Danny Schoors

University Hospital Brussels, Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium

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Publications (48)301.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Variant angina, or vasospastic angina, is a form of angina caused by vasospasm of the coronary arteries, probably caused by endothelial dysfunction. This form of angina is provoked by non-classical risk factors such as stress, alcohol use, use of sympathomimetics and low environmental temperatures, but also by smoking. Treatment is based on elimination of risk factors and vasodilator therapy with nitrates and long-acting calcium antagonists. Case description: We present a 68-year-old woman with recurring thoracalgia at rest and during exercise, suggestive of severe variant angina in more than one coronary artery. Despite elimination of risk factors and administration of vasodilatory therapy the treatment was initially insufficient. It eventually emerged that the probable cause was frequent use of a vasoconstrictive nasal spray, although this was not described in literature, and not originally mentioned by the patient. Conclusion: A thorough case history is of vital importance in a patient presenting with a history suggestive of variant angina. Even undescribed and apparently less important risk factors can be responsible for persistence of symptoms, and can lead to an applied treatment not producing the desired result.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
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    ABSTRACT: The evaluation of the quality of care delivered to patients with acute coronary syndromes is becoming increasingly important. Due to novel regulations permitting the installation of new catheterization laboratories in Belgium, the Flemish government initiated a project to measure quality of care in patients with an ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) by measuring four quality indicators: prescription of ACE inhibitor, beta blocker or aspirin on discharge and unadjusted mortality. However, we are not convinced that these four indicators will provide sufficient information on the quality of care in our hospitals. Hence, we performed a retrospective analysis on a larger set of parameters and evaluated their applicability as indicators of quality of care. We measured 38 indicators in 153 patients (69 transferred and 84 on-site) with a STEMI who presented at, or were transferred to the UZ Brussels in 2013 and received percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The unadjusted overall mortality was 7.2% (n = 11/153). Important differences in unadjusted mortality were observed between the on-site and transferred patients (10.7%, n = 9 vs 2.9%, n = 2, P = 0.112), which were attributed to the initial condition at presentation and a larger proportion of cardiogenic shocks in the on-site group. Discharge medication highly corresponded with the ESC guidelines. We demonstrate that the proposed quality indicators do not provide sufficient information to compare hospitals and that it is of utmost importance to weigh the mortality according to risk profile.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Acta cardiologica
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We assessed the safety and efficacy of a central iliac arteriovenous anastomosis to alter the mechanical arterial properties and reduce blood pressure in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. We enrolled patients in this open-label, multicentre, prospective, randomised, controlled trial between October, 2012, and April, 2014. Eligible patients had baseline office systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher and average daytime ambulatory blood pressure of 135 mm Hg or higher systolic and 85 mm Hg or higher diastolic despite antihypertensive treatment. Patients were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to undergo implantation of an arteriovenous coupler device plus current pharmaceutical treatment or to maintain current treatment alone (control). The primary endpoint was mean change from baseline in office and 24 h ambulatory systolic blood pressure at 6 months. Analysis was by modified intention to treat (all patients remaining in follow-up at 6 months). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01642498. 83 (43%) of 195 patients screened were assigned arteriovenous coupler therapy (n=44) or normal care (n=39). Mean office systolic blood pressure reduced by 26·9 (SD 23·9) mm Hg in the arteriovenous coupler group (p<0·0001) and by 3·7 (21·2) mm Hg in the control group (p=0·31). Mean systolic 24 h ambulatory blood pressure reduced by 13·5 (18·8) mm Hg (p<0·0001) in arteriovenous coupler recipients and by 0·5 (15·8) mm Hg (p=0·86) in controls. Implantation of the arteriovenous coupler was associated with late ipsilateral venous stenosis in 12 (29%) of 42 patients and was treatable with venoplasty or stenting. Arteriovenous anastomosis was associated with significantly reduced blood pressure and hypertensive complications. This approach might be a useful adjunctive therapy for patients with uncontrolled hypertension. ROX Medical. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · The Lancet

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives We studied coronary vasomotion in patients treated with the Mistent((R)) absorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (APSES) and in patients implanted with the Endeavor((R)) zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES). Background First generation (1st-gen) drug-eluting stents (DES) induce persistent vasomotor dysfunction in the treated coronary artery. It is unknown whether and to what extent the implantation of an absorbable polymer DES impairs coronary vasomotion. Methods This sub-study of the DESSOLVE II trial included 19 APSES Mistent((R)) and 10 ZES Endeavor((R)) patients. Incremental atrial pacing and quantitative coronary angiography were used to assess vasomotion proximal and distal to the stent and in a reference segment at 9 months after implantation. Percent changes in vessel diameter with pacing versus baseline were calculated and compared. Vasomotor response of the APSES group was also compared with changes observed in a historical group of 17 patients implanted with a 1st-gen sirolimus-eluting stent (SES). ResultsNormal vasomotion (vasodilatation) was preserved and of comparable magnitude in the APSES and in the ZES group both proximally (P=0.34) and distally (P=0.38) to the stent. This finding was not observed in the 1st-gen SES group showing marked pacing-induced vasoconstriction at both stent edges (P<0.05 vs. APSES). The results were practically unchanged after excluding patients with absolute changes in vessel diameter <3% between baseline and maximal pacing. Conclusions The implantation of an absorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent is associated with preserved coronary vasomotion, comparable to that observed after implantation of the Endeavor((R)) ZES, and distinct from 1st-gen SES which induce coronary vasomotor dysfunction. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To compare the efficacy and safety of the MiStent absorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (APSES) with a zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES). Methods and results: The trial was a 2:1 randomisation at 26 sites of 184 patients implanted with an APSES (n=123) versus a ZES (n=61). Following stent implantation, all patients underwent quantitative coronary angiography at baseline and at nine months of follow-up, while a select subgroup also underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT). The primary efficacy hypothesis was superiority of in-stent late lumen loss (LLL) of APSES compared to ZES. At nine months, the primary endpoint was met, with a mean in-stent LLL of 0.27±0.46 mm in 103 APSES patients versus 0.58±0.41 mm in 52 ZES patients (p<0.001). The proportion of uncovered stent struts by OCT at nine months was very low in both groups. The mean neointimal thickness of covered struts (p=0.002) and percent net volume obstruction (p≤0.003) were significantly lower in the APSES than in the ZES group. Major adverse cardiac event and stent thrombosis rates were low and comparable between groups. Conclusions: The DESSOLVE II trial demonstrated superiority in the primary efficacy endpoint of nine-month mean LLL for APSES compared to ZES. Strut coverage by OCT was high with both stents and the clinical safety endpoints including stent thrombosis were equally low in both groups. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01294748.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Delcasertib is a selective inhibitor of delta-protein kinase C (delta-PKC), which reduced infarct size during ischaemia/reperfusion in animal models and diminished myocardial necrosis and improved reperfusion in a pilot study during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). A multicentre, double-blind trial was performed in patients presenting within 6 h and undergoing primary PCI for anterior (the primary analysis cohort, n = 1010 patients) or inferior (an exploratory cohort, capped at 166 patients) STEMI. Patients with anterior STEMI were randomized to placebo or one of three doses of delcasertib (50, 150, or 450 mg/h) by intravenous infusion initiated before PCI and continued for ∼2.5 h. There were no differences between treatment groups in the primary efficacy endpoint of infarct size measured by creatine kinase MB fraction area under the curve (AUC) (median 5156, 5043, 4419, and 5253 ng h/mL in the placebo, delcasertib 50, 150, and 450 mg/mL groups, respectively) in the anterior STEMI cohort. No treatment-related differences were seen in secondary endpoints of infarct size, electrocardiographic ST-segment recovery AUC or time to stable ST recovery, or left ventricular ejection fraction at 3 months. No differences in rates of adjudicated clinical endpoints (death, heart failure, or serious ventricular arrhythmias) were observed. Selective inhibition of delta-PKC with intravenous infusion of delcasertib during PCI for acute STEMI in a population of patients treated according to contemporary standard of care did not reduce biomarkers of myocardial injury. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00785954.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · European Heart Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Vasodilators are used with caution in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We have developed a device for percutaneous arteriovenous shunt creation in the iliac region to increase cardiac output and oxygen delivery for patients with COPD. Although this device does not cause significant blood pressure changes in normotensive patients with COPD, we hypothesized that arteriovenous shunt creation might cause vasodilator effects in hypertensive patients because of a reduction in vascular resistance. Twenty-four patients with COPD and hypertension enrolled in an open label study of arteriovenous shunt creation for COPD. We performed cardiac catheterization at baseline and again 3 to 6 months after the procedure. As a safety measure we also recorded office blood pressure at baseline and again after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The procedure increased oxygen delivery (1.1-1.4 L.min(-1)) and cardiac output (6-8.2 L.min(-1)) (P < .001) and lowered both the systemic vascular resistance (P < .001) and the pulmonary vascular resistance (P < .01). After 12 months, however, the average systolic blood pressure was reduced from 145 to 132 mm Hg (P < .0001), and the average diastolic blood pressure was reduced from 86 to 67 mm Hg (P < .0001). Percutaneous iliac arteriovenous fistula creation for COPD causes a significant and persistent lowering of blood pressure in patients with co-existing hypertension.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter
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    ABSTRACT: The creation of a calibrated iliofemoral arteriovenous fistula (IAVF) increases exercise capacity in patients with severe COPD. In a retrospective analysis of 24 subjects with end-stage COPD and hypertension IAVF decreased systolic office blood pressure (BP) significantly at 12 months by an average of -12.8 mmHg. We assessed the effect of IAVF on BP and echocardiographic changes in therapy-resistant hypertensive patients. In 8 patients with therapy-resistant hypertension an IAVF was created using the ROX Anastomotic Coupler System®. The study evaluated safety and efficacy. Ambulatory (ABPM), office (OBPM) and home blood pressure measurement (HBPM), heart rate (HR), ECG, and renal function were monitored at 0, 1, 3 and 6 months. A repeated measures anova, adjusted for multiple comparisons (least significant difference) was used to analyze the data. Echocardiography was performed pre- and 6 month post-procedure (analyzed with paired t-test). Data are presented as means ± SE. 5 males and 3 females were on an average of 4.0±0.8 different antihypertensive drugs. Systolic OBPM dropped from 175.3±6.8 to 162.8±8.5 mmHg after 3 months, and to 160.3±9.0 after 6 months while diastolic OBPM dropped from 87.3±5.1 to 75.5±5.7 mmHg and to 71.7±5.7, respectively. Decrease was statistically significant over time with a p-value of 0.027 for systolic BP and 0.005 for the diastolic BP. Systolic ABPM decreased from 151.9±5.9 to 146.3±7.3 mmHg after 3 months, and to 145.5±5.7 after 6 months. Diastolic ABPM decreased from 82.0±5.4 to 72.0±5.5 mmHg and 68.5±4.7, respectively. HR, ECG and renal function did not alter. Echocardiographical analysis in the Belgian center (n=5) showed a significant increase in E/A ratio (0.48±0.17 (p=0.047)) and E' (0.02±0.01 m/sec (p=0.035)); E/E', deceleration time and isovolumic relaxation time decreased; interventricular septal thickness at diastole (IVSd) decreased significantly (-0.290±0.056 (p=0.007)). One patient developed mild lower leg edema; no other adverse events were seen. In this prospective study in 8 patients with therapy-resistant hypertension the creation of an iliofemoral AVF decreased ABPM and OBPM after 1, 3 and 6 months. In a small group, the echocardiographical changes are suggestive for an evolution from type II pseudonormal mitral flow (hypertension as cause of diastolic dysfunction) to type I flow. The procedure has proven safety in larger studies in COPD patients. Further exploration of this technique as a possible new approach for treating pharmacotherapy resistant hypertensive patients is warranted in a larger randomized trial.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2013 · European Heart Journal
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    ABSTRACT: A case is presented in which a breakage of the coronary stent delivery catheter occurred as retrieval of the stent balloon was attempted after stent implantation. The broken distal balloon shaft with its stuck balloon was retrieved by controlled pulling on the guiding catheter in which a new balloon was inflated, thus trapping the distal shaft. The case underscores the importance of adequate lesion assessment and preparation.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Cardiovascular revascularization medicine: including molecular interventions
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    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The creation of a calibrated iliofemoral arteriovenous fistula (AVF) increases functional exercise capacity in patients with severe COPD. We assessed the effect of AVF on blood pressure (BP) in end-stage COPD patients with hypertension one-year post-procedure. Methods: Office BP and heart rhythm (HR) were measured at 0, 3, 6 and 12 months, cardiac output (CO;right heart catheterization) was measured at 0 and 3/6 months. A paired analysis was used for the comparison of the office BP measurements at baseline and 12 months post-procedure. Results: 24 subjects (65.4 +/- 5.9 years;13 males and 11 females;8 subjects with pre-hypertension, 11 with stage 1 and 5 with stage 2 hypertension) had a mean baseline systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure of 144.8 +/- 12.3 mmHg and 85.5 +/- 12.9 mmHg, respectively. After 12 months mean SBP decreased by 12.8 +/- 17.2 mmHg (p = 0.0013); 18 of 24 subjects achieved a reduction of >=5mmHg SBP, 16 of 24 subjects a reduction of >=10 mmHg SBP. Mean DBP was reduced by 18.4 +/- 12.3 mmHg (p < 0.0001); 22 of 24 subjects achieved a reduction of >=5mmHg DBP, 20 of 24 subjects a reduction of >=10 mmHg DBP. HR did not change, CO significantly increased. Conclusion: The creation of a calibrated iliofemoral AVF significantly reduced blood pressure after 3 and 6 months, and the reduction was maintained at 12 months. CO increased and peripheral vascular resistance decreased. The procedure has proven safety in studies in COPD patients. Further exploration of this technique as a possible new approach for treating pharmacotherapy resistant hypertensive patients might be warranted.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of Hypertension
  • Lucie Soens · Danny Schoors · Guy Van Camp
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    ABSTRACT: Secondary cardiac lymphoma is commonly recognised as one of the most frequent metastatic malignancies involving the heart, after lung and breast carcinomas. Most primary and secondary cardiac lymphoma are non-Hodgkin lymphomas.The pericardium is the most frequently involved cardiac structure. However, the myocardium and the endocardium can also be affected. The patient presented in this case report had a secondary cardiac diffuse large B cell lymphoma. He presented initially with dyspnoea due to cardiac tamponade. He died one month after pericardial fenestration as a result of acute left and right heart failure due to diffuse lymphomatous infiltrations.This cardiac infiltration progressed so quickly that histological diagnosis could not be obtained before death. Autopsy revealed massive infiltration of the heart, the thyroid, abdominal lymph nodes, the left kidney, the pancreas and the right testis.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Acta cardiologica

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Acta cardiologica
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    ABSTRACT: Myocardial contrast perfusion echocardiography (MCE) allows simultaneous assessment of perfusion and function. However, low frame rate during MCE may reduce the viewer's ability to discern contractile dysfunction. This study sought to compare MCE and left ventricular opacification (LVO) settings with regard to wall motion abnormalities (WMA) at rest and during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). In 50 patients scheduled for coronary angiography and with poor baseline image quality, MCE and LVO were performed during DSE. Regional wall motion was assessed and inter-observer agreement was determined for each imaging modality. The endocardial border score index was similar for both modalities. The wall motion score index (WMSCI) at peak stress using MCE was well correlated with WMSCI obtained with LVO (r(2) = 0.9, P < 0.001). However, WMSCI at peak stress was underestimated by MCE (1.66 +/- 0.58 with DSE-LVO vs. 1.535 +/- 0.50 with DSE-MCE; P < 0.001). Inter-observer agreement on the presence of WMA was 0.65 for MCE and 0.67 for LVO at peak stress. Myocardial contrast perfusion echocardiography provides equal endocardial border delineation compared with LVO modality. Although the inter-observer agreement is slightly higher with LVO compared with MCE, it is not significantly different with MCE at peak stress. Despite the similar improvement in endocardial border delineation, LVO settings allow the detection of more WMA than MCE at peak stress, leading to a significantly higher accuracy for the detection of ischaemia in patients suspected of coronary artery disease when only wall motion is taken into account.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · European Heart Journal – Cardiovascular Imaging
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    ABSTRACT: Serotonergic drugs may lead to valvular heart disease in humans and more recently also in rats. Although clinical data suggest that dose dependency and reversibility after drug cessation might occur, proof of this is lacking. For that purpose, a total of 106 rats were prospectively enrolled: 22 control animals and 7 groups of 12 rats that received daily subcutaneous serotonin injections (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mg/kg respectively) for 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, half of the animals of each group were killed for histological analysis, whereas the remaining rats were further followed (without serotonin injections) for an additional 8 weeks. After 12 weeks of serotonin treatment, aortic and mitral regurgitation (AR, MR) were more frequently observed in the high dose groups (>30 mg/kg) compared to controls. Moreover, aortic and mitral valves were also thicker in the high dose groups compared to controls. After 8 weeks free of serotonin injections, AR and MR were no longer significantly higher than controls. Moreover, aortic and mitral valve thickness had normalized, returning to control levels. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for a dose-dependent valvular toxicity of serotonergic drugs, which appears to be reversible after drug withdrawal.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Cardiovascular toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Aging is associated with morphologic and functional alterations of the rat's left ventricle. However, the time-course of valvular function and morphology in normal aging rats has not yet been studied. For this purpose, 30 male Wistar rats (318 ± 5g, 10 weeks old) underwent serial echocardiograms for 58 weeks under sodium pentobarbital 50 mg/kg IP anesthetization followed by necropsy. Histopathology was also performed in two additional groups of 10 rats at 10 and 30 weeks of age. Regurgitations were considered as any retrograde flow on 2-D or M-mode color Doppler echocardiography. Tricuspid regurgitation was already found at 10 weeks of age and became more frequent with age. Pulmonary, mitral and aortic regurgitation was seldom observed at 10 weeks but became more frequent after 30 weeks. For the mitral and aortic valve, this was also associated with an increase in valvular thickness because of nodular or segmental myxoid leaflet changes. The severity of valvular regurgitations did not increase with age. In conclusion, aging leads to morphologic and functional valvular changes in normal rats. This is important when investigating models of valvular heart disease in small animals. (E-mail: [email protected] /* */).
    No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Ultrasound in medicine & biology
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    ABSTRACT: Serotonergic drugs, such as pergolide, have been associated with the development of cardiac valvular myxoid thickening and regurgitation in humans and more recently in rats. These effects are potentially mediated by the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2B) receptor (5-HT(2B)R). Therefore, we sought to determine whether cyproheptadine, a 5-HT(2B)R antagonist, might prevent toxic valvulopathy in an animal model of pergolide-induced valvular heart disease. For this purpose, 50 male Wistar rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of pergolide (0.5 mg/kg, n = 14), pergolide (0.5 mg/kg) combined with cyproheptadine (10 mg/kg, n = 12), cyproheptadine (10 mg/kg, n = 12), or no injections (control, n = 12) for 20 wk. Echocardiography was performed blindly at baseline and at 10 and 20 wk followed by pathology. At baseline, no differences between groups were found with echocardiography. At 20 wk, aortic regurgitation was present in all pergolide-treated animals, whereas it was less frequently observed in the other groups (P < 0.0001). For the other valves, this difference was less pronounced. On histopathology, not only aortic but also mitral valves were thicker, myxoid, and exhibited more 5-HT(2B)R-positive cells in pergolide-treated animals compared with the other groups. Moreover, regurgitant aortic and mitral valves were thicker than nonregurgitant aortic and mitral valves. In conclusion, we found that cyproheptadine prevented pergolide-induced valvulopathy in rats, which was associated with a reduced number of 5-HT(2B)R-positive valvular cells. This may have important clinical implications for the prevention of serotonergic drug-induced valvular heart disease.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: The role of structural and functional abnormalities of small vessels in diabetes cardiomyopathy remains unclear. Myocardial contrast echocardiography allows the quantification of myocardial blood flow at rest and during dipyridamole infusion. The aim of the study was to determine the myocardial blood flow reserve in normal rats compared with streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using contrast echocardiography. We prospectively studied 40 Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced by intravenous streptozotocin in 20 rats. All rats underwent baseline and stress (dipyridamole: 20 mg/kg) high power intermittent imaging in short axis view under anaesthesia baseline and after six months. Myocardial blood flow was determined and compared at rest and after dipyridamole in both populations. The myocardial blood flow reserve was calculated and compared in the 2 groups. Parameters of left ventricular function were determined from the M-mode tracings and histological examination was performed in all rats at the end of the study. At six months, myocardial blood flow reserve was significantly lower in diabetic rats compared to controls (3.09 +/- 0.98 vs. 1.28 +/- 0.67 ml min-1 g-1; p < 0.05). There were also a significant decrease in left ventricular function and a decreased capillary surface area and diameter at histology in the diabetic group. In this animal study, diabetes induced a functional alteration of the coronary microcirculation, as demonstrated by contrast echocardiography, a decrease in capillary density and of the cardiac systolic function. These findings may offer new insights into the underlying mechanisms of diabetes cardiomyopathy.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · Cardiovascular Diabetology
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    ABSTRACT: Anesthetic agents have different effects on hemodynamic and cardiac functional parameters. The influence of these changes on valvular function has not been studied in small animals. For this purpose, 48 male Wistar rats were divided into three equal groups. An echocardiogram was performed under inhaled isoflurane 2% gas (group I) or under intraperitoneal pentobarbital 50 mg/kg (group II) or ketamine/xylazine (group III) 40/8 mg/kg. Aortic regurgitation was only found in group III (80%, p < 0.0001 vs. groups I and II). Pulmonary and mitral regurgitation (PR, MR) were observed in all groups but were more frequent in group III (PR 67%, MR 100%) compared with group I (PR 13%, p = 0.003; MR 44%, p = 0.001 vs. group III) and group II (PR 19%, p = 0.011; MR 25%, p < 0.0001 vs. group III). Moreover, valvular regurgitations in group III (except tricuspid regurgitation) were more severe compared with groups I and II. The findings in group III were the result of increased blood pressure and afterload, left ventricular (LV) dilation and decreased function. Also in group III, the regurgitations diminished over time as the blood pressure decreased and LV function recovered. Isoflurane and pentobarbital had less pronounced effects on valvular function (5 and 10 min after induction, respectively) compared with ketamine/xylazine and, therefore, might be the anesthetics of choice for valvular evaluation in male Wistar rats. In conclusion, anesthesia causes hemodynamic changes that may result in functional valvular regurgitations in normal rats. (E-mail: [email protected] /* */).
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Ultrasound in medicine & biology

Publication Stats

799 Citations
301.21 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007-2014
    • University Hospital Brussels
      • Department of Nuclear Medicine
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
    • Universitair Ziekenhuis Leuven
      • Department of Cardiology
      Louvain, Flemish, Belgium
  • 1999-2009
    • Vrije Universiteit Brussel
      • Department of Cardiology
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital, Belgium