V Conte

University of Milan, Milano, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (18)69.03 Total impact


  • No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health issue for HIV-positive individuals, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Development and implementation of a risk score model for CKD would allow comparison of the risks and benefits of adding potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals to a treatment regimen and would identify those at greatest risk of CKD. The aims of this study were to develop a simple, externally validated, and widely applicable long-term risk score model for CKD in HIV-positive individuals that can guide decision making in clinical practice.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Abdominal infections are frequent causes of sepsis and septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU) and are associated with adverse outcomes. We analyzed the characteristics, treatments and outcome of ICU patients with abdominal infections using data extracted from a one-day point prevalence study, the Extended Prevalence of Infection in the ICU (EPIC) II. Methods: EPIC II included 13,796 adult patients from 1,265 ICUs in 75 countries. Infection was defined using the International Sepsis Forum criteria. Microbiological analyses were performed locally. Participating ICUs provided patient follow-up until hospital discharge or for 60 days. Results: Of the 7,087 infected patients, 1,392 (19.6%) had an abdominal infection on the study day (60% male, mean age 62 +/- 16 years, SAPS II score 39 +/- 16, SOFA score 7.6 +/- 4.6). Microbiological cultures were positive in 931 (67%) patients, most commonly Gram-negative bacteria (48.0%). Antibiotics were administered to 1366 (98.1%) patients. Patients who had been in the ICU for <= 2 days prior to the study day had more Escherichia coli, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic isolates, and fewer enterococci than patients who had been in the ICU longer. ICU and hospital mortality rates were 29.4% and 36.3%, respectively. ICU mortality was higher in patients with abdominal infections than in those with other infections (29.4% vs. 24.4%, p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, hematological malignancy, mechanical ventilation, cirrhosis, need for renal replacement therapy and SAPS II score were independently associated with increased mortality. Conclusions: The characteristics, microbiology and antibiotic treatment of abdominal infections in critically ill patients are diverse. Mortality in patients with isolated abdominal infections was higher than in those who had other infections.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The identification of risk factors associated with perioperative seizures would be of great benefit to the anesthesiologist in managing brain tumor patients undergoing craniotomy with intraoperative brain mapping. Methods: A series of 316 supratentorial craniotomies for tumor resection, in which intraoperative brain mapping was used, were analyzed. From January 2005 to December 2010 the occurrence of intraoperative and immediate postoperative clinical seizures was prospectively recorded into a database. Demographic data, tumor characteristics, preoperative seizure control, intraoperative events and anesthetic management were evaluated as risk factors for intraoperative clinical seizures. Additionally, the association between intraoperative clinical seizures and immediate postoperative seizures was evaluated. In order to determine the best predictors of intraoperative and immediate postoperative clinical seizures, a multivariable analysis by logistic regression was performed. Results: Younger age, location of the tumor in the frontal and parietal lobe, brain mapping conducted under general anesthesia and non physiologic values of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) during brain mapping were independent positive risk factors for the development of intraoperative clinical seizures. Location of tumor in the frontal lobe, antiepileptic polytherapy, intraoperative seizures requiring pharmacologic treatment during brain mapping, and blood on postoperative CT scan were independent positive risk factors for the development of immediate postoperative seizures. Conclusion: Clinical seizures are common intraoperative and postoperative complications of supratentorial craniotomies with intraoperative brain mapping. The identification of those patients at higher risk of seizures may guide intraoperative and postoperative medical management.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Minerva anestesiologica
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    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Critical Care
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    ABSTRACT: Background Infections are a leading cause of death in patients with advanced cirrhosis, but there are relatively few data on the epidemiology of infection in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with cirrhosis. AimsWe used data from the Extended Prevalence of Infection in Intensive Care (EPIC) II one-day point-prevalence study to better define the characteristics of infection in these patients. Methods We compared characteristics, including occurrence and types of infections in non-cirrhotic and cirrhotic patients who had not undergone liver transplantation. ResultsThe EPIC II database includes 13,796 adult patients from 1,265 ICUs: 410 of the patients had cirrhosis. The prevalence of infection was higher in cirrhotic than in non-cirrhotic patients (59 vs. 51%, p<0.01). The lungs were the most common site of infection in all patients, but abdominal infections were more common in cirrhotic than in non-cirrhotic patients (30 vs. 19%, p<0.01). Infected cirrhotic patients more often had Gram-positive (56 vs. 47%, p<0.05) isolates than did infected non-cirrhotic patients. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was more frequent in cirrhotic patients. The hospital mortality rate of cirrhotic patients was 42%, compared to 24% in the non-cirrhotic population (p<0.001). Severe sepsis and septic shock were associated with higher in-hospital mortality rates in cirrhotic than in non-cirrhotic patients (41% and 71% vs. 30% and 49%, respectively, p<0.05). Conclusions Infection is more common in cirrhotic than in non-cirrhotic ICU patients and more commonly due to Gram-positive organisms, including MRSA. Infection in patients with cirrhosis was associated with higher mortality rates than in non-cirrhotic patients.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Molecular Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The treatment of patients with primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSL) has dramatically changed since the 1970's when whole brain radiation generated median survivals of about 12 months, significant neurotoxcity, and few long term survivors. High dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) monotherapy without radiation provides excellent response rates and 30% long term survivors without neurotoxicity. In general, relapses occur in the first two to four years after diagnosis and reports of very late relapses are rare. METHODS: Charts of all patients treated with HD-MTX monotherapy for newly diagnosed PCNSL between 1995 and 2012 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with less than 5 years of follow-up data were excluded. First relapses over 10 years from diagnosis were identified and reviewed. RESULTS: Long-term follow-up data was available for 37 patients treated with HD-MTX monotherapy during this period. Four of 37 (11%) survived disease free for >10 years from initial diagnosis and maintain their excellent clinical status. All received methotrexate (8 gm/m2) every two weeks until complete response and then monthly to complete one year of therapy. Two of these long survivors (50%) presented with new seizures 10.8 and 11.2 years after initial diagnosis. Imaging revealed recurrent intraparenchymal disease, re-biopsy confirmed PCNSL in one, and both responded very well to retreatment with high dose methotrexate and Rituximab. The other two patients remain relapse free 12 and 13.7 years after initial diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Very late relapses have occurred in 2 of 4 long term survivors. These observations suggest that PCNSL patients treated with HD-MTX who were considered "cured" may be at substantial risk for late recurrences. A concerted effort to follow patients with this rare disease is needed to determine the frequency of late recurrences. More information is needed to determine if the addition of rituximab or other therapies reduce late recurrence rates.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Neuro-Oncology
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    M Gotti · F Stretti · S Pifferi · V Conte · M Zara · N Stocchetti

    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Critical Care
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    Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Critical Care
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    ABSTRACT: Background / Purpose: Early and delayed cognitive dysfunctions are an understudied issue after aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrage (aSAH).The aim of this study is to describe early and late changes after aSAH in terms of cognitive functions, activities of everyday life and quality of life. Main conclusion: Cognitive dysfunction has different time courses after aSAH depending on SAH severity and treatment complications. SAH influences cognitive and social factors.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Critical Care
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children is frequent, sometimes lethal, and may have life-long consequences in survivors. Prevention at school and in sports, including both kids and families, is of paramount importance. Scarce data are available in terms of epidemiology, physiopathology, management and prognosis. This non-systematic review suggests that rational organization of rescue and transport to designated hospitals, linked with early diagnosis/removal of surgical masses and comprehensive monitoring and intensive care, offer the best chances for reducing mortality and morbidity in severe cases. After the acute phase rehabilitation and families play a fundamental role.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Minerva anestesiologica
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    ABSTRACT: To provide a global, up-to-date picture of the prevalence, treatment, and outcomes of Candida bloodstream infections in intensive care unit patients and compare Candida with bacterial bloodstream infection. A retrospective analysis of the Extended Prevalence of Infection in the ICU Study (EPIC II). Demographic, physiological, infection-related and therapeutic data were collected. Patients were grouped as having Candida, Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and combined Candida/bacterial bloodstream infection. Outcome data were assessed at intensive care unit and hospital discharge. EPIC II included 1265 intensive care units in 76 countries. Patients in participating intensive care units on study day. None. Of the 14,414 patients in EPIC II, 99 patients had Candida bloodstream infections for a prevalence of 6.9 per 1000 patients. Sixty-one patients had candidemia alone and 38 patients had combined bloodstream infections. Candida albicans (n = 70) was the predominant species. Primary therapy included monotherapy with fluconazole (n = 39), caspofungin (n = 16), and a polyene-based product (n = 12). Combination therapy was infrequently used (n = 10). Compared with patients with Gram-positive (n = 420) and Gram-negative (n = 264) bloodstream infections, patients with candidemia were more likely to have solid tumors (p < .05) and appeared to have been in an intensive care unit longer (14 days [range, 5-25 days], 8 days [range, 3-20 days], and 10 days [range, 2-23 days], respectively), but this difference was not statistically significant. Severity of illness and organ dysfunction scores were similar between groups. Patients with Candida bloodstream infections, compared with patients with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bloodstream infections, had the greatest crude intensive care unit mortality rates (42.6%, 25.3%, and 29.1%, respectively) and longer intensive care unit lengths of stay (median [interquartile range]) (33 days [18-44], 20 days [9-43], and 21 days [8-46], respectively); however, these differences were not statistically significant. Candidemia remains a significant problem in intensive care units patients. In the EPIC II population, Candida albicans was the most common organism and fluconazole remained the predominant antifungal agent used. Candida bloodstream infections are associated with high intensive care unit and hospital mortality rates and resource use.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Critical care medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of injury-related deaths in the Western hemisphere. Traumatic brain damage is a result of direct (immediate mechanical disruption of brain tissue, or primary injury) and indirect (delayed or secondary) mechanisms. Secondary injuries, because of their delayed onset and progression over minutes to months after the initial trauma, are potentially amenable to postinjury therapeutic intervention. Vascular pathology and alterations in cerebral blood flow are major contributors to mortality and morbidity following TBI. This article summarizes the pathology of vascular disruptions following TBI, the time course and major mechanisms of posttraumatic cerebral blood flow alterations, and the influence of genetic susceptibility to vascular changes after TBI.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010
  • N Stocchetti · V Conte · K Canavesi

    No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Minerva anestesiologica
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    ABSTRACT: Intraoperative brain mapping has the goal of aiding with maximal surgical resection of brain tumors while minimizing functional sequelae. Retrospective randomized studies on large populations have shown that this technique can optimize the surgical approach while reducing postoperative morbidity. During direct electrical stimulation of the language areas adjacent to the tumor, the patient should be collaborative and be able to speak to participate in language testing. Different anesthesiological protocols have been proposed to allow intraoperative brain mapping, which range from local anesthesia to conscious sedation or general anesthesia, with or without airway instrumentation. The most common intraoperative complications are seizure, respiratory depression, and patients' stress and discomfort. Since awake craniotomy carries both benefits and potential risks, the following factors are crucial in the management of patients: 1) careful selection of the patients and 2) communication between the anesthesiological and surgical teams. To date, there remains no consensus about the optimal anesthesiological regimen to use. Only prospective, multicentre randomized studies focused on evaluating the role of different anesthesiological techniques on intraoperative monitoring, postoperative deficits, and intraoperative complications can answer the question of which anesthesiological approach should be chosen when intraoperative brain mapping is requested.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Minerva anestesiologica
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the arterio-venous difference in carbon dioxide tension (DPCO2) and the ratio between DPCO2 and arterio-jugular oxygen difference (AJDO2) as indicators of compensated or uncompensated cerebral hypoperfusion. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was reduced stepwise in 6 pigs by inducing intracranial hypertension with consequently cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) reduction: CBF 100%, 50-60 % of baseline, 20-30% of baseline. Intracranial pressure (ICP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), CPP and CBF (laser-Doppler method) were continuously recorded. Superior sagittal sinus was punctured for the determination of AJDO2 and DPCO2. CBF impairment was accompanied by changes in AJDO2 from 6.03 +/- 1.21 vol% to 7.32 +/- 1.30 vol%, up to 8.07 +/- 1.32 vol% (P < 0.01), in DPCO2 from 12.17 +/- 3.25 mmHg to 16 +/- 4.12 mmHg, up to 26.5 +/- 6.41 mmHg (P < 0.01), and DPCO2/AJDO2 ratio from 2.05 +/- 0.39 to 2.06 +/- 0.72 up to 3.41 +/- 1.09 in the 3 phases (P < 0.05). When CBF declines AJDO2 increases, indicating greater extraction of O2 to satisfy aerobic metabolism. However, this mechanism can no longer compensate once a critical CBF threshold is reached. DPCO2 rises slowly during moderate CBF reduction because of defective washout; the rise is steeper during marked CBF impairment when anaerobic metabolism takes place. During cerebral hypoperfusion the venous blood gases and acid base variables mirror the degree of cerebral perfusion. In particular the DPCO2, and the DPCO2/ AJDO2 ratio may be useful markers of critical brain hypoperfusion.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · Minerva anestesiologica
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess the veno-arterial difference in pCO2 (delta pCO2) as an indicator of ischemia compared to the arteriovenous O2 difference (AVDO2). Staircase cerebral blood flow (CBF) reductions were obtained in seven domestic pigs by inducing intracranial hypertension: CBF 100%, 50-60% of baseline, 20-30% of baseline. ICP, MAP, CPP and CBF (Laser-Doppler method) were continuously recorded. The superior sagittal sinus was punctured to determine AVDO2 and delta pCO2. AVDO2 was 5.9 (+/- 1.78, range 3.3-7.4), 7.01 (+/- 1.31, range 5-8.9) and 8.17 (+/- 1.51, range 6.0-11.3) ml/100 ml in the three CBF steps (p = 0.001). CBF impairment was accompanied by the following increases in delta pCO2: from 10 (+/- 4, range 4-15) mmHg to 14.5 (+/- 4.11, range 10-27) mmHg, and to 31.2 (+/- 9.0, range 17-39) mmHg (p < 0.001). When CBF declines AVDO2 increases, indicating greater extraction of O2 to satisfy the aerobic metabolism. However, this mechanism can no longer compensate once a critical CBF threshold is reached. delta pCO2 rises slowly during moderate CBF reduction because of defective washout; the rise is impressive during marked CBF impairment when anaerobic metabolism takes place with proton buffering in CO2 and H2O. Therefore, when the brain's ability to compensate for low blood flow is exceeded, CO2 production outweighs O2 extraction.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement