[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To compare the effects of two aerobic training methods in water and on dry-land on glycemic, lipid, inflammatory, hormonal, cardiorespiratory, and functional outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Methods: Thirty-five patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to aquatic aerobic training group (n = 17) or dry-land aerobic training group (n = 18). Exercise training interventions had duration of 12 weeks, performed in three weekly sessions (45. min/session), with intensity progressing from 85% to 100% of heart rate of anaerobic threshold during interventions. All outcomes were evaluated at baseline and 12 weeks later. Results: Patients were 56.7. ±. 7.9 years old. Decreases in glycated hemoglobin were observed in both groups (AT: -0.42. ±. 0.28%, DLT: -0.35. ±. 1.8%). Total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein levels, plasma renin activity, angiotensin II concentrations, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, and timed up and go test performed at the usual speed also decreased in both groups in response to both interventions (p <. 0.05), without between-group differences. Both groups increased the ratio between oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold and oxygen uptake of peak (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Aerobic training in an aquatic environment provides effects similar to aerobic training in a dry-land environment in patients with type 2 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epigenetic modifications have been linked to memory formation after learning context exposure and to exercise effects on memory performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treadmill exercise (20 min/day during 2 weeks) on H3K14 acetylation and H3S10 phosphorylation levels in the hippocampi of 3-month-old Wistar rats exposed and not exposed to aversive learning context. Male Wistar rats aged 2-3 months were assigned to non-exercised (sedentary) and exercised (running daily for 20 min for 2 weeks) groups. Single-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance (IA) conditioning was employed as an aversive memory model. Epigenetic parameters were determined 30 min after the IA test. A decrease in the H3K14 acetylation in the hippocampus 24 h after IA training (30 min after test session) was observed. Exercise reversed the IA effect, and no effect was observed in the non-IA exposed group. Our data support the hypothesis that modulation of H3K14 acetylation levels in the hippocampus might be related, at least in part, to exercise effects on aversive memory.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Persistent effects of pre- and postischemic exercise on glial cells activation after global cerebral ischemia remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of both pre and postischemic treadmill exercise protocols (20 min/day during 2 weeks) on glial cells immunostaining in the hippocampus of Wistar rats submitted to global ischemia. A synergistic effect between ischemia and postischemic exercise on the astrocytic area was demonstrated. Postischemic exercise partially reversed the ischemia-induced increase on the area occupied by microglia, without any effect of pre-ischemic protocol. In conclusion, postischemic exercise distinctly modulates astrocyte and microglia immunostaining in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following global cerebral ischemia in Wistar rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have pointed out the relationship between neuroprotective exercise effects and epigenetic mechanisms on the hippocampus. Considering the role of frontal cortex on brain functions, we investigated the impact of different exercise protocols on enzymatic system involved with histone acetylation status, histone acetyltransferases (HATs), and histone desacetylases (HDACs) in frontal cortices from Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats aged 3 months were submitted to a single session or a daily running protocol during 2 weeks. The single session enhanced HAT activity, while the moderate daily exercise protocol reduced the HDAC activity. Our results indicate that frontal cortex is susceptible to epigenetic modulation following exercise and that both exercise protocols seem to induce a histone hyperacetylation condition in this brain area.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The main goal of the present study was to investigate the xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in metabolic syndrome in subjects submitted to a single exercise session. We also investigated parameters of oxidative and inflammatory status.
A case-control study (9 healthy and 8 MS volunteers) was performed to measure XO, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activities, lipid peroxidation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) content, glucose levels, and lipid profile. Body mass indices, abdominal circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and TG levels were also determined. The exercise session consisted of 3 minutes of stretching, 3 minutes of warm-up, 30 minutes at a constant dynamic workload at a moderate intensity, and 3 minutes at a low speed. The blood samples were collected before and 15 minutes after the exercise session.
Serum XO activity was higher in MS group compared to control group. SOD activity was lower in MS subjects. XO activity was correlated with SOD, abdominal circumference, body mass indices, and hsCRP. The single exercise session reduced the SOD activity in the control group.
Our data support the association between oxidative stress and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and suggest XO is present in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are scarce data on the neurotoxicity in mammalian induced by tannery wastewaters. Previously, the anxiogenic effect of tannery wastewater was demonstrated in mice, while wastewater submitted to photoelectrooxidation process (PEO) treatment did not affect the anxiety state. Considering that species may response differently to xenobiotics, the aim of the present work was to study the effects of exposure to tannery wastewaters (non-PEO or PEO-treated) on behavioural and neurochemical markers in another species of laboratory animals, specifically Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were given free access to water bottles containing non-PEO or PEO-treated tannery wastewaters (0.1, 1 and 5% in drinking water). During the exposure, behavioural tests of anxiety (elevated plus-maze, neophobia, open field and light-dark box), depression (forced swimming) and memory (inhibitory avoidance, novel object and discriminative avoidance) were performed. On the 30th day, brain structures were dissected out to evaluate cellular oxidative state (hippocampus, cerebellum and striatum) and acetylcholinesterase activity (hippocampus and striatum). Exposure to tannery effluent with or without photoelectrochemical treatment did not alter any behavioural and neurochemical parameters evaluated. Our data indicate that Wistar rats may not be an adequate species for ecotoxicological studies involving tannery effluents and that POE treatment did not generate other toxic compounds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been described that histone acetylation levels are decreased in several cellular and in vivo neurodegeneration models as well as in normal brain aging, although the impact of the aging process on histone deacetylases (HDAC) activity yet remains poorly understood. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the effect of the aging process on HDAC activity in hippocampi and frontal cortices from 3 and 18-months-old Wistar rats. The animals were decapitated at different times of day, in the early morning and in afternoon. HDAC activity was increased in hippocampus from the aged group. Besides, the hippocampal HDAC activity was also significantly increased in early morning. A significant interaction between age and time of the day was observed in frontal cortices, given that the HDAC activity was higher in early morning in the aged group. These data support the hypothesis that the aging-related dysfunction may be related, at least in part, to acetylation imbalance through HDAC activity in rat brain.
Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Neuroscience Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of locomotion, posture and movement that can be caused by prenatal, perinatal or postnatal insults during brain development. An increased incidence of CP has been correlated to perinatal asphyxia and maternal infections during gestation. The effects of maternal exposure to low doses of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) associated or not with perinatal anoxia (PA) on oxidative and inflammatory parameters were examined in cerebral cortices of newborns pups. Concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1, IL-4, SOD, CAT and DCF were measured by the ELISA method. Other newborn rats were assessed for neonatal developmental milestones from day 1 to 21. Motor behavior was also tested at P29 using open-field and Rotarod. PA alone only increased IL-1 expression in cerebral cortex with no changes in oxidative measures. PA also induced a slight impact on development and motor performance. LPS alone was not able to delay motor development but resulted in changes in motor activity and coordination with increased levels of IL-1 and TNF-α expression associated with a high production of free radicals and elevated SOD activity. When LPS and PA were combined, changes in inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters were greater. In addition, greater motor development and coordination impairments were observed. Prenatal exposure of pups to LPS appeared to sensitize the developing brain to effects of a subsequent anoxia insult resulting in an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased free radical levels in the cerebral cortex. These outcomes suggest that oxidative and inflammatory parameters in the cerebral cortex are implicated in motor deficits following maternal infection and perinatal anoxia by acting in a synergistic manner during a critical period of development of the nervous system.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been described that exercise can modulate both inflammatory response and epigenetic modifications, although the effect of exercise on these parameters during the normal brain aging process yet remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of aging and treadmill exercise on inflammatory and epigenetic parameters specifically pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines levels, activation of NF-kB and histone H4 acetylation levels in hippocampus from Wistar rats. Additionally, we evaluated aversive memory through inhibitory avoidance task. Rats of 3 and 20 months of age were assigned to non-exercised (sedentary) and exercised (running daily for 20 min for 2 weeks) groups. The effect of daily forced exercise in the treadmill was assessed. The levels of inflammatory and epigenetic parameters were determined 1 h, 18 h, 3 days or 7 days after the last training session of exercise. It was observed an age-related decline on aversive memory, as well as aged rats showed increased hippocampal levels of inflammatory markers, such as TNFα, IL1-β and NF-kB and decreased IL-4 levels, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, lower levels of global histone H4 acetylation were also observed in hippocampi from aged rats. Interestingly, there was a significant correlation between the biochemical markers and the inhibitory avoidance test performance. The forced exercise protocol ameliorated aging-related memory decline, decreased pro-inflammatory markers and increased histone H4 acetylation levels in hippocampi 20-months-old rats, while increased acutely IL-4 levels in hippocampi from young adult rats. Together, these results suggest that an imbalance of inflammatory markers might be involved to the aging-related aversive memory impairment. Additionally, our exercise protocol may reverse aging-related memory decline through improving cytokine profile.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is know that repeated exposure to opiates impairs spatial learning and memory and that the hippocampus has important neuromodulatory effects after drug exposure and withdrawal symptoms. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to assess hippocampal levels of BDNF, oxidative stress markers associated with cell viability, and TNF-α in the short, medium and long term after repeated morphine treatment in early life. Newborn male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of morphine (morphine group) or saline (control group), 5 μg in the mid-scapular area, starting on postnatal day 8 (P8), once daily for 7 days, and neurochemical parameters were assessed in the hippocampus on postnatal days 16 (P16), 30 (P30), and 60 (P60). For the first time, we observed that morphine treatment in early life modulates BDNF levels in the medium and long term and also modulates superoxide dismutase activity in the long term. In addition, it was observed effect of treatment and age in TNF-α levels, and no effects in lactate dehydrogenase levels, or cell viability. These findings show that repeated morphine treatment in the neonatal period can lead to long-lasting neurochemical changes in the hippocampus of male rats, and indicate the importance of cellular and intracellular adaptations in the hippocampus after early-life opioid exposure to tolerance, withdrawal and addiction.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Neurochemical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regular exercise improves learning and memory, including during aging process. Interestingly, the imbalance of epigenetic mechanisms has been linked to age-related cognitive deficits. However, studies about epigenetic alterations after exercise during the aging process are rare. In this preliminary study we investigated the effect of aging and exercise on DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3b) and H3-K9 methylation levels in hippocampus from 3 and 20-months aged Wistar rats. The animals were submitted to two exercise protocols: single session or chronic treadmill protocol. DNMT1 and H3-K9 methylation levels were decreased in hippocampus from aged rats. The single exercise session decreased both DNMT3b and DNMT1 levels in young adult rats, without any effect in the aged group. Both exercise protocols reduced H3-K9 methylation levels in young adult rats, while the single session reversed the changes on H3-K9 methylation levels induced by aging. Together, these results suggest that an imbalance on DNMTs and H3-K9 methylation levels might be linked to the brain aging process and that the outcome to exercise seems to vary through lifespan.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Experimental gerontology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The decomposition of solid waste in landfill is responsible for the formation of leachate, a dark liquid with an unpleasant odor; studies investigating its toxicity on mammals are rare. Oxidative stress has been considered as an important biochemical mechanism of the toxicity of several xenobiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of landfill leachate on oxidative parameters in striatum, hippocampus and liver homogenates of mice and rats. In order to propose a clean technology for the treatment of leachate, we also investigated the effects of landfill leachate submitted to photoelectrooxidation process (PEO). The homogenates of cerebral structures and liver of Swiss albino mice and Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of non-PEO landfill leachate and PEO-treated landfill leachate. After the incubation, the levels of free radicals, determined by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe, and the lipoperoxidation, quantified by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, were evaluated. There was an increase on the levels of free radicals in striatum of both mice and rats when exposed to non-PEO leachate. Moreover, PEO-treated leachate increased the lipoperoxidation in striatum homogenates from rodents. However, both leachates did not alter any of the parameters evaluated in the hippocampus. In the liver, the incubation with leachates induced an augment on levels of free radicals only in samples of mice. In addition, PEO-treated leachate increased the lipoperoxidation indexes in the liver of mice and rats. These results suggest that the landfill leachate can induce an oxidative stress state in the liver and the striatum of rodents. Additionally, the PEO process was unable to efficiently alter the toxic compounds of landfill leachate.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exercise induces brain function adaptations and improves learning and memory; however the time window of exercise effects has been poorly investigated. Studies demonstrate an important role for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathway function in the mechanisms underlying memory formation. The aim of present work was to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on aversive memory and COX-2, PGE(2) and E-prostanoid receptors contents in the rat hippocampus at different time points after exercise has ended. Adult male Wistar rats were assigned to non-exercised (sedentary) and exercised (running daily for 20min, for 2weeks) groups. The inhibitory avoidance task was used to assess aversive memory and the COX-2, PGE(2) and E-prostanoid receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4) levels were determined 1h, 18h, 3days or 7days after the last training session of treadmill exercise. The step down latency in the inhibitory avoidance, COX-2 and EP4 receptors levels were acutely increased by exercise, with a significant positive correlation between aversive memory performance and COX-2 levels. Increased EP2 content decreased PGE(2) levels were observed 7days after the last running session. The treadmill exercise protocol facilitates inhibitory avoidance memory and induces time-dependent changes on COX-2 pathways function (COX-2, PGE(2) and EP receptors).
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of environmental enrichment (EE), assessed by cognitive activity in the Morris water maze, and on brain oxidative status, through measurement of macromolecules damage, lipid peroxidation levels, total cellular thiols and antioxidant enzymes in hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex.
Adult male Wistar rats were submitted to the modified permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO) method, with right common carotid artery being first occluded, and tested three months after the ischemic event. Cognitive and physical stimulation, named Environmental Enrichment, consisted of one-hour sessions run 3 times per week during 12weeks, following two different stimulation protocols: pre-ischemia and pre+post-ischemia. Rats were then tested for both reference and working spatial memory tasks in the water maze and later sacrificed for measurement of oxidative stress parameters.
A significant cognitive deficit was found in both spatial tasks after hypoperfusion; this effect was reversed in the 2VO enriched group. Moreover, hippocampal oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activity were decreased by environmental enrichment.
These results suggest that both stimulation protocols exert a neuroprotective effect against the cognitive impairment and the reduction of biomarkers for oxidative damage caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme that hydrolyses acetylcholine (ACh) at cholinergic synapses, is a target for pesticides and its inhibition by organophosphates leads to paralysis and death of arthropods. It has been demonstrated that the n-hexane extract of Calea serrata had acaricidal activity against larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The aim of the present study was to understand the mechanism of the acaricidal action of C. serrata n-hexane extract are specifically to investigate the in vitro anticholinesterase activity on larvae of R. microplus and in brain structures of male Wistar rats. The n-hexane extract significantly inhibited in vitro acetylcholinesterase activity in R. microplus larvae and rat brain structures. The results confirm that inhibition of acetylcholinesterase is a possible mechanism of action of hexane extract at C. serrata.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hibiscus tiliaceus L. (Malvaceae) is used in postpartum disorders. Our purpose was to examine the antidepressant, anxiolytic and sedative actions of the methanol extract of H. tiliaceus flowers using animal models.
Adult male Swiss albino mice were treated with saline, standard drugs or methanol extract of H. tiliaceus and then subjected to behavioral tests. The forced swimming and tail suspension tests were used as predictive animal models of antidepressant activity, where the time of immobility was considered. The animals were submitted to the elevated plus-maze and ketamine-induced sleeping time to assess anxiolytic and sedative activities, respectively.
Methanol extract of H. tiliaceus significantly decreased the duration of immobility in both animal models of antidepressant activity, forced swimming and tail suspension tests. This extract did not potentiate the effect of ketamine-induced hypnosis, as determined by the time to onset and duration of sleeping time.
Our results indicate an antidepressant-like profile of action for the extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus without sedative side effect.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HI) is a major cause of nervous system damage and neurological morbidity. Perinatal malnutrition affects morphological, biochemical and behavioral aspects of neural development, including pathophysiological cascades of cell death triggered by ischemic events, so modifying resulting brain damage. Female Wistar rats were subjected to protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation (control group: 25% soybean protein; malnourished group: 7%). Seven days after delivery (PND7), their offspring were submitted to unilateral cerebral HI; rats were then tested for sensorimotor (PND7 and PND60) and memory (PND60) functions. Offspring of malnourished mothers showed marked reduction in body weight starting in lactation and persisting during the entire period of observation. There was a greater sensorimotor deficit after HI in malnourished (M) animals, in righting reflex and in home bedding task, indicating an interaction between diet and hypoxia-ischemia. At PND60, HI rats showed impaired performance when compared to controls in training and test sessions of rota-rod task, however there was no effect of malnutrition per se. In the open field, nourished HI (HI-N) presented an increase in crossings number; this effect was not present in HI-M group. Surprisingly, HI-M rats presented a better performance in inhibitory avoidance task and a smaller hemispheric brain damage as compared to HI-N animals. Our data points to a possible metabolic adaptation in hypoxic-ischemic animals receiving protein malnutrition during pregnancy and lactation; apparently we observed a neuroprotective effect of diet, possibly decreasing the brain energy demand, under a hypoxic-ischemic situation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physical activity impacts functional recovery following stroke in humans, however its effects in experimental animals submitted to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of exercise, as assessed by cognitive activity in the Morris water maze and the brain oxidative status, through measurement of macromolecules damage, TBARS levels and total cellular thiols, as well as antioxidant enzymes in hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex. Adult male Wistar rats were submitted to the modified permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO) method, with right common carotid artery being first occluded, and tested 3 months after the ischemic event. The effects of three different exercise protocols were examined: pre-ischemia, post-ischemia and pre+post-ischemia. Physical exercise consisted of sessions of 20-min, 3 times per week during 12 weeks (moderate intensity). Rats were submitted to cognitive assessment, in both reference and working spatial memory and after the last testing session were sacrificed to have oxidative stress parameters determined. Hypoperfusion caused a significant cognitive deficit in both spatial water maze tasks and this effect was reversed in rats receiving exercise protocol post and pre+post the ischemic event. Moreover, forced regular treadmill exercise regulated oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activity in the hippocampus. These results suggest that physical exercise protects against cognitive and biochemical impairments caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Neurobiology of Learning and Memory