Shigeaki Higashiyama

Osaka City University, Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan

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Publications (39)73.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) and cognitive impairment in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) remains unclear. We examined this relationship using voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer disease (VSRAD) advance software, which allowed us to quantify the degree of MTA on images obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Thirty-seven patients diagnosed with DLB were recruited and scanned with a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. All MRI data were analyzed using VSRAD advance. The target volume of interest (VOI) included the entire region of the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala. The degree of MTA was obtained from the averaged positive z-score (Z score) on the target VOI, with higher scores indicating more severe MTA. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS-R), which strengthened the measures of memory and language more than MMSE, were used to assess the presence of cognitive impairment. A negative correlation was found between the Z score and MMSE total scores or the HDS-R total scores. A stepwise multiple regression analysis performed to adjust the covariate effects of sex, age, the onset age of the disease, duration of DLB, years of education, and donepezil treatment showed that the HDS-R total scores were independently associated with the Z score, whereas MMSE total scores were not. These results suggest that MTA is related to cognitive impairment in patients with DLB, particularly the regions of orientation, immediate and delayed recall, and word fluency. © The Author(s) 2015.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between focal brain atrophy and delusions in patients with Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DAT) is not well understood. Few studies have been reported on the association between medial temporal atrophy (MTA) and persecutory delusions in patients with DAT. We investigated the relationship between MTA and persecutory delusions in patients with DAT using voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer's disease (VSRAD) advance software, which allows us to quantify the laterality and the degree of MTA on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Thirty-one patients diagnosed with DAT were recruited and scanned with a 1.5 tesla MRI scanner. All MRI data were analyzed using VSRAD advance. The target volume of interest (VOI) included the entire region of the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala. The degree of MTA was obtained from the averaged positive z score (Z-score) on the target VOI, with higher scores indicating more severe. These DAT patients were divided into a group with (D group: n = 13) and without (ND group: n = 18) persecutory delusions. In the D group, the mean the bilateral, right, and left Z-scores were 2.45, 2.69, and 2.19, respectively. These mean Z-scores of the ND group were 2.00, 2.00, and 1.95, respectively. The right Z-scores for the D group were significantly higher than those for the ND group (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that right MTA could contribute to the development of persecutory delusions in patients with DAT.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Osaka city medical journal
  • Joji Kawabe · Shigeaki Higashiyama · Kohei Kotani · Naoyoshi Onoda · Susumu Shiomi
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    ABSTRACT: After thyroid remnant ablation following total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer, I SPECT/CT revealed I uptake, regarded as thyroid bed uptake on planar images, in the anterior cervical region. On SPECT/CT, the I uptake focus appeared at the esophagus, suggesting esophageal invasion. No esophageal invasion had been recognized intraoperatively, and no residual uptake was detected by I scintigraphy evaluating therapeutic effects 3 months after ablation. Preoperative CT revealed a retrotracheal space portion extending from the normal thyroid with the same density, suggesting Zuckerkandl tubercle. Abnormal uptake on SPECT/CT was deemed Zuckerkandl tubercle-derived thyroid bed uptake.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Clinical Nuclear Medicine
  • Shigeaki Higashiyama · Joji Kawabe · Atsushi Yoshida · Kohei Kotani · Susumu Shiomi
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    ABSTRACT: We report a 47-year-old man in whom Tc human serum albumin diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid protein-losing scintigraphy, performed with SPECT/CT, was useful for diagnosing Ménétrier disease. Planar images taken 1 and 3 hours after radioactive isotope injection yielded a suspicion that the stomach was the site of protein loss in this case. However, the protein loss from the stomach was precisely diagnosed after SPECT/CT was performed; this helped to diagnose Ménétrier disease.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Clinical nuclear medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding scintigraphy in combination with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) remains to be studied in detail. This study aimed to examine the diagnostic ability of this tool. GI bleeding scintigraphy using (99m)Tc-human serum albumin-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid was performed for 38 patients with suspected GI bleeding. Twenty-four patients were diagnosed using planar images alone (planar group) and 14 patients were diagnosed using planar images and additional SPECT/CT images (planar + SPECT/CT group). The diagnostic ability of each method was analyzed. GI bleeding was observed in 20 of the 38 patients. For the existence of GI bleeding, planar images alone showed a sensitivity of 70%, specificity of 93%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 88%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 81%, and an overall accuracy of 83%, whereas planar images + SPECT/CT showed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 75%, PPV of 91%, NPV of 100%, and an overall accuracy of 93%. The source of bleeding was accurately diagnosed in 50% in the planar group and 78% in the planar + SPECT/CT group. In the planar + SPECT/CT group, 44% of the evaluable patients showed correct localization of the source of GI bleeding by additional SPECT/CT images, although planar images only showed incorrect localization. GI bleeding scintigraphy in combination with SPECT/CT is a noninvasive and useful tool for the examination of GI bleeding.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Abdominal Imaging
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS) has the potential to cause hepatic encephalopathy and thus needs long-term follow-up, but an effective follow-up method has not yet been established. We aimed to evaluate the importance of per-rectal portal scintigraphy (PRPS) for long-term follow-up of CPSS. Methods: We retrospectively examined shunt severity time course in patients (median: 9.6 y, range: 5.2-16.6 y) with intrahepatic (n = 3) or extrahepatic (n = 3) CPSS by using blood tests, ultrasonography or computed tomography, and PRPS. Per-rectal portal shunt index (cutoff: 10%) was calculated by PRPS. Results: PRPS demonstrated that the initial shunt index was reduced in all intrahepatic cases (from 39.7 ± 9.8% (mean ± SD) to 14.6 ± 4.7%) and all extrahepatic cases (from 46.2 ± 10.9 to 27.5 ± 12.6%) during the follow-up period. However, ultrasonography and computed tomography disclosed different shunt diameter time courses between intrahepatic and extrahepatic CPSSs. Initial shunt diameter (5.8 ± 3.5 mm) reduced to 2.0 ± 0.3 mm in intrahepatic cases, but the initial diameter (6.3 ± 0.7 mm) increased to 10.6 ± 1.0 mm in extrahepatic cases. All patients had elevated serum total bile acid or ammonia levels at initial screening, but these blood parameters were insufficient to assess shunt severity because the values fluctuate. Conclusion: PRPS can track changes in the shunt severity of CPSS and is more reliable than ultrasonography and computed tomography in patients with extrahepatic CPSS.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Pediatric Research
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the efficacy of (99m)Tc-MIBI SPECT/CT for planning parathyroidectomy in cases with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), comparing with planar scintigraphy and US, in an aim to establish the proper surgical strategy according to the preoperative imaging studies. A retrospective review of consecutive 75 pHPT patients who had been operated on was conducted. The results of preoperative imaging modalities and the operative finding were analyzed. Seven cases were found to have multiple hyperplastic glands, and no responsible gland was found in three cases. Four cases underwent only US scan for preoperative imaging. Remaining 61 cases were found to have single adenoma, and were included in the evaluation of localization imaging. US scan, (99m)Tc-MIBI planar scan and (99m)Tc-MIBI SPECT/CT showed accurate localization in 77.0% (47/61), 75.4% (46/61) and 88.5% (46/52) of the evaluable cases, respectively. US and (99m)Tc-MIBI planar scan demonstrated consistent result in 42 cases (68.9%), and those cases showed accurate localization in 90.5% (38/42). When both US and (99m)Tc-MIBI SPECT/CT was consistent, all 37 lesions had been correctly indicated. No clinico-pathological features were suggested to influence in demonstrating the localization, other than only (99m)Tc-MIBI SPECT/CT exhibited 100% sensitivity in ectopic glands. Combination of US and (99m)Tc-MIBI SPECT/CT certainly contributes to the planning of minimally invasive operation in cases with pHPT by indicating correct localization of single adenoma.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Endocrine Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to improve the image quality using a post process rather than a correction process at acquisition time. We used a smoothing filter that is widely used on a compact digital camera. Especially for nuclear medicine, when we use a short acquisition time, we will get images that have a large increase in statistical noise. For those images, we validated the efficiency of the smoothing filter by assessing two characteristic parameters. In addition, we defined the best smoothing filter parameters to get stable images that reduced the influence of statistical noise.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Nippon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai zasshi
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    ABSTRACT: Delayed gastric emptying, including gastroparesis, is a common complication in diabetes mellitus. The association between delayed gastric emptying and overall diabetic complications remains to be studied in detail. We analysed this association. We performed gastric emptying scintigraphy of (99m) Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid in 34 patients with diabetes to measure the gastric emptying half-times (T1/2) of the whole stomach (WS), proximal stomach (PS) and distal stomach (DS). We assessed T1/2, diabetic-related factors and complications. The prevalence of autonomic neuropathy was higher in the group with delayed T1/2 of the WS than in the normal group. Analysis of intima-media thickness (IMT) and ankle brachial pressure index (ABI), which are risk indicators for vascular disorder, showed that IMT of the carotid bulb was greater in the group with delayed T1/2 of the WS than in the normal group (2·41 mm [1·50-2·81] versus 1·40 mm [0·81-2·08], P = 0·015). T1/2 of the WS correlated positively with IMT of the carotid bulb (r = 0·391, P = 0·027) and negatively with ABI (r = -0·389, P = 0·028). These correlations were mainly attributed to PS and were the same in patients without autonomic neuropathy. In seven of nine patients who received scintigraphy again after diabetic treatment, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels decreased and T1/2 of the WS shortened compared with before treatment. Vascular disorder, among other cofactors such as autonomic neuropathy, could be involved in the pathophysiology of delayed gastric emptying. Medium- to long-term glycaemic control was associated with gastric emptying.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
  • Joji Kawabe · Shigeaki Higashiyama · Susumu Shiomi
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    ABSTRACT: Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate is not directly to Calcium of the bone matrix, but is binding to hydroxyapatite within the bone matrix. Strontium-89 is a member of family II A of the periodic table, same as Calcium, and is incorporated into bone matrix directly. It is very important that the the regions of the pain from bone metastases are present in the site of the abnormal uptake by bone metastases.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Clinical calcium
  • Kohei Kotani · Joji Kawabe · Shigeaki Higashiyama · Susumu Shiomi
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the case of chylothorax after esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma. Lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m-human serum albumin-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid showed an abnormal radioisotope accumulation on the left side of the thoracic duct. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) combined with computed tomography (CT) revealed a hot spot directly on the site at, which the thoracic duct was ligated during surgery, which was the suggested site of chyle leakage. We emphasize that lymphoscintigraphy with SPECT/CT is very useful tool for accurately identifying the site of the chyle leakage.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012
  • Joji Kawabe · Shigeaki Higashiyama · Atsushi Yoshida · Kohei Kotani · Susumu Shiomi
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    ABSTRACT: F-18 FDG PET/CT has been widely used to diagnose primary tumors and lymph node metastases and to evaluate the response of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) to therapy. The advantage of using PET/CT is that this combination allows metabolic information to be precisely overlapped with anatomical information, thereby improving the identification of sites with an abnormal accumulation of F-18 FDG. The role of FDG PET/CT in the therapeutic evaluation (such as in treatment planning, the therapeutic response, and the surveillance and examination of HNSCC patients) is discussed in this manuscript. When evaluating the post-treatment outcome via FDG PET/CT, it is important to exclude the post-treatment inflammation-related increase in glucose metabolism in lymph nodes, salivary gland, muscles, and soft tissues. The influence of inflammation can be eliminated if PET/CT is performed after 12 weeks, by which time post-treatment inflammation subsides. Further, FDG PET/CT affords a high negative predictive value. Based on the results of an FDG PET/CT test, some invasive tests that are performed to detect recurrence can be omitted.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Japanese journal of radiology
  • J. Kawabe · S. Higashiyama · S. Shiomi
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    ABSTRACT: FDG-PET/CT is recently common tool in diagnosis of malignant lymphoma (ML). It has higher sensitivities and specificities in evaluating the pretreatment staging, therapeutic effectiveness and following after treatment than other modarities such as enhanced CT etc. have. The most important problem in the PET/CT diagnosis of ML is evaluating the degree of low FDG uptake by suspicious lesions. Seven points which are not should be missd were illustrated at the end of the manuscript.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Donepezil hydrochloride (Donepezil) is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) that is used for the symptomatic treatment of Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DAT). Recently, the effects of AChEI in patients with DAT have been investigated using positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This study is to evaluate the usefulness of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET in assessing the therapeutic response of Donepezil to DAT using Regions of Interest (ROI) analysis. The participants included eleven outpatients diagnosed as having DAT according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). The patients were performed FDG-PET before initiating Donepezil therapy and after 12 weeks of medication. Cognitive change was measured using the Japanese version of the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale cognitive subscale (ADAS-J cog) and the group was divided into Responders and Non-responders based on these results. We used FDG-PET to investigate glucose metabolism of the brain and measured FDG uptake in the ROI set in each lobe of the brain. Then the ratios of the post-treatment uptake to pre-treatment uptake were determined. In the Responders, the mean ratios in the frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal, and temporoparietal lobes were 2.18, 1.62, 1.15, 1.12, and 1.09 respectively. The mean ratios of the Non-responders were 0.69, 0.88, 0.75, 0.98, and 0.68 respectively. Significant differences were found between the ratios of the Responders and Non-responders in the frontal and occipital lobes (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that FDG-PET could be useful for the evaluation for monitoring response to Donepezil.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Osaka city medical journal

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Clinical Neurophysiology
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    ABSTRACT: Depressive symptoms are common in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) and contribute to clinical morbidity. Previous studies have suggested that hypoperfusion in the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus are involved in the pathophysiology of depression in DAT. Using 3-D stereotactic region of interest (ROI) template (3DSRT), fully automated ROI analysis software, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in DAT. Technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer ((99m)Tc-ECD) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and Japanese version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were carried out in 35 patients diagnosed as having mild-moderate DAT according to DSM-IV. These patients were divided into the depressive group (D group: n = 17) and non-depressive group (ND group: n = 18) using the NPI depression items. All data from SPECT images were analyzed using 3DSRT software. On 3DSRT the perfusion ratios (rCBF of bilateral callosomarginal, precentral, central, parietal, angular, temporal, posterior cerebral, pericallosal, lenticular nucleus, thalamus and hippocampus/cerebellar hemisphere) of each segment were compared between the D group and the ND group. The perfusion ratios of the left callosomarginal segment for the D group were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the ND group. Hypoperfusion in the left frontal cortex contributes to the expression of depressive symptoms in patients with DAT.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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    ABSTRACT: We report a 60-year-old-woman with a huge intracardiac angiosarcoma in whom preoperative F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET was useful for confirming malignancy of the tumor and determining whether surgery was indicated for it. Her chief complaint was dyspnea. Because she was suspected to have a huge intracardiac tumor on the basis of transthoracic echocardiographic and computed tomography (CT) findings, FDG PET was performed, and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of the tumor was found to be 5.6. Because other tests and SUV level suggested a malignant cardiac tumor, surgical resection of it was attempted. On histopathological examination, the tumor was found to be an angiosarcoma. Our experience with this case indicates that, when dealing with patients suspected to have very large tumors, FDG PET is useful in examination for malignant potential and is indispensable in exploration for distant metastases.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Clinical nuclear medicine
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    ABSTRACT: In bone scintigraphy, abnormal RI accumulation in ossified thyroid cartilage is often noted. However, because similar accumulation is also seen in tumor-involved cartilage, distinction between these two lesions is sometimes difficult. We examined the differences in RI accumulation by ossification of the thyroid cartilage and cartilage invasion with anterior, posterior, and oblique views of bone scintigraphy in this study. This study included 120 patients (104 men, 16 women; mean age 67.8 +/- 9.6 years; range 48-90 years) with laryngeal or lower pharyngeal carcinoma. The patients had exhibited abnormal accumulation of RI on thyroid cartilage on bone scintigraphy between February 1999 and March 2007. We evaluated accumulation of thyroid cartilage in the anterior, posterior, and oblique views on bone scintigraphy. The presence/absence of tumor invasion of the thyroid cartilage was checked by comparing the findings of enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as evaluating operative records. RI accumulation in thyroid cartilage was divided into four types (diffuse accumulation, intense diffuse accumulation, slight inhomogeneous accumulation, and intense inhomogeneous accumulation). Tumor invasion of thyroid cartilage was noted in 2 of the 42 patients with diffuse accumulation, 1 of the 18 patients with intense diffuse accumulation, 1 of the 38 patients with slight inhomogeneous accumulation, and 17 of 22 patients with intense inhomogeneous accumulation. Because the degree of tumor invasion was highest in cases in which bone scintigraphy revealed intense inhomogeneous accumulation of RI in the thyroid cartilage, we judged this pattern of RI accumulation to be an indicator of tumor invasion. When diagnosis was based on this criterion, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 77%, 96%, and 93%, respectively (P < 0.0001, Chi-square test). The findings of this study suggest that ossification of thyroid cartilage can be distinguished from tumor-involved thyroid cartilage on the basis of the pattern of abnormal RI accumulation in the thyroid cartilage in patients with head/neck cancer.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Annals of Nuclear Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Depressive symptoms are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and contribute to clinical morbidity. Previous studies have suggested that hypoperfusion in the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus are involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Using the easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS), we investigated the relationship between depressive symptoms and prefrontal hypoperfusion in AD. Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer (Tc-99m-ECD)-single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were performed in forty-four patients diagnosed as having Dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT) with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). These patients were divided into the depressive group (D group: n = 26) and non-depressive group (ND group: n = 18) using NPI depression items. All data from SPECT images were analyzed using eZIS software. Scores in four regions were determined by Z-values; these regions consisted of each side of the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus. The mean scores between the D group and ND group were compared. The mean scores of the left prefrontal cortex in the D group were significantly higher (p < 0.0125) than those in the ND group. There were no significant differences in the scores of the right prefrontal cortex and the bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus between these two groups (Mann–Whitney U-test). These findings suggest that hypoperfusion in the left prefrontal area contributes to the expression of depressive symptoms in patients with DAT.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Neuroscience Letters
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    ABSTRACT: A contrast-enhanced mass was revealed by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the left pelvic cavity of a 71-year-old man. Although the mass appeared to be a cavernous hemangioma, malignancy could not be ruled out. Abdominal angiography was performed but failed to rule out malignancy because it revealed vascular dislocation and encasement. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) was then performed, and suggested a benign tumor, with a standardized uptake value (SUV) of 1.7. Following this finding, because the tumor was large and rupture could not be ruled out, we decided to perform surgery. The resected tumor was a benign cavernous hemangioma, consistent with the result obtained by FDG-PET.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Annals of Nuclear Medicine