[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
HCV replication in persistently infected cell culture remains resistant to IFN-α/RBV combination treatment, whereas IFN-λ1 induces viral clearance. The antiviral mechanisms by which IFN-λ1 induces sustained HCV clearance have not been determined.
To investigate the mechanisms by which IFN-λ clears HCV replication in an HCV cell culture model.
IFN-α sensitive (S3-GFP) and resistant (R4-GFP) cells were treated with equivalent concentrations of either IFN-α or IFN-λ. The relative antiviral effects of IFN-α and IFN-λ1 were compared by measuring the HCV replication, quantification of HCV-GFP expression by flow cytometry, and viral RNA levels by real time RT-PCR. Activation of Jak-Stat signaling, interferon stimulated gene (ISG) expression, and miRNA-122 transcription in S3-GFP and R4-GFP cells were examined.
We have shown that IFN-λ1 induces HCV clearance in IFN-α resistant and sensitive replicon cell lines in a dose dependent manner through Jak-Stat signaling, and induces STAT 1 and STAT 2 activation, ISRE-luciferase promoter activation and ISG expression. Stat 3 activation is also involved in IFN-λ1 induced antiviral activity in HCV cell culture. IFN-λ1 induced Stat 3 phosphorylation reduces the expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) through miR-24 in R4-GFP cells. Reduced expression of HNF4α is associated with decreased expression of miR-122 resulting in an anti-HCV effect. Northern blot analysis confirms that IFN-λ1 reduces miR-122 levels in R4-GFP cells. Our results indicate that IFN-λ1 activates the Stat 3-HNF4α feedback inflammatory loop to inhibit miR-122 transcription in HCV cell culture.
In addition to the classical Jak-Stat antiviral signaling pathway, IFN-λ1 inhibits HCV replication through the suppression of miRNA-122 transcription via an inflammatory Stat 3-HNF4α feedback loop. Inflammatory feedback circuits activated by IFNs during chronic inflammation expose non-responders to the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biological functions and molecular mechanisms of miR-223 action in liver cells and liver diseases remain unclear. We therefore determined the effect and mechanism of action of miR-233 in Fas-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and liver injury. Wild-type (WT) and miR-223 knockout (KO) mice were treated i.p. with 0.5 μg/g body weight anti-Fas antibody Jo2, and the animals were monitored for survival and the extent of liver injury. Although WT mice died 4 to 6 hours after Jo2 injection (n = 6), all of the miR-223 KO mice (n = 6) survived. In comparison to WT mice, the miR-223 KO mice showed resistance to Fas-induced liver injury, as indicated by less tissue damage under histopathological examination, fewer apoptotic hepatocytes under caspase-3 immunostaining, and less elevation of serum transaminases. miR-223 KO livers showed less caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 activation and less poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage compared with WT livers (P < 0.05). Furthermore, tail vein injection of miR-223 lentiviral vector to miR-223 KO mice restored Jo2-induced liver injury. Transfection of miR-223 KO hepatocytes with miR-223 mimic enhanced Jo2-induced activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, whereas transfection of WT hepatocytes with the miR-223 inhibitor attenuated Jo2-induced apoptosis. These findings demonstrate that miR-223 deficiency protects against Fas-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and liver injury. Further in vitro and in vivo data indicate that miR-223 regulates Fas-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and liver injury by targeting the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · American Journal Of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although altered metabolic pathway is an important diagnostic maker and therapeutic target in cancer, it is poorly understood in cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we show that the CD133 (+) hepatocellular CSCs have distinct metabolic properties, characterized by more active glycolysis over oxidative phosphorylation, compared to the CD133 (-) cells. Inhibition of PDK4 and LDHA markedly suppresses CD133 (+) stemness characteristics and overcome resistance to sorafenib (current chemotherapeutic agent for hepatocellular cancer). Addition of glucose or lactate to CD133 (-) cells promotes CSC phenotypes, as evidenced by increased CD133 (+) cell population, elevated stemness gene expression and enhanced spheroid formation. Furthermore, the liver-specific miRNA, miR-122, inhibits CSC phenotypes by regulating glycolysis through targeting PDK4. Our findings suggest that enhanced glycolysis is associated with CD133 (+) stem-like characteristics and that metabolic reprogramming through miR-122 or PDK4 may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of hepatocellular cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conclusions:
Hepatocyte Hh signaling can promote liver inflammation through OPN-mediated macrophage activation; this mechanism importantly contributes to the progression of NAFLD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anticancer properties and mechanism of action of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (
3-PUFAs) have been demonstrated in several cancers; however, the mechanism in lung cancer remains unclear. Here, we show that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a
3-PUFA, induced apoptosis and autophagy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. DHA-induced cell death was accompanied by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and inactivated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Knocking down AMPK and overexpressing Akt increased mTOR activity and attenuated DHA-induced cell death, suggesting that DHA induces cell death via AMPK- and Akt-regulated mTOR inactivation. This was confirmed in Fat-1 transgenic mice, which produce
3-PUFAs. Lewis lung cancer (LLC) tumor cells implanted into Fat-1 mice showed slower growth, lower phospho-Akt levels, and higher levels of apoptosis and autophagy than cells implanted into wild-type mice. Taken together, these data suggest that DHA-induced apoptosis and autophagy in NSCLC cells are associated with AMPK activation and PI3K/Akt inhibition, which in turn lead to suppression of mTOR; thus
3-PUFAs may be utilized as potential therapeutic agents for NSCLC treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although miR-150 is implicated in the regulation of immune cell differentiation and activation, it remains unknown whether miR-150 is involved in liver biology and disease. This study was performed to explore the potential role of miR-150 in LPS/D-GalN and Fas-induced liver injuries by using wild type and miR-150 knockout (KO) mice. Whereas knockout of miR-150 did not significantly alter LPS/D-GalN-induced animal death and liver injury, it protected against Fas-induced liver injury and mortality. The Jo2-induced increase in serum transaminases, apoptotic hepatocytes, PARP cleavage, as well as caspase-3/7, caspase-8, and caspase-9 activities were significantly attenuated in miR-150 KO mice. The liver tissues from Jo2-treated miR-150 KO mice expressed higher levels of Akt1, Akt2, total Akt, as well as p-Akt(Ser473) compared to the wild type livers. Pretreatment with the Akt inhibitor V reversed Jo2-induced liver injury in miR-150 KO mice. The primary hepatocytes isolated from miR-150 KO mice also showed protection against Fas-induced apoptosis in vitro (characterized by less prominent PARP cleavage, less nuclear fragmentation and less caspase activation) in comparison to hepatocytes from wild type mice. Luciferase reporter assays in hepatocytes transfected with the Akt1 or Akt2 3'-UTR reporter constructs (with or without mutation of miR-150 binding site) established Akt1 and Akt2 as direct targets of miR-150. Tail vein injection of lentiviral particles containing pre-miR-150 enhanced Jo2-induced liver injury in miR-150 KO mice. These findings demonstrate that miR-150 deficiency prevents Fas-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and liver injury through regulation of the Akt pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) produce many cytokines including IFNβ, TNFα and IL6, strongly inhibit DNA synthesis, but induce apoptosis of a small number of hepatocytes. In vivo administration of LPS (up to 10 mg/ml) causes modest inflammation and weight loss in rats but not mortality. We determined whether LPS-stimulated HSCs instigate mechanisms of hepatocyte survival. Rats received 10 mg/kg LPS (i.p.) and determinations were made at 6h. In vitro, HSCs were treated with 100 ng/ml LPS till 24h. The medium was transferred to hepatocytes, and determinations were made at 0-12h. Controls were HSC-conditioned medium or medium-containing LPS. LPS treatment of rats caused autophagy in hepatocytes, a physiological process for clearance of undesirable material including injured or damaged organelles. This was accompanied by activation of c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK) and apoptosis of ∼4-5% of hepatocytes. In vitro, LPS-conditioned HSC medium (LPS/HSC) induced autophagy in hepatocytes but apoptosis of only ∼10% of hepatocytes. While LPS/HSC stimulated activation of JNK (associated with cell death), it also activated NFkB and ERK1/2 (associated with cell survival). LPS-stimulated HSCs produced IFNβ, and LPS/HSC-induced autophagy in hepatocytes and their apoptosis were significantly inhibited by anti-IFNβ antibody. Blockade of autophagy, on the other hand, strongly augmented hepatocyte apoptosis. While LPS-stimulated HSCs cause apoptosis of a subpopulation of hepatocytes by producing IFNβ, they also induce cell survival mechanisms, which may be of critical importance in resistance to liver injury during endotoxemia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Cellular Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are the most common causes of chronic liver diseases and hepatocelluar carcinomas. Over the past few years, the liver-enriched microRNA-122 (miR-122) has been shown to differentially regulate viral replication of HBV and HCV. It is notable that the level of miR-122 is positively and negatively regulated by HCV and HBV, respectively. Consistent with the well-documented phenomenon that miR-122 promotes HCV accumulation, inhibition of miR-122 has been shown as an effective therapy for the treatment of HCV infection in both chimpanzees and humans. On the other hand, miR-122 is also known to block HBV replication, and HBV has recently been shown to inhibit miR-122 expression; such a reciprocal inhibition between miR-122 and HBV suggests an intriguing possibility that miR-122 replacement may represent a potential therapy for treatment of HBV infection. As HBV and HCV have shared transmission routes, dual infection is not an uncommon scenario, which is associated with more advanced liver disease than either HBV or HCV mono-infection. Thus, there is a clear need to further understand the interaction between HBV and HCV and to delineate the role of miR-122 in HBV/HCV dual infection in order to devise effective therapy. This review summarizes the current understanding of HBV/HCV dual infection, focusing on the pathobiological role and therapeutic potential of miR-122.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · World Journal of Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Ribavirin (RBV) continues to be an important component of interferon-free hepatitis C treatment regimens, as RBV alone does not inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication effectively; the reason for this ineffectiveness has not been established. In this study, we investigated the RBV resistance mechanism using a persistently HCV-infected cell culture system. The antiviral activity of RBV against HCV was progressively impaired in the persistently infected culture, whereas interferon lambda 1 (IFN-λ1), a type III IFN, showed a strong antiviral response and induced viral clearance. We found that HCV replication in persistently infected cultures induces an autophagy response that impairs RBV uptake by preventing the expression of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1). The Huh-7.5 cell line treated with an autophagy inducer, Torin 1, downregulated membrane expression of ENT1 and terminated RBV uptake. In contrast, the autophagy inhibitors hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), 3-methyladenine (3-MA), and bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) prevented ENT1 degradation and enhanced RBV antiviral activity. The HCV-induced autophagy response, as well as treatment with Torin 1, degrades clathrin heavy chain expression in a hepatoma cell line. Reduced expression of the clathrin heavy chain by HCV prevents ENT1 recycling to the plasma membrane and forces ENT1 to the lysosome for degradation. This study provides a potential mechanism for the impairment of RBV antiviral activity in persistently HCV-infected cell cultures and suggests that inhibition of the HCV-induced autophagy response could be used as a strategy for improving RBV antiviral activity against HCV infection.
The results from this work will allow a review of the competing theories of antiviral therapy development in the field of HCV virology. Ribavirin (RBV) remains an important component of interferon-free hepatitis C treatment regimens. The reason why RBV alone does not inhibit HCV replication effectively has not been established. This study provides a potential mechanism for why RBV antiviral activity is impaired in persistently HCV-infected cell cultures and suggests that inhibition of the HCV-induced autophagy response could be used as a strategy to increase RBV antiviral activity against HCV infection. Therefore, it is anticipated that this work would generate a great deal of interest, not only among virologists but also among the general public.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: miR-17-92 is an oncogenic miRNA cluster implicated in the development of several cancers; however, it remains unknown whether the miR-17-92 cluster is able to regulate cholangiocarcinogenesis. This study was designed to investigate the biological functions and molecular mechanisms of the miR-17-92 cluster in cholangiocarcinoma. In situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the miR-17-92 cluster is highly expressed in human cholangiocarcinoma cells compared with the nonneoplastic biliary epithelial cells. Forced overexpression of the miR-17-92 cluster or its members, miR-92a and miR-19a, in cultured human cholangiocarcinoma cells enhanced tumor cell proliferation, colony formation, and invasiveness, in vitro. Overexpression of the miR-17-92 cluster or miR-92a also enhanced cholangiocarcinoma growth in vivo in hairless outbred mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SHO-Prkdc(scid)Hr(hr)). The tumor-suppressor, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), was identified as a bona fide target of both miR-92a and miR-19a in cholangiocarcinoma cells via sequence prediction, 3' untranslated region luciferase activity assay, and Western blot analysis. Accordingly, overexpression of the PTEN open reading frame protein (devoid of 3' untranslated region) prevented miR-92a- or miR-19a-induced cholangiocarcinoma cell growth. Microarray analysis revealed additional targets of the miR-17-92 cluster in human cholangiocarcinoma cells, including APAF-1 and PRDM2. Moreover, we observed that the expression of the miR-17-92 cluster is regulated by IL-6/Stat3, a key oncogenic signaling pathway pivotal in cholangiocarcinogenesis. Taken together, our findings disclose a novel IL-6/Stat3-miR-17-92 cluster-PTEN signaling axis that is crucial for cholangiocarcinogenesis and tumor progression.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · American Journal Of Pathology