPLC impurity profile. Forced degradation experiments were also conducted to confirm the degradation pathways and assess the stability of the impurities. Finally, the complete stability data of the bulk drug are reported to support the hypothesis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taranabant (1) is a cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) inverse agonist that was recently in late-stage clinical development for the treatment of obesity. The previously employed synthesis exhibited a number of shortcomings for continuing development, and in this paper we report an improved synthesis of the target molecule that is suitable for large-scale implementation. Palladium-catalyzed amidation of an enol tosylate afforded a stereodefined tetrasubstituted enamide, and asymmetric hydrogenation thereof provided the target molecule.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A short and practical synthesis of glucokinase activator 1 was achieved utilizing a convergent strategy involving S(N)Ar coupling of activated aryl fluoride 11 with hydroxypyridine 9. The key to the success of the synthesis was the development of a novel method for enantioselective formation of alpha-arylpyrrolidines during the course of the project. In this method, (-)-sparteine-mediated enantioselective lithiation of N-Boc-pyrrolidine was followed by in situ transmetalation to zinc and Pd-catalyzed coupling with aryl bromide 3, proceeding in 92% ee. This transformation allowed the preparation of compound 1 in a 31% overall yield over six steps.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein we report the asymmetric synthesis of 1,2-dipyridyl-1,2-diarylethanes via an unusual Cu(I)-catalyzed dimerization reaction. Subjection of a variety of enantioenriched substituted 2-pyridyl alcohols to a one-pot protocol generates the desired products in good yields and diastereoselectivities and with ee's up to >99%.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of sp(3) C-H bonds adjacent to nitrogen in heterocycles is an attractive transformation that is emerging as a practical method in organic synthesis. This tutorial review aims to summarize the key examples of direct functionalization of nitrogen-containing heterocycles via metal-mediated and metal-catalyzed processes, which is meant to serve as a foundation for future investigations into this rapidly developing area of research. The review covers functionalization of N-heterocycles via alpha-lithiation with alkyllithium/diamine complexes, alpha-amino radical formation, metal-catalyzed direct C-H activation, C-H oxidations and oxidative couplings, and metal-catalyzed carbene insertions.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF.
CUNY Graduate CenterNew York, New York, United States
MerckWhitehouse Station, New Jersey, United States