[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Materials and methods Results Discussion References Figures and TablesDetermination of oestrogen receptor alpha (ER) represents at present the most important predictive factor in breast cancers. Data of ours and of other authors suggest that promising predictive/prognostic factors may also include pS2, metallothionein (MT) and CD24. Present study aimed at determining prognostic and predictive value of immunohistochemical determination of ER, pS2, MT, and CD24 expression in sections originating from 104 patients with breast cancer. An univariate and multivariate analysis was performed. Both univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that cytoplasmic-membranous expression of CD24 (CD24c-m) represents a strong unfavourable prognostic factor in the entire group and in most of the subgroups of patients. In several subgroups of the patients also a prognostic value was demonstrated of elevated expression of pS2 and of membranous expression of CD24. Our studies demonstrated that all patients with good prognostic factors (higher ER and pS2 expressions, lower MT expression, CD24c-m negativity) survived total period of observation (103 months). The study documented that cytoplasmic-membranous expression of CD24 represented an extremely strong unfavourable prognostic factor in breast cancer. Examination of the entire panel of the studied proteins permitted to select a group of patients of an exceptionally good prognosis.Keywords: breast cancer, prognosis, oestrogen receptor alpha, pS2, metallothionein, CD24
Full-text · Article · Aug 2006 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In breast cancer, the expression of CD24 represents a poorly recognised unfavourable prognostic factor. CD24 has been described to be potentially down-regulated by estrogen receptor alpha (ER). The present study was aimed at examining the predictive value of CD24 expression in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer cases.
Sixty patients with primary invasive ductal breast cancers with post-operative tamoxifen treatment were enrolled in the study. Immmunohistochemical reactions were performed using monoclonal antibodies directed against CD24 and ER.
Cases demonstrating cytoplasmic-membranous expression of CD24 (CD24c-m) proved to be characterised by a significantly lower expression of ER as compared to CD24c-m-negative cases. A multivariate progression analysis based on the Cox proportional hazard model demonstrated that CD24c-m expression is an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival.
The data from the present study suggested that CD24c-m expression is specific for tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cases. CD24 should be subjected to comprehensive studies as a marker of resistance to tamoxifen treatment.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In case of breast cancer the grade of differentiation and expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptors falls within the first category of prognostic factors according to the College of American Pathologists. HER-2, p53 and Ki67 belong to the second category and their significance still awaits confirmation. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between the intensity of expression of oestrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PgR), HER-2, p53 and Ki67 in cells of ductal breast cancer of G1, G2 or G3 differentiation grade. In paraffin sections of 60 ductal breast cancers (20 cases in G1, 20 in G2 and 20 in G3), immunocytochemical reactions were performed to detect the expression of ER, PgR, HER-2, p53 and Ki67. Following a semi-quantitative appraisal of the preparations under examination, appropriate statistical tests were used to document significant relationships. We noted significant positive correlations between ER and PgR (the entire group studied, G1-3, and the G1 group), HER-2 and p53 (G2) and between p53 and Ki67 expression (G2). Significant negative correlations were found between ER and p53 (G1-3), PgR and p53 (G1-3, G1, G3) and between PgR and Ki67 (G1-3, G2). The studies performed demonstrated distinct relationships between the expression intensity of various proteins in tumour cells in relation to the grade of differentiation of the tumour. We also showed that a parallel determination of ER, PgR and p53 expression may carry high predictive value as to response to tamoxifen treatment.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2005 · Folia morphologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of proteins which, due to their unique structure, fulfil numerous functions in the cell. They participate in growth, differentiation, and reparative processes, protect cells against free radicals, and are responsible for heavy metal homeostasis. Their involvement has been reported in the multidrug resistance to cytostatic drugs. Numerous reports document MT presence in cells of various tumors, including breast cancer. Augmented expression of MTs has been reported in less differentiated tumors. MT expression used to be linked to higher proliferative activity of tumor cells, shorter survival of the patients, and tamoxifen-resistance. The present study aimed at examining the relation between MT expression and the manifestation of proliferation exponents (Ki67, nucleolar organizers--AgNORs) in cells of ductal breast cancer of G2 grade of malignancy.
Reactions were performed to detect MTs (clone E9), Ki67 (clone MIB-1) (immunocytochemistry), and AgNORs (silver impregnation) in paraffin sections of breast cancers in G2 grade originating from 60 females. Results of the reactions were subjected to statistical analysis using Statistica 98 PL software.
Statistical analysis (Spearman's rank correlation) demonstrated no relationships between the studied markers (p>0.05).
There is no correlation between metallothionein expression and proliferation and between Ki67 and AgNORs in ductal breast cancers of G2 grade of differentiation.
No preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most important immunocytochemical prognostic and predictive factors in cases of breast cancer include estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR). The present study aimed at examining the relationship between the manifestation intensity of proliferation markers (Ki-67 and nucleolar organizer regions--AgNORs) on one hand, and expression of ER and PgR on the other in a uniform group of invasive ductal breast cancers of G2 grade. Moreover, the study aimed at examining the relationship between the above mentioned markers and expression of metallothionein (MT). The studies were performed on samples of invasive ductal breast cancers of G2 grade, originating from 60 females. In paraffin sections originating from the studied cases immunocytochemical reactions were performed using monoclonal antibodies to ER, PgR, Ki-67 and MT, and silver staining was conducted to localize AgNORs. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis using Statistica software. Results indicate that manifestation of AgNORs does not correlate with any of the studied antigens (ER, PgR, Ki-67, MT) (p>0.05). Moreover, no relationship could be demonstrated between the intensity of MT expression and proliferation markers or steroid receptor status (p>0.05). A negative correlation was shown between the expression of ER and Ki-67 (p=0.0009). The most intense proliferative activity was demonstrated in cases of breast cancer showing PgR expression but no ER expression (p=0.015), while the lowest proliferative activity was detected in breast cancers with expression of both ER and PgR (p<0.05).
Preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Pathology & Oncology Research