[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Pulmonary deterioration after B.cepacia complex (BCC) colonization has a heterogeneous pattern. The aim was to investigate the clinical outcome of BCC colonization in CF patients chronically colonized with P. aeruginosa.
CF patients chronically colonized with P. aeruginosa were divided into three groups: intermittent (I), chronic (II) and no colonization (III) with BCC. Body mass index (BMI) percentile and spirometric parameters were analyzed at three different times in each group.
Fifty-six patients chronically colonized with P. aeruginosa were included. Of these, 27 also had evidence of BCC colonization (13 intermittent and 14 chronic). BMI percentile was significantly lower among patients chronically colonized by both P. aeruginosa and BCC. Mean values of FEV1 and FVC % were also significantly lower in these patients, both at the time of chronic BCC colonization and 24 months forward.
Chronic BCC colonization is associated with significant loss of lung function. Lower BMI might be a risk factor for chronic BCC colonization, preceding these events.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Pulmonary Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular methodologies were used to identify 28
spp from CF patients. MLST identified 17
All less frequent species were misidentified as
by MALDI-ToF MS. A chronic colonization by clonally related
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Clinical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the diversity of Pseudomonads and antibiotic resistance profiles of P. aeruginosa in a hospital wastewater treatment plant (HWTP) located in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. Due its intrinsic multidrug resistance and its ability to colonize several environments, we selected P. aeruginosa isolates as indicator of antimicrobial resistance frequency.
Twenty-seven P.aeruginosa strains isolated from five stages of HWTP identified by rrs 16S rDNA sequencing were submitted against 12 antimicrobials through disc diffusion method. Among these isolates, 62.9% showed aztreonam resistance, followed by ticarcillin/clavulanic acid (33.3%) and cefepime (22.2%). Out of these isolates, 22.2% were classified as multidrug-resistant (MDR ≥ 3 classes). Five 16S rRNA gene libraries of Pseudomonas genus were constructed, one for each stages of the plant, yielding 93 sequences clustered in 41 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). Each treatment step showed unique OTU's composition, suggesting changes in Pseudomonas spp. communities during the process. Several Pseudomonas species involved in biodegradation and bioremediation of xenobiotics were detected suggesting a positive impact in the wastewater treatment.
Our strategy using metagenomics associated with the isolation of P. aeruginosa strains as bio-indicator allowed us to assess their antimicrobial susceptibility, the viability and diversity of Pseudomonas species in the hospital wastewater. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Applied Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acinetobacter baumannii is an important pathogen frequently
associated with nosocomial outbreaks around the world. In Brazil, A.
baumannii has become particularly problematic because of its prevalence
and the carbapenems resistance. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a
multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (ST15/CC15) isolated in 2009 from
the state of Espírito Santo (Southeast Brazil). We observed important resistance
determinant genes in an estimated genome size of 4,102,788 bp with 3,862 predicted
coding regions. A detailed report of the genomic data analysis might help to
understand the specific features of highly successful strains belonged to a relevant
complex clonal in different Brazilian geographical regions.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The emergence of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains producing carbapenemases, such as NDM-1, has become a major public health issue due to a high dissemination capacity and limited treatment options. Here we describe the draft genome of three NDM-1-producing isolates: Providencia rettgeri (CCBH11880), Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. oharae (CCBH10892) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (CCBH13327), isolated in Brazil. Besides blaNDM-1, resistance genes to aminoglycosides [aadA1, aadA2, aac(6')-Ib-cr] and quinolones (qnrA1, qnrB4) were observed which contributed to the multidrug resistance profile. The element ISAba125 was found associated to the blaNDM-1 gene in all strains.
Preview · Article · May 2015 · Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper we describe two species of the cosmopolitan sponge genus Haliclona from Rio de Janeiro State, SE Brazil, one of which is new to science and the other a new record to Brazil. Haliclona (Rhizoniera) fugidia sp. nov. is brownish-pink, salmon or cream, thickly encrusting, without oscular tubes and tangential ectosomal reticulation. Choanosomal skeleton is a mostly unispicular ladder-like reticulation of oxeas, very organized near the sponge surface and denser and more disorganized in the interior of the sponge. Haliclona (Halichoclona) vansoesti de Weerdt et al., 1999 was originally described from the Caribbean. It has a very loose connection between ectosome and choanosome, a whitish translucent ectosome combined with a purplish choanosome, a cavernous structure and a friable or crispy consistency. The conspecificity of SE Brazilian and Caribbean populations of H. (Halich.) vansoesti was verified through phylogenetic analysis of small subunit 18S rRNA (18S) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree constructed with 18S sequences indicates that specimens of H. (Halich.) vansoesti from Rio de Janeiro were phylogenetically closer to the same species from the Caribbean than to other species of Haliclona. Although not available for H. (Halich.) vansoesti from the Caribbean, COI sequences of our specimens were also quite distinct from those of other Haliclona species. Molecular identification based on DNA sequences is a useful complement to traditional morphology-based taxonomy, especially in highly plastic sponges such as Haliclona spp. and other haplosclerids.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most important resistance mechanism against β-lactam drugs is the production of carbapenemases. In this study, we report the first identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-2 and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-1 in Enterobacter hormaechei subps. oharae from Brazil. The detection of carbapenemases was done by phenotypic assays, PCR, and DNA sequencing, whereas the identification was performed by conventional techniques, sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene, and hsp60-genotyping. Molecular typing was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and antimicrobial susceptibility was surrogated by the Etest methodology. Using the whole genome sequencing approach, we searched for resistance genes, plasmid incompatibility group genes, and the genetic environment of blaNDM and blaKPC. The plasmid identification was done by restriction digests with the S1 nuclease followed by hybridization using digoxigenin labeled specific probes. The isolate was considered multiresistant, being susceptible to amikacin and polymyxin B. We observed the following resistance genes: blaCTX-M-15, blaACT-7, blaTEM-1, blaOXA-1, aadA1, aadA2, strA, strB, aac(3)-II, qnrB1, and aac(6')-Ib-cr and incompatibility group plasmid genes IncA/C, IncHI2, and IncN. The blaKPC gene was found associated to the transposon Tn4401 isoform b in plasmid with 50 kb (IncN) and blaNDM-1 was flanked by a truncated ISAba125 and bleMBL in plasmid with 160 kb (IncA/C). This study showed the coproduction of two important carbapenemases (KPC-2 and NDM-1) associated with mobile genetic elements of worldwide epidemiological importance (Tn4401 and ISAba125, respectively), reinforcing the idea that urgent measures are necessary to reduce and prevent the spreading of these carbapenemases primarily in the hospital settings.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high occurrence of nosocomial multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms is
considered a global health problem. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a MDR
Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated in Brazil that belongs to the
endemic clone ST277. The genome encodes important resistance determinant genes and
consists of 6.7 Mb with a G+C content of 66.86% and 6,347 predicted coding regions
including 60 RNAs.
Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Multidrug resistance is a critical factor in tuberculosis control. To gain better understanding of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Brazil, a retrospective study was performed to compare genotypic diversity and drug resistance associated mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from a national reference center.
Methods and Findings
Ninety-nine multidrug resistant isolates from 12 Brazilian states were studied. Drug-resistance patterns were determined and the rpoB and katG genes were screened for mutations. Genotypic diversity was investigated by IS6110-RFLP and Luminex 47 spoligotyping. Mutations in rpoB and katG were seen in 91% and 93% of the isolates, respectively. Codon 315 katG mutations occurred in 82.8% of the isolates with a predominance of the Ser315Thr substitution. Twenty-five isolates were clustered in 11 groups with identical IS6110-RFLP patterns while 74 showed unique patterns with no association between mutation frequencies or susceptibility profiles. The most prevalent spoligotyping lineages were LAM (47%), T (17%) and Haarlen (12%). The Haarlen lineage showed a higher frequency of codon 516 rpoB mutations while codon 531 mutations prevailed in the other isolates.
Our data suggest that there were no major multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis strains transmitted among patients referred to the reference center, indicating an independent acquisition of resistance. In addition, drug resistance associated mutation profiles were well established among the main spoligotyping lineages found in these Brazilian multidrug resistant isolates, providing useful data for patient management and treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ExoU is an important virulence factor in acute P seudomonas aeruginosa infections. Here, we unveiled the mechanisms of ExoU‐driven NF‐κB activation by using human airway cells and mice infected with P . aeruginosa strains. Several approaches showed that PAFR was crucially implicated in the activation of the canonical NF‐κB pathway. Confocal microscopy of lungs from infected mice revealed that PAFR‐dependent NF‐κB activation occurred mainly in respiratory epithelial cells, and reduced p65 nuclear translocation was detected in mice PAFR−/− or treated with the PAFR antagonist WEB 2086. Several evidences showed that ExoU‐induced NF‐κB activation regulated PAFR expression. First, ExoU increased p65 occupation of PAFR promoter, as assessed by ChIP. Second, luciferase assays in cultures transfected with different plasmid constructs revealed that ExoU promoted p65 binding to the three κB sites in PAFR promoter. Third, treatment of cell cultures with the NF‐κB inhibitor Bay 11–7082, or transfection with IκBα negative‐dominant, significantly decreased PAFR mRNA. Finally, reduction in PAFR expression was observed in mice treated with Bay 11–7082 or WEB 2086 prior to infection. Together, our data demonstrate that ExoU activates NF‐κB by PAFR signalling, which in turns enhances PAFR expression, highlighting an important mechanism of amplification of response to this P . aeruginosa toxin.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Cellular Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background / Purpose:
Biodiversity inventory of marine sponges from Ilha Grande Bay, Southeastern Atlantic.
Ilha Grande is a hotspot for marine sponge biodiversity in the southeastern Atlantic. New DNA sequences were produced for the Sponge Barcoding Project.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cockroaches are insects that can accommodate diets of different composition, including lignocellulosic materials. Digestion of these compounds is achieved by the insect's own enzymes and also by enzymes produced by gut symbionts. The presence of different and modular bacterial phyla on the cockroach gut tract suggests that this insect could be an interesting model to study the organization of gut bacterial communities associated with the digestion of different lignocellulosic diets. Thus, changes in the diversity of gut associated bacterial communities of insects exposed to such diets could give useful insights on how to improve hemicellulose and cellulose breakdown systems. In this work, through sequence analysis of 16S rRNA clone libraries, we compared the phylogenetic diversity and composition of gut associated bacteria in the cockroach Periplaneta americana collected in the wild-types or kept on two different diets: sugarcane bagasse and crystalline cellulose. These high fiber diets favor the predominance of some bacterial phyla, such as Firmicutes, when compared to wild-types cockroaches. Our data show a high bacterial diversity in P. americana gut, with communities composed mostly by the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Synergistetes. Our data show that the composition and diversity of gut bacterial communities could be modulated by diet composition. The increased presence of Firmicutes in sugarcane bagasse and crystalline cellulose-fed animals suggests that these bacteria are strongly involved in lignocellulose digestion in cockroach guts.
Cockroaches are omnivorous animals that can incorporate in their diets food of different composition, including lignocellulosic materials. Digestion of these compounds is achieved by the insect's own enzymes and also by enzymes produced by gut symbiont. However, the influence of diet with different fiber contents on gut bacterial communities and how this affects the digestion of cockroaches is still unclear. The presence of some bacterial phyla on gut tract suggests that cockroaches could be an interesting model to study the organization of gut bacterial communities during digestion of different lignocellulosic diets. Knowledge about the changes in diversity of gut associated bacterial communities of insects exposed to such diets could give interesting insights on how to improve hemicellulose and cellulose breakdown systems.
We compared the phylogenetic diversity and composition of gut associated bacteria in the cockroach P. americana caught on the wild or kept on two different diets: sugarcane bagasse and crystalline cellulose. For this purpose we constructed bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries which showed that a diet rich in cellulose and sugarcane bagasse favors the predominance of some bacterial phyla, more remarkably Firmicutes, when compared to wild cockroaches. Rarefaction analysis, LIBSHUFF and UniFrac PCA comparisons showed that gene libraries of wild insects were the most diverse, followed by sugarcane bagasse fed and then cellulose fed animals. It is also noteworthy that cellulose and sugarcane bagasse gene libraries resemble each other.
Our data show a high bacterial diversity in P. americana gut, with communities composed mostly by the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Synergistetes. The composition and diversity of gut bacterial communities could be modulated by font of diet composition. The increased presence of Firmicutes in sugarcane bagasse and crystalline cellulose-fed animals suggests that these bacteria are strongly involved in lignocellulose digestion in cockroach guts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Archaea domain is ubiquitously distributed and extremely diverse, however, environmental factors that shape archaeal community structure are not well known. Aquatic environments, including the water column and sediments harbor many new uncultured archaeal species from which metabolic and ecological roles remain elusive. Some environments are especially neglected in terms of archaeal diversity, as is the case of pristine tropical areas. Here we investigate the archaeal composition in marine and freshwater systems from Ilha Grande, a South Atlantic tropical environment. All sampled habitats showed high archaeal diversity. No OTUs were shared between freshwater, marine and mangrove sediment samples, yet these environments are interconnected and geographically close, indicating environment-specific community structuring. Group II Euryarchaeota was the main clade in marine samples, while the new putative phylum Thaumarchaeota and LDS/RCV Euryarchaeota dominated freshwaters. Group III Euryarchaeota, a rare clade, was also retrieved in reasonable abundance in marine samples. The archaeal community from mangrove sediments was composed mainly by members of mesophilic Crenarchaeota and by a distinct clade forming a sister-group to Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Our results show strong environment-specific community structuring in tropical aquatic Archaea, as previously seen for Bacteria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite a great number of published studies addressing estuarine, freshwater and marine bacterial diversity, few have examined urban coastal lagoons in tropical habitats. There is an increasing interest in monitoring opportunistic pathogens as well as indigenous microbial community members in these water bodies by current molecular and microbiological approaches. In this work, bacterial isolates were obtained through selective plate dilution methods to evaluate antibiotic resistances. In addition, 16S rRNA gene libraries were prepared from environmental waters and mixed cultures grown in BHI medium inoculated with Jacarepaguá lagoon waters. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses showed distinct community profiles between environmental communities from each studied site and their cultured counterparts. A total of 497 bacterial sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 245 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% similarity. CCA diagrams showcased how several environmental variables affect the distribution of 18 bacterial orders throughout the three distinct habitats. UniFrac metrics and Venn diagrams revealed that bacterial communities retrieved through each experimental approach were significantly different and that only one OTU, closely related to Vibrio cholerae, was shared between them. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from most sampled environments, fifty percent of which showed antibiotic resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Plant derived compounds have been shown to be important sources of several anti-cancer agents. As cell cycle deregulation and tumor growth are intimately linked, the discovery of new substances targeting events in this biochemical pathway would be of great value. The anti-leukemic effect of an ethanolic extract of Pterodon pubescens seeds (EEPp) has been previously demonstrated and now we show that a terpenic subfraction (SF5) of EEPp containing farnesol, geranylgeraniol and vouacapan derivatives induces apoptosis in the human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line K562. This work addresses SF5’s antiproliferative mechanisms in these cells since they are still unclear.
DNA synthesis in K562 cells was assessed by [3H]-methyl-thymidine incorporation and cell cycle status by flow cytometry. The expression of cyclins D1 and E2, of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 and of the proto-oncogene c-myc was evaluated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation was evaluated by western blotting.
In K562 cells, SF5 treatment induced a higher inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell growth than the original EEPp hexanic fraction from which SF5 originated, and also arrested the cell cycle in G1. Exposure of these cells to SF5 led to a decrease in cyclin E2 and c-myc expression while p21 mRNA levels were increased. Furthermore, SF5 inhibited the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ERK 1/2 and NF-κB.
This work suggests that the anti-leukemic action of SF5 is linked to the inhibition of ERKs, NF-κB and c-myc signaling pathways resulting in reduced cyclin E2 mRNA expression and cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reverse transcription followed by real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is the gold standard for quantifying gene expression. However, because of PCR detection limits, theorized to be three template copies, the quantitation of genes exhibiting great expression variability is challenging. Using genes with high to low expression in rat tissues we experimentally demonstrated this limit and found it to be applicable only for describing reactions in which stochastic events and the Monte Carlo effect are present. We also determined the lower limits of RNA input that should be used to prevent artifactual template quantitation and we propose a methodology to assess RT-qPCR detection limits in any qPCR platform.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Analytical Biochemistry