Yvonne F. de Jong

Maastricht University, Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands

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Publications (15)48.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Only few data are available on the effect of training on phospholipid metabolism in skeletal muscles. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of 6 weeks of endurance training on the content of particular phospholipid fractions and on the incorporation of blood-borne [14C]-palmitic acid into the phospholipids in different skeletal muscles (white and red sections of the gastrocnemius, the soleus and the diaphragm) of the rat. Lipids were extracted from the muscles and separated using thin-layer chromatography into the following fractions: sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, cardiolipin and neutral lipids (this fraction being composed mostly of triacylglycerols). It was found that training did not affect the content of any phospholipid fraction in soleus muscle. It increased the content of sphingomyelin in white gastrocnemius muscle, cardiolipin and phosphatidylethanolamine in red gastrocnemius muscle and phosphatidylinositol in white gastrocnemius muscle and diaphragm. The total phospholipid content in red gastrocnemius muscle of the trained group was higher than in the control group. Training reduced the specific activity of sphingomyelin and cardiolipin in all muscles, phosphatidylcholine in soleus, red, and white gastrocnemius muscles, phosphatidylserine in all muscles, phosphatidylinositol in all except the soleus muscle, and phosphatidylethanolamine in hindleg muscles, but not in the diaphragm compared to the corresponding values in the sedentary group. It was concluded that endurance training affects skeletal muscle phospholipid content and the rate of incorporation of the blood-borne [14C]palmitic acid into the phospholipid moieties.
    No preview · Article · May 1999 · European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) is a membrane protein putatively involved in the transmembrane transport of long-chain fatty acids. We tested the hypothesis that expression of this protein in H9c2, a rat heart cell line normally not expressing FAT, would increase cellular palmitate uptake. We were able to stably transfect H9c2 cells with FAT, yielding 15 cell lines showing varying levels of FAT expression. The uptake and metabolism of palmitate was first studied in the non-transfected H9c2 cells and in two FAT-transfected cell lines. In each case, uptake of palmitate was found to be linear in time for at least 30 min and the uptake rate was saturable with increasing palmitate concentrations. Using conditions under which the maximal capacity of intracellular palmitate handling was not fully utilized, we tested 7 out of 15 FAT-transfected cell lines with varying FAT expression levels. No significant correlation was found between the level of FAT expression and the rate of palmitate uptake. In conclusion, we found that palmitate uptake by H9c2 cells occurs mainly by passive diffusion. Fatty acid translocase (FAT) transfection did not significantly increase the palmitate uptake rate, raising the possibility that H9c2 cells lack a protein (or set of proteins) that acts as an obligatory partner of FAT in long-chain fatty acid transport from the extracellular compartment to the cytoplasm.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 1998 · The Journal of Lipid Research
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    ABSTRACT: Recently it was shown that annexin V is the most prominent member of the annexin family in the adult heart [1]. Amongst others, annexin V has been suggested to play a role in developmental processes. The aim of the present study was to explore whether in the heart annexin V content and localization change during maturational and hypertrophic growth, in order to obtain indications that annexin V is involved in cardiac growth processes. First, in the intact rat heart annexin V content and localization were studied during perinatal development. It was clearly demonstrated that annexin V content in total heart transiently increased in the first week after birth, from 0.79 +/- 0.06 microg/mg protein at 1 day before birth to a peak value of 1.24 +/- 0.08 microg/mg protein 6 days after birth, whereafter annexin V protein levels declined to a value of 0.70 +/- 0.06 microg/mg protein at 84 days after birth (p < 0.05). Differences in annexin V content were also observed between myocytes isolated from neonatal and adult hearts [0.81 +/- 0.09 and 0.17 +/- 0.08 microg/mg protein, respectively (p < 0.05)]. Moreover, during cardiac maturational growth the subcellular localization of annexin V might change from a cytoplasmic to a more prominent sarcolemmal localization. Second, in vivo hypertrophy induced by aortic coarctation resulted in a marked degree of hypertrophy (22% increase in ventricular weight), but was not associated with a change in annexin V localization or content. The quantitative results obtained with intact hypertrophic rat hearts are supported by findings in neonatal ventricular myocytes, in which hypertrophy was induced by phenylephrine (10(-5) M). In the latter model no changes in annexin V content could be observed either. In conclusion, the marked alterations in annexin V content during the maturational growth in the heart suggest a possible involvement of this protein in this process. In contrast, the absence of changes in annexin V content and localization in hypertrophied hearts compared to age matched control hearts suggests that annexin V does not play a crucial role in the maintenance of the hypertrophic phenotype of the cardiac muscle cell. This notion is supported by observations in phenylephrine-induced hypertrophied neonatal cardiomyocytes.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1998 · Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The energy need of cardiac muscle cells in vivo is largely covered by the oxidation of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (FA). However, in vitro studies have shown that the saturated FA C16:0 at physiological concentrations exerts detrimental effects on primary cultures of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes by, as yet, unknown mechanisms. To evaluate the noxious effects of FA in more detail, neonatal cardiomyocytes were exposed to saturated (C16:0; C18:0) or mono-unsaturated (C16:1; cis-C18:1; trans-C18:1) FA, or combinations thereof for up to 48 h. FA (0.5 mM) complexed to bovine serum albumin (BSA) (0.15 mM) were added to a glucose-containing defined medium. Irrespective of the length and degree of unsaturation of the aliphatic chain, FA supplied to the cells were readily incorporated in the phospholipid pool. In the presence of mono-unsaturated FA, cardiomyocytes remained healthy and accumulated substantial amounts of triacylglycerol. In contrast, within 24 h after application of the saturated FA C16:0 or C18:0, cells had become irreversibly damaged, as evidenced by the presence of pyknotic nuclei and massive release of the cytosolic markers lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP). Moreover, the occurrence of DNA-laddering indicated that apoptosis was involved. Induction of apoptotic cell death by C16:0 was counteracted by the co-administration of equimolar amounts of cis-C18:1, whereas trans-C18:1 delayed, but did not prevent, loss of cardiomyocyte viability. The present findings suggest that the incorporation of saturated, but not mono-unsaturated, fatty acids induces alterations in the phospholipid membrane, which initiate apoptotic cell death in neonatal cardiomyocytes.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 1997 · The Journal of Lipid Research

  • No preview · Article · May 1996 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that exogenous lactate impairs mechanical function of reperfused ischaemic hearts, while pyruvate improves post-ischaemic recovery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the diverging influence of exogenous lactate and pyruvate on functional recovery can be explained by an effect of the exogenous substrates on endogenous protecting mechanisms against oxygen-derived free radicals. Isolated working rat hearts were perfused by a Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer containing glucose (5 mM) as basal substrate and either lactate (5 mM) or pyruvate (5 mM) as cosubstrate. In hearts perfused with glucose as sole substrate the activity of glutathione reductase was decreased by 32% during 30 min of ischaemia (p < 0.10 versus control value), while the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase was reduced by 27 and 35%, respectively, during 5 min of reperfusion (p < 0.10 versus control value). The GSH level in the glucose group was reduced by 29% following 30 min of ischaemia and 35 min of reperfusion (p < 0.10). In lactate- and pyruvateperfused hearts there were no significant decreases of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity during 30 min of ischaemia, 5 min of reperfusion or 35 min of reperfusion. In pyruvate-perfused hearts the glutathione peroxidase activity was even increased by 43% during 30 min of ischaemia (p < 0.05). Glutathione levels (reduced and oxidized) did not markedly change in the lactate and pyruvate groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    No preview · Article · May 1995 · Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Annexins are a family of proteins with calcium- and phospholipid-binding properties. The present study was performed to identify which members of the annexin family are present in rat heart and to determine the cellular and subcellular distribution of annexin V, the most prominent annexin in rat cardiac tissue, in isolated ventricular myocytes and cultured endothelial and fibroblast-like cells. The presence of annexin I plus II, III, IV, V and VI in rat cardiac tissue was positively established with western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis revealed that annexin V is present in both cardiomyocytes and non-myocytal cells of the heart. In endothelial cells and fibroblast-like cells annexin V is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm and in cardiac myocytes in close vicinity of the sarcolemma. This last finding is confirmed by electron microscopy. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that all cell types investigated showed expression of annexin V. Annexin V mRNA levels were highest in the fibroblast-like cells, followed by the endothelial cells, and a weak signal was observed in the cardiomyocytes. By means of a sandwich-type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) annexin V content in intact adult rat heart, isolated myocytes, cultured cardiac endothelial cells and fibroblast-like cells was found to be 0.70, 0.17, 1.63 and 3.84 micrograms/mg total protein, respectively. The differences in subcellular localization of annexin V in myocytes and non-myocytes suggest differences in biological function of annexin V in the various cell types.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1995 · Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: It has recently been hypothesized that fatty acid (FA) transfer across the myocardial capillary wall is mediated by cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein (FABP). Therefore, we studied the type and content of FABP in endothelial cells from rat heart, using molecular biological, immunochemical, and FA-binding assays. Studies were performed on short term cultured endothelial cells, two established endothelial cell lines and ultrathin cryosections from adult rat heart. Northern blotting analysis of endothelial cell RNA failed to detect either heart-type (H-) FABP or liver-type (L-) FABP mRNA, but the reversed transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed both H- and L-FABP mRNAs, indicating the presence of minor amounts of these mRNAs. Highly sensitive immunochemical assays (sandwich ELISAs) using specific antibodies raised against rat H- or L-FABP showed the contents of these FABP-types in endothelial cells to be 1-5 ng/mg cytosolic protein, which is more than three orders of magnitude lower than the contents of H-FABP in heart or L-FABP in liver. Immuno-electron microscopy also showed that the concentration of H-FABP in endothelial cells is at least two orders of magnitude lower than that in cardiomyocytes. Finally, cytosolic protein samples from endothelial cells revealed no significant FA-binding activity in the 15-kDa region. We conclude that rat heart endothelial cells contain only minor quantities of cytoplasmic FABP and that, therefore, FA transport over the endothelium is mediated by FABP only to a minor extent. It is postulated that aqueous diffusion of FA through the endothelial cytoplasm most likely accounts for the experimentally observed rates of cardiac FA utilization.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1995 · Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Glycerol release has been generally accepted as an index of lipolysis in the intact heart. The glycerol moiety of glycerol-3-phosphate (glycerol-3-P) is incorporated into triacylglycerols, which are then hydrolysed with release of glycerol. This study investigates the possibility that glycerol may be derived directly from glycerol-3-P instead of passing through the triacylglycerol pool. The cardiac capacity for hydrolysis of glycerol-3-P into glycerol was determined in homogenates of rat hearts. Glycerol-3-P hydrolysis activity in homogenates increased with decreasing pH. The activity was approximately four times higher at pH 5.0 than at pH 7.2 (0.94 +/- 0.11 and 0.25 +/- 0.03 mumol.g wet weight-1.min-1 respectively). The substrate concentration at which half-maximal glycerol-3-P hydrolysis activity was reached did not significantly differ at pH 5.0 and pH 7.2 (4.2 +/- 1.1 mM and 2.9 +/- 1.0 mM respectively). In the intact heart, the pH and substrate conditions found under ischaemia are favourable for direct conversion of glycerol-3-P into glycerol. The glycerol-3-P hydrolysis activity measured in vitro was sufficiently high to account for glycerol production in the ischaemia heart. However, the lack of a stoichiometric relation between cardiac glycerol-3-P and glycerol levels in ischaemia indicates that production of glycerol cannot be explained solely by hydrolysis.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1994 · Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: In the first part of this study, in four dogs the left latissimus dorsi was equipped to perform in vivo contraction measurements and the right latissimus dorsi served as control. After a control period, the dogs received L-carnitine intravenously for 8 wk. We found that carnitine caused the percentage of type I fibers to increase from 30 to 55% in the left latissimus dorsi but no change in the right latissimus dorsi. In the left latissimus dorsi, the contraction speed (percentage ripple) decreased from 75 to 30% and cytochrome-c oxidase activity increased 1.6-fold. No changes occurred in the right latissimus dorsi. To verify these observations, we performed a second study with placebo control for 8 wk, and only the left latissimus dorsi was subjected to weekly electrical stimulation. In the carnitine-treated dogs, the stimulated muscle showed an increase in the percentage of type I fibers from 16 to 35% and the ripple decreased from 92 to 77%. These measures did not change in the placebo-treated dogs. We concluded that weekly short-term stimulation does not lead to a change in fiber type; however, carnitine combined with minimal stimulation of the muscle leads to a significant shift in muscle fiber type composition toward a muscle with an increased content of type I fibers.
    No preview · Article · May 1994 · Journal of Applied Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) was assayed immunochemically in hearts from rats with insulin-dependent (IDDM) or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). FABP contents were 34% higher in IDDM and 103% higher in NIDDM hearts than in respective age-matched controls. FABP levels returned to control values when islets of Langerhans were transplanted into diabetic IDDM animals. In the diabetic hearts the activity of fructose-6-phosphate kinase decreased (IDDM and NIDDM animals), while that of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase increased (NIDDM animals only). These data indicate that experimental diabetes induces a marked increase of the FABP content of rat heart and suggests that this protein is involved in the enhanced fatty acid utilization by the diabetic heart.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1994 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
  • A Garnier · C Poizat · C Keriel · P Cuchet · M M Vork · Y F de Jong · J. F. C. Glatz
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to study in the adult rat heart the effect of modifications of fatty acid (FA) supply on the content of cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABPc). To modify the amount of circulating lipids, three different treatments were chosen: (i) an hypolipidemic treatment with Clofibrate, administered daily through a gastric tube at a dose of 250 mg/kg per day for one week, (ii) a continuous intravenous infusion of 20% Intralipid, a fat emulsion, for one week at a dose of 96 ml/kg per day, and (iii) a normobaric hypoxia exposure (pO2 = 10%) for three weeks. At the end of each treatment plasma lipids, myocardial H-FABPc content and the activities of three key enzymes (citrate synthase, CS, fructose-6-phosphate kinase, FPK and hydroxy-acyl CoA-dehydrogenase, HAD) were assessed. With each of the three treatments a decrease of plasma cholesterol and phospholipid levels was observed. Plasma FA concentration increased with Intralipid infusion and decreased with chronic hypoxia. The heart H-FABPc content was increased by 20% with Clofibrate, decreased by 20% with chronic hypoxia and remained unaltered upon Intralipid treatment. The induced changes in H-FABPc content were not related directly to changes in plasma lipid levels. CS activity was slightly decreased in the hypoxia group, FPK activity decreased in the Clofibrate group, and HAD activity decreased in the Intralipid group. Among the various groups heart H-FABPc content was related to HAD activity. In conclusion, the H-FABPc content of adult rat heart appears responsive to changes in plasma lipid levels.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1993 · Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle is considered suitable to assist ventricular mechanical function in either cardiomyoplasty or extra-aortic-assist devices. Such application requires that this mixed-type skeletal muscle be transformed into a fatigue-resistant muscle, the adaptation of which can be elicited by chronic stimulation. In this study the LD muscles of dog and goat were subjected in situ to 12 wk of continuous electrical stimulation through intramuscular electrodes, and their myofibrillar and metabolic adaptations were compared. A gradual increase in the contraction rate of the muscle (in 10 wk from 30 to 80 contractions/min) caused the proportion of immunohistochemically identified type I fibers to increase in dog muscle from 30 to 74% and in goat muscle from 21 to 99%. Correspondingly, the anaerobic-glycolytic activity (fructose-6-phosphate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities) decreased by approximately 75% in both dog and goat muscles, whereas the oxidative capacity (fatty acid oxidation and citrate synthase activity) increased two- to threefold in goat LD muscle but remained unaltered in dog LD muscle. Muscular contents of high-energy phosphates and endogenous substrates were maintained, but the L-carnitine content decreased by 43% in both dog and goat. Our data further indicate that, for the monitoring of the metabolic adaptation of skeletal muscle, the ratio of activities of the oxidative and anaerobic-glycolytic pathways (e.g., citrate synthase to fructose-6-phosphate kinase activities) is a useful parameter in both dog and goat.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    No preview · Article · Oct 1992 · Journal of Applied Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of training and/or testosterone treatment and its aromatization to oestradiol on fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) content and cytochrome c oxidase activity in heart, soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were studied in intact adult female rats. One group of rats remained sedentary, whereas the others were trained for 7 weeks. Thereafter the trained rats were divided into control and testosterone-treated groups, with or without an aromatase inhibitor. Testosterone was administered by a silastic implant. Training was continued for 2 weeks. In untreated sedentary rats the immunochemically assayed FABP contents were 497 +/- 28, 255 +/- 49 and 58 +/- 17 micrograms/g wet weight for the heart, soleus, and EDL respectively. In the heart the FABP content was increased after training (29%), testosterone treatment (33%) or both manipulations (53%). In soleus muscle FABP increased only after testosterone treatment (16%), whereas in EDL no changes were found. Inhibiting the aromatase enzyme complex abolished the testosterone-induced effect on FABP content in soleus (suggesting an oestradiol effect) but not in heart muscle. Among the three muscles studied the FABP content was found to be related to the cytochrome c oxidase activity in a non-linear way. In conclusion, it is shown that the FABP contents and mitochondrial activities of heart and skeletal muscle are affected by training and sex hormones and that these effects are different for heart and skeletal muscles.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1992 · Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Heart tissue contains appreciable amounts of fatty acid-binding protein (FABP). FABP is thought to play a crucial role in the transport of fatty acids from the cellular membrane to the intracellular site of oxidation and also, in case of endothelial cells, in the transfer of fatty acids from the vascular to the interstitial compartment through the endothelial cytoplasm. The present study was designed to delineate a possible quantitative relationship between the capacity of different cell types in the heart to oxidize fatty acids and the presence of FABP. Palmitate oxidation capacity, measured in homogenates of cells isolated from adult rat hearts, was 2 nmol/min per mg tissue protein in freshly isolated cardiomyocytes (CMC), but only 0.09 and 0.31 nmol/min per mg tissue protein in cultivated endothelial (CEC) and fibroblast-like cells (CFLC), respectively. Palmitate oxidation rates were closely related to the cytochrome C oxidase activity and, hence, to the mitochondrial density in the cells under investigation. In CMC the content of cytosolic H-FABP (H-FABPc) was about 4.5 micrograms/mg tissue protein. However, in CEC and CFLC the FABP content was less than 0.01 and 0.004 micrograms/mg tissue protein, respectively, corresponding to at maximum 0.2% of the FABP content of CMC. These findings indicate a marked difference between CMC and non-myocytal cells in the heart regarding their capacity to oxidize fatty acids, and a marked disproportion between the fatty acid oxidation capacity and immunochemically determined FABP content in both CEC and CFLC. The functional implication of these observations remains to be elucidated.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1990 · Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Publication Stats

526 Citations
48.32 Total Impact Points


  • 1990-1999
    • Maastricht University
      • Department of Physiology
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands
  • 1992-1995
    • Transnationale Universiteit Limburg
      Box Elder, South Dakota, United States
  • 1994
    • University of Alberta
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada