Marina N Nikiforova

Fukushima Medical University, Hukusima, Fukushima, Japan

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Publications (196)885.57 Total impact

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2016 · Leukemia & lymphoma
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance: Although growing evidence points to highly indolent behavior of encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC), most patients with EFVPTC are treated as having conventional thyroid cancer. Objective: To evaluate clinical outcomes, refine diagnostic criteria, and develop a nomenclature that appropriately reflects the biological and clinical characteristics of EFVPTC. Design, setting, and participants: International, multidisciplinary, retrospective study of patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed as EFVPTC, including 109 patients with noninvasive EFVPTC observed for 10 to 26 years and 101 patients with invasive EFVPTC observed for 1 to 18 years. Review of digitized histologic slides collected at 13 sites in 5 countries by 24 thyroid pathologists from 7 countries. A series of teleconferences and a face-to-face conference were used to establish consensus diagnostic criteria and develop new nomenclature. Main outcomes and measures: Frequency of adverse outcomes, including death from disease, distant or locoregional metastases, and structural or biochemical recurrence, in patients with noninvasive and invasive EFVPTC diagnosed on the basis of a set of reproducible histopathologic criteria. Results: Consensus diagnostic criteria for EFVPTC were developed by 24 thyroid pathologists. All of the 109 patients with noninvasive EFVPTC (67 treated with only lobectomy, none received radioactive iodine ablation) were alive with no evidence of disease at final follow-up (median [range], 13 [10-26] years). An adverse event was seen in 12 of 101 (12%) of the cases of invasive EFVPTC, including 5 patients developing distant metastases, 2 of whom died of disease. Based on the outcome information for noninvasive EFVPTC, the name "noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features" (NIFTP) was adopted. A simplified diagnostic nuclear scoring scheme was developed and validated, yielding a sensitivity of 98.6% (95% CI, 96.3%-99.4%), specificity of 90.1% (95% CI, 86.0%-93.1%), and overall classification accuracy of 94.3% (95% CI, 92.1%-96.0%) for NIFTP. Conclusions and relevance: Thyroid tumors currently diagnosed as noninvasive EFVPTC have a very low risk of adverse outcome and should be termed NIFTP. This reclassification will affect a large population of patients worldwide and result in a significant reduction in psychological and clinical consequences associated with the diagnosis of cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016
  • No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The EIF1AX gene mutations have been recently found in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). The prevalence of these mutations in other types of thyroid cancers and benign nodules is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the occurence of EIF1AX mutations in exons 2, 5 and 6 of the gene in a series of 266 thyroid tumors and hyperplastic nodules by either Sanger or next-generation sequencing (ThyroSeq v.2). In addition, 647 thyroid FNA samples with indeterminate cytology were analyzed. Using surgically removed samples, EIF1AX mutations were detected in 3/86 (2.3%) PTC, 1/4 (25%) ATC, 0/53 follicular carcinomas, 0/12 medullary carcinomas, 2/27 (7.4%) follicular adenomas and 1/80 (1.3%) hyperplastic nodules. Among 5 mutation-positive FNA samples with surgical follow-up, one nodule was PTC and others were benign follicular adenomas or hyperplastic nodules. Overall, among 33 mutations identified, A113_splice mutation at the intron 5/exon 6 splice site of EIF1AX was the most common. All 4 carcinomas harbored A113_splice mutation and three of them had one or more coexisting mutations, typically RAS. All PTC carrying EIF1AX mutation were encapsulated follicular variants. In summary, this study shows that EIF1AX mutations occur not only in thyroid carcinomas, but also in benign nodules. The most common mutation hotspot is the A113_splice, followed by a cluster of mutations in exon 2. When found in thyroid FNA samples, EIF1AX mutations confer ~20% risk of cancer; the risk is likely to be higher in nodules carrying a A113_splice mutation and when EIF1AX co-exists with RAS mutations.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Endocrine Related Cancer
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: -Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is revolutionizing the discipline of laboratory medicine, with a deep and direct impact on patient care. Although it empowers clinical laboratories with unprecedented genomic sequencing capability, NGS has brought along obvious and obtrusive informatics challenges. Bioinformatics and clinical informatics are separate disciplines with typically a small degree of overlap, but they have been brought together by the enthusiastic adoption of NGS in clinical laboratories. The result has been a collaborative environment for the development of novel informatics solutions. Sustaining NGS-based testing in a regulated clinical environment requires institutional support to build and maintain a practical, robust, scalable, secure, and cost-effective informatics infrastructure. Objective: -To discuss the novel NGS informatics challenges facing pathology laboratories today and offer solutions and future developments to address these obstacles. Data sources: -The published literature pertaining to NGS informatics was reviewed. The coauthors, experts in the fields of molecular pathology, precision medicine, and pathology informatics, also contributed their experiences. Conclusion: -The boundary between bioinformatics and clinical informatics has significantly blurred with the introduction of NGS into clinical molecular laboratories. Next-generation sequencing technology and the data derived from these tests, if managed well in the clinical laboratory, will redefine the practice of medicine. In order to sustain this progress, adoption of smart computing technology will be essential. Computational pathologists will be expected to play a major role in rendering diagnostic and theranostic services by leveraging Big Data and modern computing tools.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Women with advanced breast carcinomas have few therapeutic options. Recent advances in genomic profiling represent a new paradigm of cancer classification and treatment, but experience with genomic testing in a clinical setting remains limited. We retrospectively determined the genomic variants and correlate these with histology [histomorphologic subtype, nuclear grade, standard immunohistochemistry (IHC)] and clinical utilization (ordering, turnaround time, report review, and targeted therapy). Among 48 patients, 2 showed no genetic alterations, 11 (23%) showed variants of unclear significance only and 35 (73%) showed variant(s) affecting function (VaF) and/or variants of unclear significance. Overall, 119 variants were observed in 20 of 50 tested genes. Each patient had a unique molecular profile, with numerous (n=58) variants not previously reported in breast cancer. VaF detected in more than 2 patients included: TP53 (n=21), PIK3CA (n=20), and FGFR1 (n=3). VaF comprised 46 single nucleotide variants (79%), 7 amplifications (12%), 3 frameshifts (5%), 1 insertion (2%), and 1 deletion (2%). The tested samples had very high Ki67 index (average 57%+/-23%) and approximately half were hormone receptor and HER2 negative (25/46, 54%). Metastatic breast carcinomas showed a higher average VaF versus breast-localized tumors (1.3+/-0.99 vs. 0.18+/-0.60, P<0.05). Next-generation sequencing reports were promptly reported and reviewed (average 1 to 2 d) and 7 (~25%) of potentially eligible patients received targeted therapy. Advanced breast cancers show unique landscapes of genetic variants. Most testing was done in late disease, often in metastatic and receptor-negative carcinomas. Next-generation sequencing results were promptly reported and reviewed, but the utilization of targeted therapies was limited. Copyright 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology: AIMM / official publication of the Society for Applied Immunohistochemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: An increase in thyroid cancers, predominantly papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), has been recently reported in children. Methods: The histopathology of 28 consecutive PTCs from the northeast United States was reviewed. None of the patients (ages 6-18 years; 20 females, 8 males) had significant exposure to radiation. Nucleic acid from tumors was tested for genetic abnormalities (n = 27). Negative results were reevaluated by targeted next-generation sequencing. Results: Seven of 27 PTCs (26%) had neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor (NTRK) fusion oncogenes (NTRK type 3/ets variant 6 [NTRK3/ETV6], n =5; NTRK3/unknown, n = 1; and NTRK type 1/translocated promoter region, nuclear basket protein [NTRK1/TPR], n = 1), including 5 tumors that measured >2 cm and 3 that diffusely involved the entire thyroid or lobe. All 7 tumors had lymphatic invasion, and 5 had vascular invasion. Six of 27 PTCs (22%) had ret proto-oncogene (RET) fusions (RET/PTC1, n = 5; RET/PTC3, n = 1); 2 tumors measured >2 cm and diffusely involved the thyroid, and 5 had lymphatic invasion, with vascular invasion in 2. Thirteen PTCs had the B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) valine-to-glutamic acid mutation at position 600 (BRAF(V) (600E) ) (13 of 27 tumors; 48%), 11 measured <2 cm, and 6 had lymphatic invasion (46%), with vascular invasion in 3. Fusion oncogene tumors, compared with BRAF(V) (600E) PTCs, were associated with large size (mean, 2.2 cm vs 1.5 cm, respectively; P = .05), solid and diffuse variants (11 of 13 vs 0 of 13 tumors, respectively; P < .001), and lymphovascular invasion (12 of 13 vs 6 of 13 tumors, respectively; P = .02); BRAF(V) (600E) PTCs were predominantly the classic variant (12 of 13 vs 1 of 13 tumors). Two tumors metastasized to the lung, and both had fusion oncogenes (NTRK1/TPR, n = 1; RET/PTC1, n = 1). Conclusions: Fusion oncogene PTC presents with more extensive disease and aggressive pathology than BRAF(V) (600E) PTC in the pediatric population. The high prevalence of the NTRK1/NTRK3 fusion oncogene PTCs in the United States is unusual and needs further investigation. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cancer
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hearing loss and goiter and is caused by bi-allelic mutations (homozygous or compound heterozygous) of the PDS (SLC26A4) gene. The incidence of Pendred syndrome is 7.5-10/100,000 in the general population, and it carries a 1 % risk of developing thyroid carcinoma. Herein, we report a case of a patient with Pendred syndrome who developed a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC)-that is approximately at an odd of 1/1,000,000. Targeted next-generation sequencing with ThyroSeq v2 was performed on the tumor, and only a TP53 mutation (TP53 p.R175H) was identified. The mutation was limited to the tumor nodule of FVPTC as shown by immunohistochemistry. This report represents the first extensive molecular study of a Pendred syndrome-associated thyroid carcinoma. The evidences support that thyroid carcinomas arising from dyshormonogenetic goiter require additional genetic alteration in addition to the purported thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) overstimulation. It is intrigue to note that the mutant p53 is involved in the development of a low-grade malignant thyroid tumor as FVPTC in this patient.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Endocrine Pathology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aims: The American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) recently reported evidence-based guidelines for the management of asymptomatic neoplastic pancreatic cysts. These guidelines advocate a higher threshold for surgical resection than prior guidelines and imaging surveillance for a considerable number of patients with pancreatic cysts. The aims of this study were to assess the accuracy of the AGA guidelines in detecting advanced neoplasia and present an alternative approach to pancreatic cysts. Methods: The study population consisted of 225 patients that underwent EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for a pancreatic cyst between January 2014 and May 2015. For each patient, clinical findings, EUS features, cytopathology results, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) analysis and molecular testing of pancreatic cyst fluid were reviewed. Molecular testing included the assessment of hotspot mutations and deletions for KRAS, GNAS, VHL, TP53, PIK3CA, and PTEN. Results: Diagnostic pathology was available for 41 (18%) patients with 13 (6%) harboring advanced neoplasia. Among these cases, the AGA guidelines identified advanced neoplasia with 62% sensitivity, 79% specificity, 57% positive predictive value, and 82% negative predictive value. Moreover, the AGA guidelines missed 45% of IPMNs with adenocarcinoma or high-grade dysplasia. For cases without confirmatory pathology, 27 of 184 (15%) patients with serous cystadenomas (SCAs) based on EUS findings and/or VHL alterations would continue MRI surveillance. In comparison, a novel algorithmic pathway using molecular testing of pancreatic cyst fluid detected advanced neoplasia with 100% sensitivity, 90% specificity, 79% positive predictive value, and 100% negative predictive value. Conclusions: The AGA guidelines were inaccurate in detecting pancreatic cysts with advanced neoplasia. Further, because the AGA guidelines manage all neoplastic cysts similarly, patients with SCAs will continue unnecessary MRI surveillance. The results of an alternative approach with integrative molecular testing are encouraging, but require further validation.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Identification of genetic changes in CNS tumors is important for the appropriate clinical management of patients. Our objective was to develop a next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay for simultaneously detecting the various types of genetic alterations characteristic for adult and pediatric CNS tumors that can be applied to small brain biopsies. Methods: We report an amplification-based targeted NGS assay (GlioSeq) that analyzes 30 genes for single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and indels, 24 genes for copy number variations (CNVs), and 14 types of structural alterations in BRAF, EGFR, and FGFR3 genes in a single workflow. GlioSeq performance was evaluated in 54 adult and pediatric CNS tumors, and the results were compared with fluorescence in-situ hybridization, Sanger sequencing, and reverse transcription PCR. Results: GlioSeq correctly identified 71/71 (100%) genetic alterations known to be present by conventional techniques, including 56 SNVs/indels, 9 CNVs, 3 EGFRvIII, and 3 KIAA1549-BRAF fusions. Only 20 ng of DNA and 10 ng of RNA were required for successful sequencing of 100% frozen and 96% formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. The assay sensitivity was 3%-5% of mutant alleles for SNVs and 1%-5% for gene fusions. The most commonly detected alterations were IDH1, TP53, TERT, ATRX. CDKN2A, and PTEN in high-grade gliomas, followed by BRAF fusions in low-grade gliomas and H3F3A mutations in pediatric gliomas. Conclusions: GlioSeq NGS assay offers accurate and sensitive detection of a wide range of genetic alterations in a single workflow. It allows rapid and cost-effective profiling of brain tumor specimens and thus provides valuable information for patient management.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Neuro-Oncology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosomal rearrangements that result in oncogenic gene fusions are clinically important drivers of many cancer types. Rapid and sensitive methods are therefore needed to detect a broad range of gene fusions in clinical specimens that are often of limited quantity and quality. We describe a next-generation sequencing approach that uses a multiplex PCR-based amplicon panel to interrogate fusion transcripts that involve 19 driver genes and 94 partners implicated in solid tumors. The panel also includes control assays that evaluate the 3'/5' expression ratios of 12 oncogenic kinases, which might be used to infer gene fusion events when the partner is unknown or not included on the panel. There was good concordance between the solid tumor fusion gene panel and other methods, including fluorescence in situ hybridization, real-time PCR, Sanger sequencing, and other next-generation sequencing panels, because 40 specimens known to harbor gene fusions were correctly identified. No specific fusion reads were observed in 59 fusion-negative specimens. The 3'/5' expression ratio was informative for fusions that involved ALK, RET, and NTRK1 but not for BRAF or ROS1 fusions. However, among 37 ALK or RET fusion-negative specimens, four exhibited elevated 3'/5' expression ratios, indicating that fusions predicted solely by 3'/5' read ratios require confirmatory testing.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · The Journal of molecular diagnostics: JMD
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular alterations in colorectal poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma remain incompletely characterized, particularly with respect to mutations in BRAF and KRAS. We analyzed 32 colorectal poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas and 40 colorectal poorly differentiated conventional adenocarcinomas for mutations in KRAS and BRAF and for DNA mismatch repair protein abnormalities to correlate histopathology with molecular alterations and survival. Compared with poorly differentiated conventional adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma frequently harbored BRAF mutations (59% versus 5%; P < .001) and less frequently demonstrated KRAS codon 12 or 13 mutations (17% versus 43%; P = .03). BRAF mutations were identified in both pure poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (60%) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma associated with a signet ring cell adenocarcinoma component (82%). Most (93%) poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas demonstrated proficient DNA mismatch repair by either microsatellite instability polymerase chain reaction or DNA mismatch repair immunohistochemistry. Patients with poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma had a significantly worse overall survival compared with patients with poorly differentiated conventional adenocarcinoma (P < .001). There was no significant difference in overall survival between patients with pure poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma and patients with both poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenocarcinoma components (P = .5). In conclusion, colorectal poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas frequently harbor BRAF mutations and are associated with poor overall survival.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Human pathology
  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Determination of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) material adequacy is essential prior to performing molecular testing (MT) in order to ensure good results and maximize resources. This study investigates several quantitative measures of cellularity in FNA samples of lung carcinoma, and correlates the results with MT adequacy. Materials and methods: A blinded retrospective analysis of 20 non-small-cell lung carcinoma cases was conducted: 13 contained "sufficient" material for EGFR/KRAS sequencing and ALK FISH studies; and 7 contained "insufficient" material for these tests. Three 400x fields-of-view (FOVs) were analyzed from digitized cell block glass slides of these cases. Cellularity in these FOVs was quantified using three methods: (1) visual estimation by cytopathologist; (2) manually annotated contours (MACs); (3) software derived, manually adjusted contours (SDMACs) using a custom segmentation script with adjustable parameters. These methods were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test, paired t test, and receiver operating characteristic/area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Results: There were significant differences between the insufficient/sufficient groups for each estimation method (visual P < 0.05, MAC P < 0.05, SDMAC P < 0.01). Variation of mean values was highest in the visual estimation method. AUC values were visual estimation = 0.903, MAC = 0.903, and SDMAC = 0.958. Mean variation of the 3 FOV values was found to be significantly higher for visual estimation compared with the other methods. Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of cellularity in digitized cell block material is feasible using different methods. In this investigation, the SDMAC method provided the highest accuracy and lowest variability. This supports image analysis as an objective and quantitative tool to assess FNA sample adequacy for guiding supplemental MT.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Given the clinical relevance of ESR1 mutations as potential drivers of resistance to endocrine therapy, this study used sensitive detection methods to determine the frequency of ESR1 mutations in primary and metastatic breast cancer, and in cell free DNA (cfDNA). Patients and methods: Six ESR1 mutations (K303R, S463P, Y537C, Y537N, Y537S, D538G) were assessed by digital droplet PCR (ddPCR), with lower limits of detection of 0.05% to 0.16%, in primary tumors (n=43), bone (n=12) and brain metastases (n=38), and cfDNA (n=29). Correlations between ESR1 mutations in metastatic lesions and single (1 patient) or serial blood draws (4 patients) were assessed. Results: ESR1 mutations were detected for D538G (n=13), Y537S (n=3) and Y537C (n=1), and not for K303R, S463P or Y537N. Mutation rates were 7.0% (3/43 primary tumors), 9.1% (1/11 bone metastases), 12.5% (3/24 brain metastases), and 24.1% (7/29 cfDNA). Two patients showed polyclonal disease with more than one ESR1 mutation. Mutation allele frequencies were 0.07% to 0.2% in primary tumors, 1.4% in bone metastases, 34.3 to 44.9% in brain metastases, and 0.2% to 13.7% in cfDNA. In cases with both cfDNA and metastatic samples (n=5), mutations were detected in both (n=3) or in cfDNA only (n=2). Treatment was associated with changes in ESR1 mutation detection and allele frequency. Conclusions: ESR1 mutations were detected at very low allele frequencies in some primary breast cancers, and at high allele frequency in metastases and cfDNA, suggesting that in some tumors rare ESR1 mutant clones are enriched by endocrine therapy.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Clinical Cancer Research
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conclusions: The BRAF K601E mutation is the second most common BRAF mutation after V600E found in thyroid nodules. Unlike BRAF V600E, this mutation is strongly associated with follicular-patterned cancer, particularly with the encapsulated follicular variant of PTC and may also be found in a follicular thyroid carcinoma. Overall, BRAF K601E mutant tumors show better clinical outcomes than BRAF V600E positive tumors, and preoperative BRAF K601E analysis can provide important prognostic information for use in clinical management.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that our 60-gene DNA/RNA ThyroSeq v2 next-generation sequence (NGS) assay would identify additional genetic markers, including gene fusions in sporadic pediatric differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) that had no known molecular alterations. Sporadic pediatric DTCs with informative molecular testing (n=18) were studied. Fifteen cases were previously tested by our standard 7-gene (BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS, RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, PAX8/PPARg) mutation panel. Three cases were not previously tested. The standard 7-gene panel identified molecular alterations in 9 of 15 tumors (60%). Cases analyzed by ThyroSeq v2 NGS included the six previously negative cases by the standard 7-gene panel and three cases not previously tested. The NGS assay revealed new gene fusions in four of six previously negative cases (67%). These gene fusions included ETV6/NTRK3 (n=3) and TPR/NTRK1 (n=1). A point mutation (BRAF-V600E) was detected in one of three untested cases. While standard testing could only identify molecular alterations in 60% of cases, with the addition of the ThyroSeq v2 NGS, this increased to 87% (n=13/15). Some cases with chromosomal rearrangements, including ETV6/NTRK3, appear to be associated with an aggressive histopathologic phenotype but had no documented history of radiation exposure. Additional work is needed to investigate if pediatric DTCs could benefit from a reclassification based on molecular subtypes, which may better reflect their underlying biologic potential. Our data support the use of broad gene panels for the molecular diagnostics of pediatric thyroid nodules in order to aid future classification, treatment, and clinical management recommendations.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is a common approach to evaluate thyroid nodules. It offers definitive diagnosis of a benign or malignant nodule in the majority of cases. However, 10-25% of nodules yield one of three indeterminate cytologic diagnoses, leading to suboptimal management of these patients. Atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undermined significance (AUS/FLUS) is a common indeterminate diagnosis, with the cancer risk ranging from 6% to 48%. This study assessed whether a multi-gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay can offer significant improvement in diagnosis in AUS/FLUS nodules. Methods: From May 2014 to March 2015, 465 consecutive FNA samples with the cytologic diagnosis of AUS/FLUS underwent prospective molecular testing using the ThyroSeq v2.1 panel. The panel included 14 genes analyzed for point mutations and 42 types of gene fusions occurring in thyroid cancer. In addition, eight genes were assessed for expression in order to evaluate the cell composition of FNA samples. Ninety-eight (21%) of these nodules had definitive surgical (n = 96) or nonsurgical (n = 2) follow-up and were used to determine the assay performance. Results: Among 465 AUS/FLUS nodules, three were found to be composed of parathyroid cells and 462 of thyroid follicular cells. Of the latter, 31 (6.7%) were positive for mutations. The most frequently mutated genes were NRAS and HRAS, and overall point mutations in seven different genes and five types of gene fusions were identified in these nodules. Among 98 nodules with known outcome, histologic analysis revealed 22 (22.5%) cancers. ThyroSeq v2.1 was able to classify 20/22 cancers correctly, showing a sensitivity of 90.9% [confidence interval (CI) 78.8-100], specificity of 92.1% [CI 86.0-98.2], positive predictive value of 76.9% [CI 60.7-93.1], and negative predictive value of 97.2% [CI 78.8-100], with an overall accuracy of 91.8% [CI 86.4-97.3]. Conclusions: The results of the study demonstrate that the ThyroSeq v2.1 multi-gene NGS panel of molecular markers provides both high sensitivity and high specificity for cancer detection in thyroid nodules with AUS/FLUS cytology, which should allow improved management for these patients.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To correlate thyroid cancer genotype with histology and outcomes. The prognostic significance of molecular signature in thyroid cancer (TC) is undefined but can potentially change surgical management. We reviewed a consecutive series of 1510 patients who had initial thyroidectomy for TC with routine testing for BRAF, RAS, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPARG alterations. Histologic metastatic or recurrent TC was tracked for 6 or more months after oncologic thyroidectomy. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was diagnosed in 97% of patients and poorly differentiated/anaplastic TC in 1.1%. Genetic alterations were detected in 1039 (70%); the most common mutations were BRAFV600E (644/1039, 62%), and RAS isoforms (323/1039, 31%). BRAFV600E-positive PTC was often conventional or tall cell variant (58%), with frequent extrathyroidal extension (51%) and lymph node metastasis (46%). Conversely, RAS-positive PTC was commonly follicular variant (87%), with infrequent extrathyroidal extension (4.6%) and lymph node metastasis (5.6%). BRAFV600E and RET/PTC-positive PTCs were histologically similar. Analogously, RAS and PAX8/PPARG-positive PTCs were histologically similar. Compared with RAS or PAX8/PPARG-positive TCs, BRAFV600E or RET/PTC-positive TCs were more often associated with stage III/IV disease (40% vs 15%, P < 0.001) and recurrence (10% vs 0.7%, P < 0.001; mean follow-up 33 ± 21 mo). Distant metastasis was highest in patients with RET/PTC-positive TC (10.8%, P = 0.02). In this large study of prospective mutation testing in unselected patients with TC, molecular signature was associated with distinctive phenotypes including cancers, with higher risks of both distant metastasis and early recurrence. Preoperative genotype provides valuable prognostic data to appropriately inform surgery.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Annals of surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Neurocutaneous melanocytosis (NCM) is characterized by clonal nevomelanocytic proliferations in the CNS and skin. Given the scarcity of effective therapeutic targets, testing new drugs requires a reliable and reproducible in vitro cellular model of the disease. Methods: We generated nevomelanocytic spheroids in vitro from lesions of the spinal cord, brain, and skin from 4 NCM patients. Nevomelanocytic cells were grown as monolayers or spheroids and their growth characteristics were evaluated. Cultured cell identity was confirmed by demonstration of the same NRAS mutation found in the original lesions and by immunophenotyping. Nevomelanocytic spheroids were treated with inhibitors of specific mediators of the NRAS signaling pathway (vemurafenib, MEK162, GDC0941, and GSK2126458). Drug sensitivity and cell viability were assessed. Results: Cultured cells were growth-factor dependent, grew as spheroids on Geltrex matrix, and maintained their clonogenicity in vitro over passages. Skin-derived cells formed more colonies than CNS-derived cells. Inhibitors of specific mediators of the NRAS signaling pathway reduced viability of NRAS mutated cells. The highest effect was obtained with GSK2126458, showing a viability reduction below 50%. Conclusions: NRAS mutated cells derived from clinical NCM samples are capable of continuous growth as spheroid colonies in vitro and retain their genetic identity. Drugs targeting the NRAS signaling pathway reduce in vitro viability of NCM cells. NCM lesional spheroids represent a new and reliable experimental model of NCM for use in drug testing and mechanistic studies.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Neuro-Oncology

Publication Stats

8k Citations
885.57 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011
    • Fukushima Medical University
      Hukusima, Fukushima, Japan
  • 2007
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Division of Neuropathology
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2006
    • Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2002-2006
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Cincinnati, OH, United States
    • Emory University
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States