[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new class of HCV NS3/4a protease inhibitors which contain a P2 to P4 macrocyclic constraint was designed using a molecular-modeling derived strategy. Exploration of the P2 heterocyclic region, the P2 to P4 linker, and the P1 side chain of this class of compounds via a modular synthetic strategy allowed for the optimization of enzyme potency, cellular activity, and rat liver exposure following oral dosing. These studies led to the identification of clinical candidate 35b (vaniprevir, MK-7009), which is active against both the genotype 1 and genotype 2 NS3/4a protease enzymes and has good plasma exposure and excellent liver exposure in multiple species.
No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular modeling of inhibitor bound full length HCV NS3/4A protease structures proved to be a valuable tool in the design of a new series of potent NS3 protease inhibitors. Optimization of initial compounds provided 25a. The in vitro activity and selectivity as well as the rat pharmacokinetic profile of 25a compare favorably with the data for other NS3/4A protease inhibitors currently in clinical development for the treatment of HCV.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) with its cofactor NS4A is a pivotal enzyme for the replication of HCV. Inhibition of NS3-4A protease activity has been validated as an antiviral target in clinical studies of inhibitors of the enzyme. We have developed a sensitive time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) assay capable of detecting very low NS3-4A concentrations. A depsipeptide substrate is used that contains a europium-cryptate moiety and an efficient quenching group, QSY-7. The TRF assay is at least 30-fold more sensitive than a fluorescence energy transfer (FRET) assay and allows evaluation of NS3 protease inhibitors in reactions catalyzed by low enzyme concentrations (30 pM). Use of low enzyme concentrations allows for accurate measurement of inhibition by compounds with subnanomolar inhibition constants. The inhibitory potency of the potent protease inhibitor, BILN-2061, is significantly greater than previously reported. The ability to accurately determine inhibitory potency in reactions with low picomolar concentrations of NS3-4A is crucially important to allow valid comparisons between potent inhibitors. Studies of the interaction of NS3 with its NS4A cofactor at low enzyme concentration also reveal that the protease activity is salt dependent. This salt dependence of the enzyme activity is not present when high enzyme concentrations are used in the FRET assay.
No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Analytical Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the importance of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) in the stabilization of plasma clots, we have compared fibrinolysis in TAFI-deficient (KO) and wild-type (WT) littermate mice. TAFI-deficient mice were previously generated by targeted gene disruption. The level of TAFI activity generated in plasma from WT mice in the presence of added thrombin and thrombomodulin (activatable TAFI) is twice that of plasma from TAFI heterozygous mice (HET); no activatable TAFI is detected in TAFI KO plasma. In vitro, TAFI KO plasma clots lysed faster than WT plasma clots, and HET plasma clots lysed at an intermediate rate. The rate of clot lysis for KO mice is not changed in the presence of potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor, a specific inhibitor of TAFIa, whereas the WT and HET clot lysis rates are increased in the presence of potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor. C-terminal lysine residues are preserved on partially degraded clots from KO mice, but are absent from partially degraded WT clots. In vivo, in a batroxobin-induced pulmonary embolism model, KO mice displayed a lower retention of fibrin in the lungs than did WT mice. These results are the first demonstration of enhanced endogenous fibrinolysis in an in vivo model without the addition of exogenous thrombolytic.
No preview · Article · Oct 2005 · Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structural modifications of the aminopyridine P(1)(') group of imidazole acetic acid based TAFIa inhibitors led to the discovery of the aminocyclopentyl analog 28, a 1 nM TAFIa inhibitor with CLT(50) functional activity of 14 nM but without selectivity against CPB. While not as active, aminobutyl derivative 27 provided an improved 6.7-fold selectivity for TAFIa versus CPB.
No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is an important regulator of fibrinolysis, and inhibitors of this enzyme have potential use in antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy. Appropriately substituted imidazole acetic acids such as 10j were found to be potent inhibitors of activated TAFI and selective versus the related carboxypeptidases CPA, CPN, and CPM but not CPB. Further, 10j accelerated clot lysis in vitro and was shown to be efficacious in a primate model of thrombosis.
No preview · Article · Jan 2004 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carboxypeptidases catalyze the removal of the C-terminal amino acid residues in peptides and proteins and exert important biological functions. Assays for carboxypeptidase activity that rely on change of absorbance generally suffer from low sensitivity and are difficult to adapt to high-throughput screening. We have developed a sensitive, robust assay for basic carboxypeptidase activity that makes use of electrochemiluminescent (ECL) detection of reaction product. In this assay, a peptide substrate contains the epitope for antibody (G2-10) binding which is masked by a C-terminal arginine. Carboxypeptidase activity exposes the epitope, allowing the binding of ruthenylated G2-10 which is then detected using ECL. High sensitivity allowed detection limits of 1-2 pM enzyme for carboxypeptidase B and activated thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa). The inhibition of several basic carboxypeptidases by commercially available inhibitors was studied. This antibody-based method can be extended to other sensitive detection techniques such as amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay. The high sensitivity of the assay allowed the determination of the activatable levels of TAFI in human and other animal plasma in the presence of epsilon -aminocaproic acid, an active-site inhibitor that stabilizes TAFIa. A method to isolate in situ activated TAFIa from human serum in the presence of epsilon -aminocaproic acid was also developed.
No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Analytical Biochemistry