[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report describes an ongoing Phase I clinical trial testing the safety of adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fifteen HCC patients were treated with their activated and expanded TILs following tumor resection. From a total of 17 patients with HCC, TIL were successfully expanded from 15 patients (88%), whereas two patients showed minimal or no expansion of TIL. Transient increase in the frequency of T cells was observed after adoptive transfer who was found only associated with grade I flu-like symptoms and malaise. After a median follow-up of 14 months, 15 patients (100%) were alive; and 12 patients (80%) showed no evidence of disease, 3 patients (patient 1,11,12) had tumor recurrence. The time to the diagnosis of tumor recurrence following therapy ranged from 105 to 261 days. These results indicate that immunotherapy with activated and expanded autologous TIL could be successfully performed with low toxicity, thus would serve as a novel treatment modality for patients with HCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: WW domain-containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (WWP1) has been speculated to play important roles in the development of several kinds of cancers. However, the role of WWP1 in hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) is not clear. In the present study, we investigated the expression and prognostic role of WWP1 in primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using cell lines and 149 archived HCC samples. Correlation between the functions of WWP1 in HCC was also explored. We used human HCC cell lines (BEL-7402, SMMC-7721, Hep-G2, Hep-3B, SK-hep1 and Huh7) and a normal hepatocyte cell line (LO2) along with HCC samples from patients who had undergone resection for HCC previously at our hospital. A battery of methods (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction; western blotting; immunohistochemical analyses; cell proliferation and colony formation assays; cell migration and cell invasion assays) were employed to assess various aspects of WWP1. We found that WWP1 expression was upregulated aberrantly at mRNA and protein levels in human primary HCC tissues. Amplified expression of WWP1 was highly correlated with poor outcome. Silencing of WWP1 expression by siRNA inhibited the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro, and resulted in significant apoptosis and cycle arrest in HCC cells. Our findings suggest that WWP1 might have an oncogenic role in human primary HCC, and that it could be used as a prognostic marker as well as a potential molecular target for the treatment of HCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant disease manifesting as colorectal cancer in middle-aged patients. Mutations of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene contribute to both FAP and sporadic or familial colorectal carcinogenesis. Here we describe the identification of the causative APC gene defects associated with FAP in a Chinese pedigree. All patients with FAP were diagnosed by their combination of clinical features, family history, colonoscopy, and pathology examinations. Blood samples were collected and genomic DNA was extracted. Mutation analysis of APC was conducted by targeted next-generation sequencing, long-range PCR and Sanger sequencing. A novel mutation in exon 14-15(c.1936-2148 del) and intron 14 of the APC gene was demonstrated in all FAP patients and was absent in unaffected family members. This novel deletion causing FAP in Chinese kindred expands the germline mutation spectrum of the APC gene in the Chinese population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients require adjuvant therapy to improve their prognosis. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a sequential combination of autologous cellular immunotherapy (CIT) and chemotherapy for postoperative NSCLC. This retrospective study included 120 postoperative NSCLC patients: 60 cases received only chemotherapy; 33 cases received chemotherapy and sequential CIT with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells; and 27 cases received chemotherapy and sequential CIT with alternate CIK and natural killer (NK) cells. Survival analysis showed significantly higher overall survival rates in the CIT group compared with the control group. Overall survival was higher in patients who received CIT with alternate CIK and NK cells than those who received treatment with only CIK cells. Multivariate analysis showed that adjuvant CIT was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of patients with NSCLC. In subgroup analyses, adjuvant CIT significantly improved the overall survival of patients with less than 60 year old and positive lymph node. In conclusions, these data indicate that adjuvant CIT, especially with alternate application of CIK and NK cells, is an effective therapeutic approach to prolong survival of patients with NSCLC, particularly for patients ≤60 years old with positive lymph nodes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The benefits of adjuvant cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain mixed among patients. Here, we constructed a prognostic nomogram to enable individualized predictions of survival benefit of adjuvant CIK cell treatment for HCC patients. Survival analysis showed that the median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for patients in the hepatectomy/CIK combination group were 41 and 16 months, respectively, compared to 28 and 12 months for patients in the hepatectomy alone group (control). Based on multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, independent factors for OS were tumor size, tumor capsule, pathological grades, total bilirubin, albumin, prothrombin time, alpha-fetoprotein, and tumor number, which were incorporated into the nomogram. The survival prediction model performed well, as assessed by the c-index and calibration curve. Internal validation revealed a c-index of 0.698, which was significantly greater than the c-index value of the TNM (tumor-node-metastasis) staging systems of 0.634. The calibration curves fitted well. In conclusions, our developed nomogram resulted in more accurate individualized predictions of the survival benefit from adjuvant CIK cell treatment after hepatectomy. The model may provide valuable information to aid in the decision making regarding the application of adjuvant CIK cell immunotherapy.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Galectin-3, a member of the beta-galactoside-binding lectin family, is a multifunctional protein with various biological functions, including the proliferation and differentiation of tumor cells, angiogenesis, cancer progression, and metastasis. We aimed to clarify if expression of galectin-3 is related to the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, and to explore the possible mechanisms of galectin-3 in hepatocellular carcinoma.Methods
First, we investigated galectin-3 mRNA and protein expression by using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Second, tissues from 165 HCC patients were used to evaluate clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis through immunohistochemical analyses. Furthermore, the functions of galectin-3 were analyzed with respect to the proliferation, cell cycle,apoptosis, migration, and invasion of HCC cell lines. Finally, we analyzed galectin-3 expression and micro-vessel density (MVD) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to find its correlation with angiogenesis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Flow cytometer was used to explore apoptosis and Western-blot was used to detect the pathway proteins of apoptosis.ResultsGalectin-3 showed high expression at the mRNA and protein levels in HCC cancer tissues and cell lines. Clinicopathological analyses revealed that increased expression of galectin-3 in tumors was closely associated with a poor prognosis. Galectin-3 knockdown by siRNA significantly inhibited cell growth, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis in HCC cells in vitro, whereas galectin-3 overexpression promoted cell growth, migration, and invasion. Correlation analysis of galectin-3 expression and micro-vessel density (MVD) showed that galectin-3 expression in tumor cells stimulates angiogenesis. The observed regulation of cell apoptosis was accompanied by the galectin-3-mediated modulation of caspase3 signaling pathways in HCC cells.Conclusions
These data suggest that galectin-3 plays an important part in HCC progression and may serve as a prognostic factor for HCC.
Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Translational Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biological role of interleukin-37 (IL-37) in cancer is large unknown. Through immunohistochemical detection using 163 primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) clinical specimens, we found the expression of IL-37 was decreased in tumor tissues, and the expression level was negatively correlated with tumor size. High expression of IL-37 in HCC tumor tissues was associated with better overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). IL-37 expression in tumor tissues was positively associated with the density of tumor-infiltrating CD57+ natural killer (NK) cells, but not with the CD3+ and CD8+ T cells. Consistently, in vitro chemotaxis analysis showed that IL-37- overexpressing HCC cells could recruit more NK cells. The in vivo mouse model experiments also revealed that overexpression IL-37 in HCC cells significantly delayed tumor growth and recruited more NK cells into tumors tissues. Our finding suggested that IL-37 might play an important role for the prognosis of HCC patients via regulating innate immune-action.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of Uroplakin1A (UPK1A) in gastric adenocarcinoma patients. Functional studies were also analyzed in vitro.
Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), western blotting, and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining methods were used to analyze the expression of UPK1A in primary gastric adenocarcinoma tissue samples. Compared with matched adjacent non-tumor, the expression of UPK1A in fresh surgical specimens was reduced, which was confirmed by RT-qPCR (P<0.01) and western blotting analysis (P<0.01). The paraffin specimens from a consecutive series of 445 gastric adenocarcinoma patients who underwent surgery between 2003 and 2006 were analyzed by IHC staining. The relationship between UPK1A expression, clinicopathological factors, and survival were evaluated. IHC staining analysis revealed that the reduced expression of UPK1A was observed in 224 cases (50.3%). Additionally, the correlation analysis of clinicopathological factors demonstrated that reduced expression of UPK1A was significantly associated with histological grade (P = 0.022), node metastasis (P<0.001) and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage (P = 0.008) (7th edition of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC)). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the reduced expression of UPK1A was significantly associated with poor prognosis (P = 0.043). Cox hazards model analysis indicated that UPK1A expression was an independent risk factor at the 0.1 level (P = 0.094). The function of UPK1A in cell cycle, migration, and invasion was investigated by overexpressing UPK1A in the MKN45 gastric cancer cell line. The elevated expression of UPK1A cells induced G1 phase arrest and significantly inhibited migration and invasion.
The reduced expression of UPK1A might play a role in the progression of gastric cancer. Thus, UPK1A could be a potential favorable biomarker associated with gastric cancer prognosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a high risk form of this disease, even after surgery, due to the absence of targets for hormone treatment and anti-Her-2 therapy. Chemotherapy is the main therapeutic strategy for such breast cancer patients although the outcome is often unsatisfactory. Thus, the development of combination adjuvant therapies is essential for improved prognosis in TNBC patients. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a sequential combination of cytokine-induced killer cell (CIK) infusion and chemotherapy for post-mastectomy TNBC patients.
From 2008 to 2012, 90 post-mastectomy TNBC patients were included in this retrospective study: 45 cases received chemotherapy alone or with sequential radiotherapy; a further 45 cases received chemotherapy with/without radiotherapy and sequential CIK infusion.
Survival analysis showed significantly higher disease-free survival (DFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rates in the CIK treatment group compared with the control group (p = 0.0382, p = 0.0046, respectively; log-rank test). Multivariate survival analysis showed that CIK adjuvant treatment was an independent prognostic factor for OS of TNBC patients. In subgroup analyses, CIK adjuvant treatment significantly increased the DFS rate of patients with pathological grade III, and significantly increased the OS rate of patients in N1, N2, N3-stage, IIB, III TNM stage and with pathological grade III.
These data indicate that adjuvant CIK treatment combined with chemotherapy is an effective therapeutic strategy to prevent disease recurrence and prolong survival of TNBC patients, particularly those with lymph node metastasis, advanced TNM-stage and poor pathological grade.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FOXO3a, a member of the forkhead class 'O' (FOXO) transcription factor family, controls a wide spectrum of biological processes, such as DNA damage repair, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. FOXO3a has been shown to be a tumor suppressor in various cancers. This study investigated the expression of FOXO3a in primary gastric adenocarcinomas and its prognostic value for primary gastric adenocarcinoma patients.
Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect FOXO3a expression in primary gastric cancerous surgical specimens and adjacent non-tumorous tissues.
Our data showed that the expression of FOXO3a mRNA (p = 0.03) and protein (p = 0.019) was lower in cancerous tissues compared with their adjacent non-tumorous tissues. In addition, the chi-square test revealed that low FOXO3a expression was significantly correlated with larger tumor size (p = 0.007), poor histopathological classification (p = 0.029), depth of invasion (p = 0.049), local lymph node metastasis (p = 0.013), distant metastasis (p = 0.013) and AJCC staging (p<0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that low expression of FOXO3a was significantly correlated with a poor prognosis for gastric cancer patients (p<0.001). The multivariate analysis showed that FOXO3a expression was an independent prognostic factor of the overall survival rate of patients with primary gastric adenocarcinoma.
Our study suggested that decreased FOXO3a expression may play an important role in the progression of gastric cancer. FOXO3a could be a valuable prognostic marker as well as a potential molecular therapy target for gastric cancer patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are ex vivo generated heterogeneous NK-like T lymphocytes. It is not very clear whether the phenotype of CIK cells is associated with their therapeutic efficacy to cancer patients. Thus, in this study, the association of phenotype of CIK cells and the overall survival of 121 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 74 patients with lung cancer and 42 patients with colorectal cancer, all of whom underwent surgical resection and received autogenous CIK cell therapy, was analyzed. We found that high ratio of the CD3+CD4+ subset was associated with poorer overall survival in colorectal cancer, but not HCC or lung cancer. A high ratio of the CD3+CD8+ subset was associated with improved overall survival in all three types of cancer. A high ratio of the CD3+CD56+ NK-like subset was associated with improved overall survival in lung and colorectal cancer, but not HCC. A high ratio of the CD3-CD56+ NK subset was associated with poorer overall survival in lung and colorectal cancer, but not HCC. In conclusion, the CD3+CD8+ and CD3+CD56+ subsets, especially the CD3+CD8+ subset, may be the major phenotypes responsible for anti-tumor immunity in vivo after autogenous CIK cell therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Even after surgery, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has poor prognosis; adjuvant therapy is needed to improve effectively the outcome of HCC patients. We evaluated the efficacy of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell infusion as an adjuvant therapy for postoperative HCC patients.
A total of 410 patients were studied retrospectively (January 2002 to January 2007): 206 received surgery alone; 204 received surgery and at least four cycles of CIK cell transfusion (CIK group). Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to explore differences in OS between two groups.
The CIK group overall survival rates were significantly higher than that of the surgery-alone group (log-rank test; p = 0.0007). Multivariate survival analysis showed that CIK cell treatment was an independent prognostic factor. In subgroup analysis, patients who received ≥8 cycles of CIK cell transfusion exhibited significantly better survival than the <8 cycle group (p = 0.0272). There was no significant difference in overall survival in patients with ≤5-cm tumors between the CIK and surgery-alone groups (p = 0.7567). However, in patients with >5-cm tumors, the CIK group displayed significantly better overall survival than the surgery-alone group (p = 0.0002).
Postoperative immunotherapy with CIK cell transfusion may be an effective adjuvant treatment for improving the outcomes of HCC patients; >8 cycles of CIK cell transfusion may ensure that patients derive maximal benefits. Moreover, patients with large tumors might benefit more from CIK cell adjuvant treatment than patients with small tumors.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro amplified human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical donor immune cell infusion (HDICI) is not commonly used in children; therefore, our study sought to evaluate its safety for treating childhood malignancies. Between September 2011 and September 2012, 12 patients with childhood malignancies underwent HDICI in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The median patient age was 5.1 years (range, 1.7-8.4 years). Of the 12 patients, 9 had high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) [7 showed complete response (CR), 1 showed partial response (PR), and 1 had progressive disease (PD) after multi-modal therapies], and 3 had Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD). The 12 patients underwent a total of 92 HDICIs at a mean dose of 1.6 x 10(8) immune cells/kg body weight: 71 infusions with natural killer (NK) cells, 8 with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells, and 13 with cascade primed immune cells (CAPRIs); 83 infusions with immune cells from the mothers, whereas 9 with cells from the fathers. Twenty cases (21.7%) of fever, including 6 cases (6.5%) accompanied with chills and 1 (1.1%) with febrile convulsion, occurred during infusions and were alleviated after symptomatic treatments. Five cases (5.4%) of mild emotion changes were reported. No other adverse events occurred during and after the completion of HDIDIs. Neither acute nor chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) was observed following HDICIs. After a median of 5.0 months (range, 1.0-11.5 months) of follow-up, the 2 NB patients with PR and PD developed PD during HDICIs. Of the other 7 NB patients in CR, 2 relapsed in the sixth month of HDICIs, and 5 maintained CR with disease-free survival (DFS) ranging from 4.5 to 11.5 months (median, 7.2 months). One EBV-LPD patient achieved PR, whereas 2 had stable disease (SD). Our results show that HDICI is a safe immunotherapy for childhood malignancies, thus warranting further studies.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chuankezhi (CKZ), a new Chinese medicine, plays an important role in immunoregulation. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells have been commonly used for immunotherapy in recent years. In this study, we aimed to investigate the immunoregulatory effect of CKZ on CIK cells. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy donors, and CIK cells were generated by culturing monocytes with IFN-γ, OKT3, and IL-2. Different concentrations of CKZ were added on day 2. After incubation for 14 days in culture, the anti-tumor effects of CIK cells were measured by cytotoxicity assay. Flow cytometry was used to explore the effect of CKZ on CIK cell immunophenotype, intracellular cytokine production, and apoptosis. The effect of CKZ on the anti-tumor activity of CIK cells in nude mice was also investigated. CKZ increased the proportion of CD3+CD56+ CIK cells but did not significantly change the percentage of CD4+, CD8+, or CD4+CD25+ T cells. CKZ-conditioned CIK cells showed a greater ability to kill tumor cell lines, as well as a higher frequency of IFN-γ and TNF-α production, compared with the CIK cells in the control group. CKZ also suppressed the apoptosis of CIK cells in vitro. Furthermore, CKZ combined with CIK cells had a stronger suppressive effect on tumor growth than the CIK, CKZ, or normal saline control groups in vivo. Our results indicate that CKZ enhances the anti-tumor activity of CIK cells and is a potential medicine for tumor immunotherapy.
Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
2-Zinc-glycoprotein 1 (AZGP1) is a multidisciplinary protein that participates in many important functions in the human body, including fertilization, immunoregulation and lipid mobilization. Recently, it has been shown that AZGP1 is also involved in carcinogenesis and tumor differentiation. In this study, we investigated the expression levels and prognostic value of AZGP1 in primary gastric cancers.
Methods and Results
We examined the expression of AZGP1 in 35 paired cancerous and matched adjacent noncancerous gastric mucosa tissues by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. Furthermore, we analyzed AZGP1 expression in 248 patients who underwent resection procedures between 2005 and 2007 using immunohistochemistry. The relationships between the AZGP1 expression levels, the clinicopathological factors, and patient survival were investigated. AZGP1 expression was significantly reduced at both the mRNA (P = 0.023) and protein levels (P = 0.019) in tumor tissue samples, compared with expression in matched adjacent non-tumor tissue samples. The immunohistochemical staining data showed that AZGP1 expression was significantly decreased in 52.8% (131/248) of gastric adenocarcinoma cases. Clinicopathological analysis showed that the reduced expression of AZGP1 was significantly correlated with tumor location (P = 0.011), histological grade (P = 0.005) and T stage (P = 0.008). Kaplan–Meier survival curves revealed that the reduced expression of AZGP1 was associated with a poor prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma patients (P = 0.009). Multivariate Cox analysis identified AZGP1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of gastric adenocarcinoma patients (HR = 1.681, 95% CI = 1.134–2.494, P = 0.011).
Our study suggests that AZGP1 might serve as a candidate tumor suppressor and a potential prognostic biomarker in gastric carcinogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exportin 4 (XPO4) is a recently-discovered candidate tumor-suppressor gene identified in a liver cancer mouse model. To investigate the role of XPO4 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis, we determined XPO4 expression and its correlation to prognosis in human primary HCC.
The XPO4 mRNA transcription level in HCC cell lines and tissue samples were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). XPO4 protein expression in 123 primary HCC clinical surgical specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemical detection.
Real-time quantitative PCR showed a decrease in XPO4 expression in HCC cell lines BEL-7402, Hep-G2, and SK-hep1 compared to the normal liver cell line LO2. Decreased XPO4 mRNA was also found in the majority of tumor tissues compared with matched non-tumor liver tissues (P = 0.004). Immunohistochemical detection revealed that XPO4 expression was reduced in 51 of 123 (41.5%) tumor resection samples compared with adjunct non-tumor tissues. We also found XPO4 expression to be significantly correlated with tumor size (P = 0.045) and histopathological classification (P = 0.004). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the downregulation of XPO4 resulted in a significantly poor prognosis (P = 0.008, log-rank test), and multivariate Cox's analysis showed that XPO4 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of HCC patients (P = 0.013).
Our data suggest that XPO4 could be involved in the progression of human HCC and could serve as a potential target for gene therapy in the treatment of HCC.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we characterized the intratumoral expression of IL-17 and CD8(+) TILs in gastric adenocarcinoma patients after resection and determined the correlation between the survival probability of gastric adenocarcinoma patients and the expression of IL-17 in tumor. Expression of IL-17 and CD8 was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and the prognostic effects of intratumoral IL-17 expression and CD8(+) TILs were evaluated by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Immunohistochemical detection revealed the presence of IL-17 and CD8(+) cells in gastric adenocarcinoma tissue samples (90.6%, 174 out of 192 patients and 96.9%, 186 out of 192 patients, respectively). We have also found that intratumoral IL-17 expression was significantly correlated with age (p=0.004) and that the number of CD8(+)TILs was significantly correlated with UICC staging (p=0.012) and the depth of tumor invasion (p=0.022). The five-year overall survival probability among patients intratumorally expressing higher levels of IL-17 was significantly better than those expressing lower levels of IL-17 (p=0.036). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses revealed that intratumoral IL-17 expression (HR: 0.521; 95% CI: 0.329-0.823; p=0.005) was an independent factor affecting the five-year overall survival probability. We conclude that low levels of intratumoral IL-17 expression may indicate poor prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma patients.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · International journal of biological sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy, especially using dendritic cells (DCs)-based vaccine, appears promising in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following surgery. However, the therapeutic efficacy of current DC vaccines loaded with HCC antigen is limited in clinical practice. One important reason might be that the DC vaccines for the treatment of HCC were not aimed at targeting the hepatocellular carcinoma cancer stem cells (HCCCSCs). Therefore, establishing an immunotherapy to kill HCC stem cells could be a novel therapeutic strategy. In this study, we have developed an immunotherapy to target CD133(+) HCC cells in the treatment of HCC. This study had three main findings; (1) CD133(+)HCC cells RNA loaded DCs could induce special CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD133(+)Huh7-CTLs) response against CD133(+) Huh7 cells in vitro. (2) Huh7 cells-induced tumor growth in vivo was effectively inhibited by CD133(+)Huh7-CTLs. (3) the great inhibition potential of CD133(+)Huh7-CTLs to Huh7-induced tumor growth might not be only associated with anti-tumor cytokines such as IFNγ, but also to CD133(+)Huh7-DCs induced specific CTLs. This study shows an experimental proof that CD133(+)HCC cells RNA loaded DC vaccine has potential in treating HCC and may provide a new therapy for clinical post operative adjuvant therapy in future.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Cancer biology & therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells and autologous dendritic cells-CIK (DC-CIK) cells co-cultured with autologous dendritic cells (DCs) and CIK cells are commonly used for immunotherapy recently. We compared the anti-tumor immune response of CIK cells, autologous DC-CIK cells, and semi-allogeneic DC-CIK cells to explore a more effective anti-tumor adoptive immunotherapy approach.
Peripheral monocytes were isolated from patients with renal carcinoma, lung cancer, or maxillary squamous cell carcinoma and their healthy adult children. Isolated cells were cultured and induced as DCs and CIK cells in vitro. CIK cells from patients were co-cultured with autologous DCs and DCs from their children respectively, generating DC-CIK cells and semi-allogeneic DC-CIK cells. The anti-tumor activities of autologous CIK cells, autologous DC-CIK cells, and semi-allogeneic DC-CIK cells were measured by LDH assay. Intracellular staining was used to test the secretion of cytokines. Flow cytometry was applied for detecting the phonotype changes of these three types of cells. Cell proliferation and cell apoptosis were detected by 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) and Annexin V/PI respectively.
Compared with autologous CIK cells and DC-CIK cells, semi-allogeneic DC-CIK cells significantly enhanced the anti-tumor activity and IFN-gamma secretion, reduced IL-4 secretion, increased the ratio of CD3(+)CD56(+) cells and CD3(+)CD8(+) cells, decreased the number of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells, promoted cell proliferation, and lessened cell apoptosis.
Semi-allogeneic DC-CIK cells had a stronger anti-tumor effect than did autologous CIK cells and DC-CIK cells. Our results provided experimental evidence for clinical application of DC-CIK cells.
Preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Chinese journal of cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous studies have shown that dendritic cell (DC)-tumor cell fusion vaccine can induce specific antitumor response against esophageal carcinoma cells. This study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of intratumor injection of the antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) induced by DC-tumor cell fusion vaccine against subcutaneously transplanted esophageal carcinoma cells in nude mice, and to analyze the influence of DC/tumor cell fusion vaccine on proliferation and apoptosis of esophageal carcinoma cells.
Fusion cell vaccine of mature DCs with EC109 cells were generated by the polyethylene glycol (PEG) protocol and the antigen-specific CTLs were induced. The models of transplanted human esophageal carcinoma in nude mouse were established using EC-109 cell line. Thirty-three nude mice with subcutaneous tumors were randomly divided into three groups. Subcutaneous tumors of group A (n=11), group B (n=11) and group C (n=11) were intratumorally injected with the CTLs induced by DC/tumor fusion vaccine, T lymphocytes and RPMI 1,640 medium respectively once a week. After four weeks of intratumor injection, the nude mice were killed and the nodules were anatomized. The mean volume and weight of tumors of each group were measured, and the tumor inhibitory rates of the Group A and the Group B were calculated and compared. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was detected by immunohistochemistry (S-P method). The mean PCNA-label index (LI) of three groups was compared. The cell cycle and cell apoptosis of the xenograft tumor cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The mean S-phase fraction (SPF) and the mean rate of cell apoptosis of three groups was compared respectively.
Both the mean volume and the mean weight of xenograft tumors in group A (881.45+/-31.14 mm3 and 0.88+/-0.04 g) were significantly smaller than those of group B (1493.37+/-51.67 mm3 and 1.38+/-0.07 g) and group C (2065.77+/-87.55 mm3 and 2.04+/-0.11 g). The tumor inhibitory rates of Group A was significantly higher than that of group B (56.86% vs. 32.35%, F=1218.08, P=0.001). The mean PCNA-LI of xenograft tumors was less in the group A (26.83+/-0.95)% than in the group B (51.82+/-1.51)% and group C (68.93+/-2.40)% (F=1528.39, P=0.000). The mean SPF of xenograft tumors was less in the group A (12.46+/-0.36)% than in the group B (29.39+/-0.96)% and the group C (42.25+/-1.43)% (P<0.05). The mean apoptotic rate of xenograft tumors was less in the group A (38.03+/-1.21)% than in the group B (17.75+/-0.56)% and the group C (6.59+/-0.22)% (P<0.05).
The model of subcutaneous xenograft tumors in nude mice using human esophageal carcinoma cell line EC-109 has been successfully established. CTLs induced by DC/tumor fusion vaccine has specific antitumor immunity efficacy in vivo. CTLs can inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells and induce apoptosis of tumor cells in local tumors.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer