[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipoamino acids are anandamide-related endogenous molecules that induce analgesia via unresolved mechanisms. Here, we provide evidence that the T-type/Cav3 calcium channels are important pharmacological targets underlying their physiological effects. Various lipoamino acids, including N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly), reversibly inhibited Cav3.1, Cav3.2, and Cav3.3 currents, with potent effects on Cav3.2 [EC(50) approximately 200 nm for N-arachidonoyl 3-OH-gamma-aminobutyric acid (NAGABA-OH)]. This inhibition involved a large shift in the Cav3.2 steady-state inactivation and persisted during fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition as well as in cell-free outside-out patch. In contrast, lipoamino acids had weak effects on high-voltage-activated (HVA) Cav1.2 and Cav2.2 calcium currents, on Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 sodium currents, and on anandamide-sensitive TRPV1 and TASK1 currents. Accordingly, lipoamino acids strongly inhibited native Cav3.2 currents in sensory neurons with small effects on sodium and HVA calcium currents. In addition, we demonstrate here that lipoamino acids NAGly and NAGABA-OH produced a strong thermal analgesia and that these effects (but not those of morphine) were abolished in Cav3.2 knock-out mice. Collectively, our data revealed lipoamino acids as a family of endogenous T-type channel inhibitors, suggesting that these ligands can modulate multiple cell functions via this newly evidenced regulation.
Preview · Article · Oct 2009 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The insulin IGF-1-PI3K-Akt signaling pathway has been suggested to improve cardiac inotropism and increase Ca(2+) handling through the effects of the protein kinase Akt. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we provide evidence for an unanticipated regulatory function of Akt controlling L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) protein density. The pore-forming channel subunit Ca(v)alpha1 contains highly conserved PEST sequences (signals for rapid protein degradation), and in-frame deletion of these PEST sequences results in increased Ca(v)alpha1 protein levels. Our findings show that Akt-dependent phosphorylation of Ca(v)beta2, the LTCC chaperone for Ca(v)alpha1, antagonizes Ca(v)alpha1 protein degradation by preventing Ca(v)alpha1 PEST sequence recognition, leading to increased LTCC density and the consequent modulation of Ca(2+) channel function. This novel mechanism by which Akt modulates LTCC stability could profoundly influence cardiac myocyte Ca(2+) entry, Ca(2+) handling, and contractility.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · The Journal of Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-type calcium channels (T-channels) contribute to a wide variety of physiological functions, especially in the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Recent studies using knock-out mouse models have been instrumental in documenting further the role of T-channels in sleep, heartbeat, pain and epilepsy. Importantly, several novel aspects of the regulation of these channels have been identified over the last few years, providing new insights into their physiological and pathophysiological roles. Here, we review recent evidence supporting that the Cav3 subunits of T-channels are modulated by endogenous ligands such as anandamide, zinc, redox and oxidizing agents, as well as G-protein and protein kinases pathways. The study of T-channel mutations associated with childhood absence epilepsy has also revealed new aspects of Cav3 subunit trafficking. Collectively, these findings identify novel regulatory mechanisms involved in the fine tuning of T-channel expression and activity, and offer new directions for the design of novel therapeutic strategies targeting these channels.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta